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81.
Dendrokronološke raziskave na kolišču Parte - Iščica, Ljubljansko barje, Slovenija
Tom Levanič, Katarina Čufar, Anton Velušček, 1999

Povzetek: Na Ljubljanskem Barju v Sloveniji smo opravili dendrokronološke raziskave lesa iz eneolitskega koliščarske naselbine Parte-Iščica. Iz struge reke Iščice smo odvzeli vzorce 1237 kolov iz lesa jesena (Fraxinus sp.), jelše (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.), bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.), jelke (Abies alba Mill.), javorja (Acer sp.), breze (Betula sp.), leske (Corylus sp.), belega gabra (Carpinus betulus L.), topola (Populus sp.), hrasta (Quercus sp.), vrbe (Salixsp.) in bresta (Ulmus sp.). Prevladovali so vzorci jesena, jelše in bukve s 70 %, 9 % in 7 %. Dendrokronološke analize smo opravili na jesenovih, bukovih, hrastovih in jelovih kolih, ki so imeli nad 45 branik. Na osnovi 285 relativno datiranih vzorcev smo sestavili dve jesenovi in eno bukovo kronologijo, dolžin 136, 113 in 105 let. Večje količine lesa, posekanega v istem koledarskem letu, nakazujejo potek gradbenih aktivnosti na kolišču. Po prvih rezultatih radiokarbonskega datiranja uvrščamo koliščarsko naselbino v prvo polovico tretjega tisočletja pred našim štetjem.
Ključne besede: arheologija mokrih tal, datiranje, dendrokronologija, arheološki les, kolišča, mlajša kamena doba, bakrena doba, Ljubljansko barje, jesen (drevo), bukev, Slovenija
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.11.2021; Ogledov: 136; Prenosov: 52
.pdf Celotno besedilo (950,76 KB)

82.
Ocena poškodovanosti dreves z elektronsko paramagnetno resonanco Mn2+ ionov
Polona Kalan, Franc Batič, Zorka Stolič, Marjanca Nemec, Milan Valter Schara, 1998

Povzetek: Ocena poškodovanosti dreves z elektronsko paramagnetno resonanco Mn2+ ionov
Ključne besede: elektronska paramagnetna resonanca, EPR Mn2+, smreka, iglica, poškodovanost drevesa, zdravstveno stanje
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.11.2021; Ogledov: 97; Prenosov: 40
.pdf Celotno besedilo (565,85 KB)

83.
Umiranja jelke (Abies alba Mill.) v Sloveniji : pregled raziskav katedre za tehnologijo lesa
Katarina Čufar, 1997

Povzetek: Predstavljamo pregled raziskav Katedre za tehnologijo lesa pod vodstvom dr. Torellija o propadanju jelke (Abies alba Mill.) v Sloveniji. Raziskave v obdobju 1985-1996 so vključevale spremljanje stanja jelke s pomočjo merjenja električne upornosti (EU), anatomske in fiziološke interpretacije meritev EU, upadanje rasti in prirastka, študij fenologije, reproduktivne rasti, pojava sekundarne krošnje, ugotavljanje vlažnosti in kvalitete lesa, število sluznih celic v skorji in travmatskih smolnih kanalov v lesu ter odziv lesa in skorje na poškodovanje
Ključne besede: jelka, Abies alba, propadanje, električna upornost, anatomija lesa, anatomija skorje, rast
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.11.2021; Ogledov: 101; Prenosov: 52
.pdf Celotno besedilo (874,15 KB)

84.
Species interactions : next-level citizen science
Quentin Groom, Nadja Pernat, Tim Adriaens, Maarten De Groot, Sven D. Jelaska, Diana Marčiulyniene, Angeliki F. Martinou, Jiří Skuhrovec, Elena Tricarico, Ernst C. Wit, Helen E. Roy, 2021

Povzetek: We envisage a future research environment where digital data on species interactions are easily accessible and comprehensively cover all species, life stages and habitats. To achieve this goal, we need data from many sources, including the largely untapped potential of citizen science for mobilising and utilising existing information on species interactions. Traditionally volunteers contributing information on the occurrence of species have focused on single-species observations from within one target taxon. We make recommendations on how to improve the gathering of species interaction data through citizen science, which data should be collected and how it can be motivated. These recommendations include providing feedback in the form of network visualisations, leveraging a wide variety of other data sources and eliciting an emotional connection to the species in question. There are many uses for these data, but in the context of biological invasions, information on species interactions will increase understanding of the effects of invasive alien species on recipient communities and ecosystems. We believe that the inclusion of ecological networks as a concept within citizen science, not only for initiatives focussed on biological invasions but also across other ecological themes, will not only enrich scientific knowledge on species interactions but also deepen the experience and enjoyment of citizens themselves.
Ključne besede: alien species, biological invasions, citizen science
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 29.10.2021; Ogledov: 122; Prenosov: 75
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,03 MB)

85.
Comparing environmental impacts of alien plants, insects and pathogens in protected riparian forests
Katharina Lapin, Sven Bacher, Thomas L. Cech, Rok Damjanić, Franz Essl, Freya-Isabel Georges, Gernot Hoch, Andreja Kavčič, András Koltay, Saša Kostić, Ivan Lukić, Aleksander Marinšek, Laszlo Nagy, Sonja Novak Agbaba, Janine Oettel, Saša Orlović, Leopold Poljaković-Pajnik, Marcus Sallmannshofer, Martin Steinkellner, Srdjan Stojnić, Marjana Westergren, Milica Zlatković, Anita Zolles, Maarten De Groot, 2021

Povzetek: The prioritization of alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts has become increasingly important for the management of invasive alien species. In this study, we applied the Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT) to classify alien taxa from three different taxonomic groups to facilitate the prioritisation of management actions for the threatened riparian forests of the Mura-Drava-Danube Biosphere Reserve, South East Europe. With local experts we collated a list of 198 alien species (115 plants, 45 insects, and 38 fungi) with populations reported in southeast European forest ecosystems and included them in the EICAT. We found impact reports for 114 species. Eleven of these species caused local extinctions of a native species, 35 led to a population decrease, 51 to a reduction in performance in at least one native species and for 17 alien species no effects on individual fitness of native species were detected. Fungi had significantly highest impact and were more likely to have information on their impacts reported. Competition and parasitism were the most important impact mechanisms of alien species. This study is, to our knowledge, the first application of EICAT to all known alien species of several taxonomic groups in a protected area. The impact rankings enabled to identify taxa that generally cause high impacts and to prioritize species for the management in protected areas according to their impact magnitudes. By following a standardized impact protocol, we identified several alien species causing high impacts that do not appear on any expert-based risk list, which are relevant for policymakers. Thus, we recommend that alien species be systematically screened to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize their management with respect to spatio-temporal trends in impact magnitudes.
Ključne besede: alien species, biological invasions, EICAT, invasive species management, protected areas, species prioritization
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 29.10.2021; Ogledov: 104; Prenosov: 77
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,13 MB)

86.
Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in its invasive range in Europe : perception, knowledge and willingness to act in foresters and citizens
Flavius Balacenoiu, György Csóka, Bastien Castagneyrol, Iris Bernardinelli, Anže Japelj, Milka Glavendekić, Gernot Hoch, Boris Hrašovec, Silvija Krajter Ostoić, Márton Paulin, David Williams, Johan Witters, Maarten De Groot, 2021

Povzetek: The oak lace bug (OLB) Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) is an invasive alien species (IAS) that potentially could have many negative impacts on European oak health. Certain measures can be applied to counteract these effects. However, these measures may not be acceptable for forest managers or other stakeholder groups, such as private forest owners, environmental NGOs or the general public. Thereby, we set out to study the perception and knowledge of foresters and other stakeholders on the health status of European oak forests affected by oak lace bug and to investigate what forest health management measures would be acceptable to these target groups. An online survey questionnaire was designed and distributed via social networks, as well as professional networks via e-mails. The survey questionnaire was completed by 2084 respondents from nine European countries: Austria, Croatia, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. Even though only a little over 60% of respondents reported they had noticed the discolouration of oak leaves caused by OLB, almost all (93%) considered it to be a problem. As respondents come from a country where C. arcuata is widespread and established, people%s general knowledge and awareness of OLB began to increase. The survey revealed that foresters thought that the insect affected photosynthesis, acorn crop and the aesthetics of the trees, but cannot cause death of trees. However, they assume that the value of the wood would decrease (this fact is also supported by the respondents who are connected to an environmental NGO), but that OLB does not affect property value. However, forest owners claim that the value of the property can be affected and that people would avoid entering the forest. In terms of potential control methods, respondents preferred biological or mechanical measures over chemical ones. We consider this study to be a good basis for further research on the topic of perception, knowledge and attitudes related to OLB since we can expect that the IAS, such as OLB, will certainly spread to European countries that were not included in this survey.
Ključne besede: attitude, citizen knowledge, Europe, forest health, IAS control measures, invasive alien species, survey
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.10.2021; Ogledov: 124; Prenosov: 79
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,36 MB)

87.
Climatic regulation of leaf and cambial phenology in Quercus pubescens : their interlinkage and impact on xylem and phloem conduits
Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Polona Hafner, Peter Prislan, Mitja Ferlan, Martina Lavrič, Dominik Vodnik, Klemen Eler, 2022

Povzetek: Increased frequency and severity of stressful events affects the growth patterns and functioning of trees which adjust their phenology to given conditions. Here, we analysed environmental effects (temperature, precipitation, VPD and SWC) on the timing of leaf phenology, seasonal stem radial growth patterns, and xylem and phloem anatomy of Quercus pubescens in the sub-Mediterranean in the period 2014%2019, when various adverse weather events occurred, i.e. spring drought in 2015, summer fire in 2016 and summer drought in 2017. Results showed that the timings of leaf and cambium phenology do not occur simultaneously in Q. pubescens, reflecting different environmental and internal constraints. Although year-to-year variability in the timings of leaf and cambial phenology exists, their chronological sequence is fairly fixed. Different effects of weather conditions on different stages of leaf development in spring were observed. Common climatic drivers (i.e., negative effect of hot and dry summers and a positive effect of increasing moisture availability in winter and summer) were found to affect the widths of xylem and phloem increments with more pronounced effect on late formed parts. A legacy effect of the timing of leaf and cambial phenology of the previous growing season on the timing of phenology of the following spring was confirmed. Rarely available phloem data permitted a comprehensive insight into the interlinkage of the timing of cambium and leaf phenology and adjustment strategies of vascular tissues in Mediterranean pubescent oak to various environmental constraints, including frequent extreme events (drought, fire). Our results suggest that predicted changes in autumn/winter and spring climatic conditions for this area could affect the timings of leaf and stem cambial phenology of Q. pubescens in the coming years, which would affect stem xylem and phloem structure and hydraulic properties, and ultimately its performance.
Ključne besede: pubescent oak, leaf development, radial growth, initial earlywood vessel, sieve tube, anatomy, cambial cell production, extreme weather events
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 06.09.2021; Ogledov: 233; Prenosov: 42
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,00 MB)

88.
Empirical approach for modelling tree phenology in mixed forests using remote sensing
Koffi Dodji Noumonvi, Gal Oblišar, Ana Žust, Urša Vilhar, 2021

Povzetek: : Phenological events are good indicators of the effects of climate change, since phenological phases are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Although several national phenological networks monitor the phenology of different plant species, direct observations can only be conducted on individual trees, which cannot be easily extended over large and continuous areas. Remote sensing has often been applied to model phenology for large areas, focusing mostly on pure forests in which it is relatively easier to match vegetation indices with ground observations. In mixed forests, phenology modelling from remote sensing is often limited to land surface phenology, which consists of an overall phenology of all tree species present in a pixel. The potential of remote sensing for modelling the phenology of individual tree species in mixed forests remains underexplored. In this study, we applied the seasonal midpoint (SM) method with MODIS GPP to model the start of season (SOS) and the end of season (EOS) of six different tree species in Slovenian mixed forests. First, substitute locations were identified for each combination of observation station and plant species based on similar environmental conditions (aspect, slope, and altitude) and tree species of interest, and used to retrieve the remote sensing information used in the SM method after fitting the best of a Gaussian and two double logistic functions to each year of GPP time series. Then, the best thresholds were identified for SOS and EOS, and the results were validated using cross-validation. The results show clearly that the usual threshold of 0.5 is not best in most cases, especially for estimating the EOS. Despite the difficulty in modelling the phenology of different tree species in a mixed forest using remote sensing, it was possible to estimate SOS and EOS with moderate errors as low as <8 days (Fagus sylvatica and Tilia sp.) and <10 days (Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula), respectively.
Ključne besede: phenology modelling, start of season, end of season, remote sensing, MODIS GPP, vegetation indices, threshold methods
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.08.2021; Ogledov: 243; Prenosov: 149
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,63 MB)

89.
Aktiviranje gospodarjenja v zasebnih gozdovih s poslovnim sodelovanjem med zasebnimi lastniki gozdov in ponudniki gozdarskih storitev: študij primera revir Vodice
Nina Iveta, Špela Pezdevšek Malovrh, 2021

Povzetek: V prispevku smo preverjali možnost aktiviranja gospodarjenja v zasebnih gozdovih s pomočjo poslovnega povezovanja znotraj poslovnih modelov 'zakup gozda' in 'upravljanje gozda' med zasebnimi lastniki gozdov in ponudniki gozdarskih storitev. S pomočjo anketiranja zasebnih lastnikov gozda (n = 205) in ponudnikov gozdarskih storitev (n = 14) smo ugotovili, da je pripra%vljenost za poslovno sodelovanje v obeh predlaganih poslovnih modelih večja pri ponudnikih gozdarskih storitev, kot pa je pri zasebnih lastnikih gozdov. Nadalje smo ugotovili, da je poslovno sodelovanje znotraj predlaganih poslovnih modelov uresni%čljivo, saj je stopnja sodelovanja zasebnih lastnikov gozdov s ponudniki gozdarskih storitev v 10-letnem obdobju zadovoljiva, hkrati pa so se predlagani pogoji, ki urejajo poslovno razmerje in temeljne obveznosti pogodbenih strank, izkazali za primerne za oba poslovna partnerja. Za začetek vzpostavitve poslovnega sodelovanja je treba najprej poskrbeti za promocijo poslovnega povezovanja in sodelovanja na lokalnem nivoju ter vzpostaviti poslovne odnose med potencialnimi partnerji.
Ključne besede: zasebni gozdovi, gospodarjenje, poslovno sodelovanje zasebnih lastnikov gozdov, ponudniki gozdarskih storitev, poslovni modeli, zakup gozda, upravljanje gozda, zasebni lastniki gozdov
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.08.2021; Ogledov: 445; Prenosov: 232
.pdf Celotno besedilo (821,00 KB)

90.
Značilnosti opravljanja sečnje in spravila v zasebnih gozdovih v Sloveniji
Matevž Triplat, Nike Krajnc, Darja Stare, Špela Ščap, 2021

Povzetek: V raziskavi, opravljeni leta 2019, je bilo zajetih 544 naključno izbranih gospodinjstev, ki imajo v lasti gozd. Več kot polovica anketi%ranih ima v lasti gozdno posest, veliko od 1 do 4,99 ha. Za 62 % anketiranih je glavni namen gospodarjenja z gozdom uporaba lesa za lastne potrebe. V obdobju 2015%2019 je sečnjo in spravilo opravljalo 71 % anketiranih, ki so v tem času skupaj posekali nekaj manj kot 50.000 m3 lesa (24 m3 /ha ali 141 m3 na gospodinjstvo). Intenziteta sečnje je bila najvišja pri zasebnih lastnikih z malimi gozdnimi posestmi (do 0,99 ha), in sicer v povprečju 41,4 m3 /ha. Analiza je pokazala, da obstajajo statistično značilne razlike med velikostjo gozdne posesti in intenziteto sečnje. V anketi je bilo ugotovljeno, da so za 41 % sečnje in spravila poskrbeli poklicni izvajalci del. Z raziskavo smo potrdili značilen vpliv velikosti zasebne gozdne posesti na način izvedbe sečnje in spravila. Rezultati so pokazali, da je največji delež zasebnih lastnikov, ki vsa dela opravijo s pomočjo najetih izvajalcev, v velikostnem razredu gozdne posesti od 5 do 9,99 ha. Z raziskavo nismo potrdili statistično značilnih razlik v intenziteti sečnje med spoloma zasebnih lastnikov gozdov
Ključne besede: zasebni lastniki, anketa, intenziteta sečnje, struktura lastnikov, gozdna posest, sečnja, spravilo, zasebni gozdovi
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.08.2021; Ogledov: 432; Prenosov: 248
.pdf Celotno besedilo (953,03 KB)

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