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Early-warning signals of individual tree mortality based on annual radial growth
Maxime Cailleret, Vasilis Dakos, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M.R. Robert, Tuomas Aakala, Mariano M. Amoroso, Joe A. Antos, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianaga, Katarina Čufar, Tom Levanič, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree mortality is a key driver of forest dynamics and its occurrence is projected to increase in the future due to climate change. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to death, we still lack robust indicators of mortality risk that could be applied at the individual tree scale. Here, we build on a previous contribution exploring the differences in growth level between trees that died and survived a given mortality event to assess whether changes in temporal autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony in time-series of annual radial growth data can be used as early warning signals of mortality risk. Taking advantage of a unique global ring-width database of 3065 dead trees and 4389 living trees growing together at 198 sites (belonging to 36 gymnosperm and angiosperm species), we analyzed temporal changes in autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony before tree death (diachronic analysis), and also compared these metrics between trees that died and trees that survived a given mortality event (synchronic analysis). Changes in autocorrelation were a poor indicator of mortality risk. However, we found a gradual increase in interannual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony in the last %20 years before mortality of gymnosperms, irrespective of the cause of mortality. These changes could be associated with drought-induced alterations in carbon economy and allocation patterns. In angiosperms, we did not find any consistent changes in any metric. Such lack of any signal might be explained by the relatively high capacity of angiosperms to recover after a stress-induced growth decline. Our analysis provides a robust method for estimating early-warning signals of tree mortality based on annual growth data. In addition to the frequently reported decrease in growth rates, an increase in inter-annual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony may be powerful predictors of gymnosperm mortality risk, but not necessarily so for angiosperms.
Ključne besede: tree mortality, ring-width, forest, growth, resilience indicators, drought, biotic agents, variance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.07.2022; Ogledov: 62; Prenosov: 47
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,19 MB)
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River distance, stand basal area, and climatic conditions are the main drivers influencing lying deadwood in riparian forests
Janine Oettel, Martin Braun, Marcus Sallmannshofer, Maarten De Groot, Silvio Schueler, Charlotte Virgillito, Marjana Westergren, Gregor Božič, Laszlo Nagy, Srdjan Stojnić, Katharina Lapin, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Riparian forests are among the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems, yet their biodiversity is increasingly threatened by habitat degradation, climate change, river regulation and invasive species. We investigated deadwood, widely recognized as an indicator for forest biodiversity, in riparian forests of the Mura-Drava-Danube Transboundary Biosphere Reserve. The Biosphere Reserve is a conservation area that spans five countries and three rivers located in south-eastern Europe. In detail, we analyzed the drivers of lying deadwood volume, occurrence and decay related to floodplain type, silvicultural management, and climatic conditions using regression models. Lying deadwood occurrence and volume significantly decreased as distance from the river edge increased, indicating that river dynamics likely play a role in deadwood accumulation in riparian forests. Deadwood volume was also positively influenced by stand basal area, a parameter that can be directly addressed by silvicultural management. Deadwood decay was affected positively by temperature and negatively by precipitation, highlighting the importance of climatic conditions on decay progression. However, in order to draw more accurate conclusions about the drivers and dynamics of deadwood in riparian forests, further monitoring efforts that consider river flooding and flow regime, deadwood transport and saproxylic organism activity in addition to forest management and site conditions, are needed.
Ključne besede: alluvial forest, hardwood floodplain, deadwood decay, Mura-Drava-Danube transboundary biosphere, reserve, riparian area, softwood floodplain, UNESCO biosphere reserve, wetlands
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.07.2022; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,55 MB)
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Effects of climate on Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth Southeast of the European Alps
Tom Levanič, Hana Štraus, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is a non-native tree species in Slovenia with the potential to partially replace Norway spruce in our native forests. Compared to spruce, it has several advantages in terms of volume growth, wood quality and tolerance to drought. This is important given the changing climate in which spruce is confronted with serious problems caused by increasing temperatures and drought stress. At three sites (one on non-carbonate bedrock and deep soils, and two on limestone with soil layers of varying depths), 20 Douglas-fir and 20 spruce per site were sampled in order to compare their radial growth response to climate and drought events. The radial growth of Douglas-fir exceeds that of spruce by about 20% on comparable sites. It is more responsive to climate than spruce. Above-average temperatures in February and March have a significant positive effect on the radial growth of Douglas-fir. In recent decades, above-average summer precipitation has also had a positive influence on the radial growth of Douglas-fir. Compared to spruce, Douglas-fir is less sensitive to extreme drought events. Our results indicate that Douglas-fir may be a good substitute for spruce in semi-natural managed forest stands in Slovenia. The planting of Douglas-fir should be allowed in Slovenian forests, but the proportion of it in forest stands should be kept lower than is the case with spruce today.
Ključne besede: climate change, climate response, drought, radial increment, dendrochronology
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.06.2022; Ogledov: 93; Prenosov: 70
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,74 MB)
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Letošnja licitacija vredne hlodovine postregla z več rekordi
Špela Ščap, Božidar Lovro Birkić, 2022, strokovni članek

Ključne besede: hlodi, hlodovina, licitacija lesa
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.06.2022; Ogledov: 143; Prenosov: 58
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,67 MB)

Lahko lesni peleti zamenjajo premog?
Nike Krajnc, Špela Ščap, 2022, strokovni članek

Ključne besede: lesni peleti, lesna goriva, svetovni trg, slovenski trg
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.06.2022; Ogledov: 145; Prenosov: 69
.pdf Celotno besedilo (612,96 KB)

Spravilo s forwarderjem na strmem terenu – „Winchassisted“ sistemi
Božidar Lovro Birkić, Jaša Saražin, 2022, strokovni članek

Ključne besede: forwarder, strm teren, gozdarska mehanizacija, gozdarski traktorji
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.06.2022; Ogledov: 152; Prenosov: 61
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1015,60 KB)

Trg briketov v Sloveniji
Zala Uhan, Anton Poje, Nike Krajnc, 2022, strokovni članek

Ključne besede: lesni briketi, trg, lesna goriva, uvoz, izvoz
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.06.2022; Ogledov: 127; Prenosov: 79
.pdf Celotno besedilo (452,51 KB)

Pan-European phylogeography of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)
Kamila Plis, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Johannes Lang, Mike Heddergott, Juha Tiainen, Aleksey Bunevich, Nikica Šprem, Ladislav Paule, Aleksey A. Danilkin, Marina Kholodova, Elena Zvychaynaya, Nadezhda Kashinina, Boštjan Pokorny, Katarina Flajšman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: To provide the most comprehensive picture of species phylogeny and phylogeography of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), we analyzed mtDNA control region (610 bp) of 1469 samples of roe deer from Central and Eastern Europe and included into the analyses additional 1541 mtDNA sequences from GenBank from other regions of the continent. We detected two mtDNA lineages of the species: European and Siberian (an introgression of C. pygargus mtDNA into C. capreolus). The Siberian lineage was most frequent in the eastern part of the continent and declined toward Central Europe. The European lineage contained three clades (Central, Eastern, and Western) composed of several haplogroups, many of which were separated in space. The Western clade appeared to have a discontinuous range from Portugal to Russia. Most of the haplogroups in the Central and the Eastern clades were under expansion during the Weichselian glacial period before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), while the expansion time of the Western clade overlapped with the Eemian interglacial. The high genetic diversity of extant roe deer is the result of their survival during the LGM probably in a large, contiguous range spanning from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus Mts and in two northern refugia.
Ključne besede: Capreolus capreolus, expansion, mitochondrial DNA, the Last Glacial Maximum refugia, the Quaternary history, Phylogenetics
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.05.2022; Ogledov: 110; Prenosov: 85
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,91 MB)
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Močan napad bukovega rilčkarja skakača v Sloveniji v 2022
Andreja Kavčič, 2022, poljudni članek

Ključne besede: gozdovi, varstvo gozdov, bukev, bukov rilčkar skakač, Orchestes fagi, Slovenija, bukova listna uš, Phyllaphis fagi, hiranje
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.05.2022; Ogledov: 122; Prenosov: 93
.pdf Celotno besedilo (459,59 KB)
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Environmental impacts of boom-corridor and selectively thinned small-diameter-tree forests
Teresa de la Fuente, Dan Bergström, Raul Fernandez-Lacruz, Teppo Hujala, Nike Krajnc, Ruben Laina, Tomas Nordfjell, Matevž Triplat, Eduardo Tolosana, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: European forest stands of small-diameter trees can provide industries with biomass as an alternative to fossil use. Small-tree harvesting is costly using conventional methods but using accumulating felling heads (AFH) in combination with a novel boom-corridor thinning (BCT) technique can increase harvester productivity and supply cost efficiency. This method has great potential to reduce costs, but its environmental impact compared with selective thinning (ST) needs to be determined. The objectives of this study were therefore to quantify and compare tree and soil damage as well as air, water and soil emissions for both BCT and ST in various European small-diameter-tree forests. Trials were performed in 84 study units (42 replications per thinning technique) across four countries. Damaged trees (with a diameter at breast height ≥ 7 cm) were measured after thinning and after forwarding. Harvesting emissions were calculated from a life cycle assessment. The percentage of remaining trees that had been damaged by the harvesting processes was 13% and 19% for BCT and ST, respectively, and the difference was significant. BCT exhibited the lowest emissions in all environmental impact categories considered, in all countries. Greenhouse gas emissions were on average 17% lower for BCT. BCT in small-diameter-tree stands therefore reduces the environmental impact of thinning operations compared with conventional methods, and results in less damage to the remaining trees.
Ključne besede: first thinning, harvesting damages, GHG emissions, forest biomass, forest operations
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.05.2022; Ogledov: 127; Prenosov: 99
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,67 MB)
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