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1.
Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa
Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen, Laura Kvist, 2020

Povzetek: Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadi-cally flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure, and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We found mono-phyletic populations, high levels of inbreeding (mean population FSNP = 0.407-0.945), low effective population sizes (Ne = 0.8-50.9), indications of past demographic ex-pansion, and rare long-distance dispersal. Our results are important in implementing conservation strategies for V. uliginosa, which should include founding of seed banks, ex situ cultivations, and reintroductions with individuals of proper origin, combined with continuous population monitoring and habitat management.
Ključne besede: nature conservation, demography, genomic diversity, population genomics, RAD sequencing, Viola
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.01.2022; Ogledov: 19; Prenosov: 21
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,49 MB)
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2.
Latent preferences of residents regarding an urban forest recreation setting in Ljubljana, Slovenia
Anže Japelj, Robert Mavsar, Donald G. Hodges, Marko Kovač, Luka Juvančič, 2016

Povzetek: The goal of this study is to assess residents' preferences for a set of attributes describing the recreation setting in an urban forest (outstanding trees, forest openings, waymarks and information boards, and paved walking trails) and to explore the heterogeneity of those preferences. It was captured by a four-class latent class model used to segment a sample of residents of Ljubljana (the capital of Slovenia), who responded to a choice experiment-based poll. The survey focused on the Rožnik urban forest, for which preferences (also willingness-to-pay) for hypothetical changes in the attributes were assessed. Respondents in class 1 were invariant to changes in the recreation setting. Those in class 2 and 4 stated positive preferences for having more outstanding trees. Class 3 and 4 were in favour of increasing the area of forest openings and enhancing the maintenance of waymarks and information boards. Those in class 4 expressed positive preferences for more walking trails, whereas class 3 valued this negatively. Class membership was affected by respondent age, number of adults in the household, frequency of forest visits, income, and purpose of the visit.
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.01.2022; Ogledov: 51; Prenosov: 57
.pdf Celotno besedilo (480,00 KB)
Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

3.
Empirical vs. light-use efficiency modelling for estimating carbon fluxes in a mid-succession ecosystem developed on abandoned karst grassland
Koffi Dodji Noumonvi, Mitja Ferlan, 2020

Povzetek: Karst systems represent an important carbon sink worldwide. However, several phenomena such as the CO2 degassing and the exchange of cave air return a considerable amount of CO2 to the atmosphere. It is therefore of paramount importance to understand the contribution of the ecosystem to the carbon budget of karst areas. In this study conducted in a mid-succession ecosystem developed on abandoned karst grassland, two types of model were assessed, estimating the gross primary production (GPP) or the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on seven years of eddy covariance data (2013%2019): (1) a quadratic vegetation index-based empirical model with five alternative vegetation indices as proxies of GPP and NEE, and (2) the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) which is a light use efficiency model to estimate only GPP. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was the best proxy for NEE whereas SAVI performed very similarly to EVI in the case of GPP in the empirical model setting. The empirical model performed better than the VPM model which tended to underestimate GPP. Therefore, for this ecosystem, we suggest the use of the empirical model provided that the quadratic relationship observed persists. However, the VPM model would be a good alternative under a changing climate, as it is rooted in the understanding of the photosynthesis process, if the scalars it involves could be improved to better estimate GPP.
Ključne besede: eddy covariance, carbon flux, GPP, NEE, vegetation indices, remote sensing, satellite data, GPP map
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 39; Prenosov: 25
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,07 MB)

4.
COVID-19 related travel restrictions prevented numerous wildlife deaths on roads : ǂa ǂcomparative analysis of results from 11 countries
Michal Bíl, Richard Andrášik, Vojtěch Cícha, Amir Arnon, Maris Kruuse, Jochen Langbein, András Náhlik, Milla Niemig, Boštjan Pokorny, Victor J. Colino-Rabanal, Christer M. Rolandsen, Andreas Seiler, 2021

Povzetek: Millions of wild animals are killed annually on roads worldwide. During spring 2020, the volume of road traffic was reduced globally as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. We gathered data on wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) from Czechia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Israel, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and for Scotland and England within the United Kingdom. In all studied countries WVC statistics tend to be dominated by large mammals (various deer species and wild boar), while information on smaller mammals as well as birds are less well recorded. The expected number of WVC for 2020 was predicted on the basis of 2015%2019 WVC time series representing expected WVC numbers under normal traffic conditions. Then, the forecasted and reported WVC data were compared. The results indicate varying levels of WVC decrease between countries during the COVID-19 related traffic flow reduction (CRTR). While no significant change was determined in Sweden, where the state-wide response to COVID-19 was the least intensive, a decrease as marked as 37.4% was identified in Estonia. The greatest WVC decrease, more than 40%, was determined during the first weeks of CRTR for Estonia, Spain, Israel, and Czechia. Measures taken during spring 2020 allowed the survival of large numbers of wild animals which would have been killed under normal traffic conditions. The significant effects of even just a few weeks of reduced traffic, help to highlight the negative impacts of roads on wildlife mortality and the need to boost global efforts of wildlife conservation, including systematic gathering of roadkill data.
Ključne besede: wildlife-vehicle collisions, wildlife crash reporting systems, traffic flow, ungulates, mesocarnivores, COVID-19 lockdown
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 47; Prenosov: 32
.pdf Celotno besedilo (976,24 KB)

5.
A meta-analysis of global fungal distribution reveals climate-driven patterns
Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecky, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Mészárosová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, 2019

Povzetek: The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes, in contrast with the opposite pattern previously shown for plants and other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi appear to have narrower climatic tolerances than pathogenic fungi. We speculate that climate change could affect ecosystem functioning because of the narrow climatic tolerances of key fungal taxa.
Ključne besede: fungi, global distribution, climate
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 40; Prenosov: 36
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,59 MB)

6.
GlobalFungi, a global database of fungal occurrences from high-throughput-sequencing metabarcoding studies
Tomáš Větrovský, Daniel Morais, Petr Kohout, Clémentine Lepinay, Camelia Algora, Sandra Awokunle Hollá, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Květa Bílohnědá, Vendula Brabcová, Federica DʹAlò, Tijana Martinović, 2020

Povzetek: Fungi are key players in vital ecosystem services, spanning carbon cycling, decomposition, symbiotic associations with cultivated and wild plants and pathogenicity. The high importance of fungi in ecosystem processes contrasts with the incompleteness of our understanding of the patterns of fungal biogeography and the environmental factors that drive those patterns. To reduce this gap of knowledge, we collected and validated data published on the composition of soil fungal communities in terrestrial environments including soil and plant-associated habitats and made them publicly accessible through a user interface at https://globalfungi.com. The GlobalFungi database contains over 600 million observations of fungal sequences across >17 000 samples with geographical locations and additional metadata contained in 178 original studies with millions of unique nucleotide sequences (sequence variants) of the fungal internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 representing fungal species and genera. The study represents the most comprehensive atlas of global fungal distribution, and it is framed in such a way that third-party data addition is possible.
Ključne besede: fungi, database, metabarcoading
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 39
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,17 MB)

7.
Morphologic variability of the Acer campestre L. populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Stjepan Kvesić, Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Matjaž Čater, Dalibor Ballian, 2021

Povzetek: Morphologic variability from 25 populations of Acer campestre L. in Bosnia and Herzegovina was analyzed. Morphometric structure of variability and between-population variability was performed based on 10 fruit-parameter characteristics and 19 leaf-parameter characteristics using multivariate statistical analysis. Results confirmed the separation of three submediterranean populations as a group in relation to other tested populations, from which the Banja Luka population is different. Measured leaf parameters were confirmed as a predominant carrier of the morphologic separation between populations. In other Acer species populations within A. monspessulanum and A. intermedium species are separated mainly by fruit and much less by leaf parameters. The southernmost submediterranean populations from Trebinje, Ljubuški, and Mostar regions have smaller leaf areas, which consequently places them within the same morphologic group; their variability is in tight connection with eco-geo-graphical factors, where the ecological distance is a much better predictor of morphological variability compared to geographical distance. The air temperature had the biggest influence on morphological variability regarding the highest in-between correlation. Achieved results may serve for the continuation of the research in other areas of Acer campestre to determine the interactive effect of ecological, geographical, climatic, and migrational factors on their morphologic population plasticity.
Ključne besede: differentiation, field maple, fruit, leaf, morphologic variability
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 26; Prenosov: 17
.pdf Celotno besedilo (960,45 KB)

8.
Climate change and disturbances will shape future temperate forests in the transition zone between Central and SE Europe
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Anže Martin Pintar, 2021

Povzetek: It is expected that climate change as well as abiotic and anthropogenic disturbances will strongly influence temperate forests. Besides changes in the main climate variables, various disturbance factors may significantly worsen conditions for mesic Slovenian forests (SE Europe) dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba). In Slovenia, the climate has warmed in recent decades, with an average annual rate of increase of about 0.4°C per decade or even more than 0.5°C per decade in summer. In addition, disturbances have caused considerable damage to trees in the most extensive forest types in Slovenia, starting with a widespread ice storm in 2014, followed by bark beetle outbreaks, windthrows and salvage logging interventions. After 2014, salvage logging increased from about one third to two thirds of the total annual felling. Over the last two decades, we have observed a decline in Norway spruce growing stock, with the highest rate of decrease in areas below 500 m a.s.l., and an increasing trend for European beech. Overall, the three dominant species (beech, spruce, silver fir), which together account for more than 70% of the total growing stock, have shown a declining trend over the last 20 years. The patterns observed are broadly consistent with earlier predictions developed for different climate change scenarios and with those reported in many other European countries. Adaptive forest management, which implements close-to-nature silviculture, has been traditionally practised in the region under study and has the potential to play an important role in reducing the risks associated with the impacts of climate change and disturbances in the future.
Ključne besede: climate warming, disturbance factors, ice storm, bark beetle outbreaks, spruce decline, salvage logging, tree species composition, temperate forest, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 22
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,55 MB)

9.
Potential link between ectomycorrhizal community composition and host tree phenology
Tina Unuk, Rok Damjanić, Hojka Kraigher, Tine Grebenc, 2021

Povzetek: The timing of leaf phenology tends to be crucial in controlling ecosystem processes such as the acquisition of carbon and water loss as well as in controlling tree nutrient cycling. To date, tree phenology has mostly been associated with environmental control (e.g., temperature and photoperiod) in a relationship with inheritance, while it has rarely been linked with ectomycorrhizal community compositional changes through the host tree’s phenological stages. Seasonal variations of fungal communities have been widely studied, but little is known about mycorrhiza community composition changes along phenological stages. Therefore, we analyzed ectomycorrhizal communities associated with silver fir and their compositional changes during the transition between phenological stages. The phenological stages of each individual tree and time of bud break were monitored weekly for two years and, at the same time, ectomycorrhiza was harvested from selected silver fir trees. In total, 60 soil cores were analyzed for differences in the ectomycorrhizal community between phenological stages using Sanger sequencing of individual ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. A significant difference in beta diversity for an overall ectomycorrhizal community was confirmed between analyzed time periods for both sampled years. Species-specific reactions to transitions between phenological stages were confirmed for 18 different ectomycorrhizal taxa, where a positive correlation of Russula ochroleuca, Russula illota, Tomentella sublilacina, and Tylospora fibrillosa was observed with the phenological stage of bud burst.
Ključne besede: Abies alba (Mill.), ectomycorrhizal community, phenological stages
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.12.2021; Ogledov: 93; Prenosov: 52
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,73 MB)

10.
Growing stock monitoring by European National Forest Inventories : historical origins, current methods and harmonisation
Thomas Gschwantner, Iciar Alberdi, Sébastien Bauwens, Susann Bender, Dragan Borota, Michal Bošela, Olivier Bouriaud, Johannes Breidenbach, Janis Donis, Christoph Fischer, Mitja Skudnik, 2022

Povzetek: Wood resources have been essential for human welfare throughout history. Also nowadays, the volume of growing stock (GS) is considered one of the most important forest attributes monitored by National Forest Inventories (NFIs) to inform policy decisions and forest management planning. The origins of forest inventories closely relate to times of early wood shortage in Europe causing the need to explore and plan the utilisation of GS in the catchment areas of mines, saltworks and settlements. Over time, forest surveys became more detailed and their scope turned to larger areas, although they were still conceived as stand-wise inventories. In the 1920s, the first sample-based NFIs were introduced in the northern European countries. Since the earliest beginnings, GS monitoring approaches have considerably evolved. Current NFI methods differ due to country-specific conditions, inventory traditions, and information needs. Consequently, GS estimates were lacking international comparability and were therefore subject to recent harmonisation efforts to meet the increasing demand for consistent forest resource information at European level. As primary large-area monitoring programmes in most European countries, NFIs assess a multitude of variables, describing various aspects of sustainable forest management, including for example wood supply, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity. Many of these contemporary subject matters involve considerations about GS and its changes, at different geographic levels and time frames from past to future developments according to scenario simulations. Due to its historical, continued and currently increasing importance, we provide an up-to-date review focussing on large-area GS monitoring where we i) describe the origins and historical development of European NFIs, ii) address the terminology and present GS definitions of NFIs, iii) summarise the current methods of 23 European NFIs including sampling methods, tree measurements, volume models, estimators, uncertainty components, and the use of air- and space-borne data sources, iv) present the recent progress in NFI harmonisation in Europe, and v) provide an outlook under changing climate and forest-based bioeconomy objectives.
Ključne besede: forest history, natural resources, sustainability, timber volume, sampling, remote sensing, bioeconomy, climate change
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.12.2021; Ogledov: 87; Prenosov: 48
.pdf Celotno besedilo (17,73 MB)

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