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Mechanical, microstructural and mineralogical evaluation of alkali-activated waste glass and stone wool
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Ana Frankovič, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Mineral waste wool represents a significant part of construction and demolition waste (CDW) not yet being successfully re-utilized. In the present study, waste stone wool (SW) and glass wool (GW) in the form received, without removing the binder, were evaluated for their potential use in alkali activation technology. It was confirmed that both can be used in the preparation of alkali-activated materials (AAMs), whether cured at room temperature or at an elevated temperature in order to speed up the reaction. The results show that it is possible to obtain a compressive strength of over 50 MPa using SW or GW as a precursor. A strength of 53 MPa was obtained in AAM based on GW after curing for 3 days at 40 °C, while a similar compressive strength (58 MPa) was achieved after curing the GW mixture for 56 days at room temperature. In general, the mechanical properties of samples based on GW are better than those based on SW. The evolution of mechanical properties and recognition of influential parameters were determined by various microstructural analyses, including XRD, SEM, MIP, and FTIR. The type of activator (solely NaOH or a combination of NaOH and sodium silicate), and the SiO2/Na2O and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios were found to be the significant parameters. A lower SiO2/Na2O ratio and low L/S ratio significantly improve the mechanical strength of AAMs made from both types of mineral wool.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, waste mineral wool, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.07.2023; Ogledov: 135; Prenosov: 141
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,79 MB)
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The role of electricity mix and production efficiency improvements on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of building components and future refurbishment measures
Tajda Potrč Obrecht, Sabina Jordan, Andraž Legat, Alexander Passer, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Purpose: An estimation of the environmental impact of buildings by means of a life cycle assessment (LCA) raises uncertainty related to the parameters that are subject to major changes over longer time spans. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of modifications in the electricity mix and the production efficiency in the chosen reference year on the embodied impacts (i.e., greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions) of building materials and components and the possible impact of this on future refurbishment measures. Methods: A new LCA methodological approach was developed and implemented that can have a significant impact on the way in which existing buildings are assessed at the end of their service lives. The electricity mixes of different reference years were collected and assessed, and the main datasets and sub-datasets were modified according to the predefined substitution criteria. The influence of the electricity-mix modification and production efficiency were illustrated on a selected existing reference building, built in 1970. The relative contribution of the electricity mix to the embodied impact of the production phase was calculated for four different electricity mixes, with this comprising the electricity mix from 1970, the current electricity mix and two possible future electricity-mix scenarios for 2050. The residual value of the building was also estimated. Results and discussion: In the case presented, the relative share of the electricity mix GHG emission towards the total value was as high as 20% for separate building components. If this electricity mix is replaced with an electricity mix having greater environmental emissions, the relative contribution of the electricity mix to the total emissions can be even higher. When, by contrast, the modified electricity mix is almost decarbonized, the relative contribution to the total emissions may well be reduced to a point where it becomes negligible. The modification of the electricity mix can also influence the residual value of a building. In the observed case, the differences due to different electricity mixes were in the range of 10%. Conclusions: It was found that those parameters that are subject to a major change during the reference service period of the building should be treated dynamically in order to obtain reliable results. Future research is foreseen to provide additional knowledge concerning the influence of dynamic parameters on both the use phase and the end-of-life phase of buildings, and these findings will also be important when planning future refurbishment measures.
Ključne besede: global warming potential (GWP), production phase, electricity mix, production efciency, residual value, refurbishment, building components, life cycle assessment (LCA)
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.07.2023; Ogledov: 207; Prenosov: 109
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,44 MB)
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An LCA methodolody for assessing the environmental impacts of building components before and after refurbishment
Tajda Potrč Obrecht, Sabina Jordan, Andraž Legat, Marcella Ruschi Mendes Saade, Alexander Passer, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Refurbishment is one of the most important measures for reducing the environmental impacts of the construction sector in the near future. According to the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for buildings, the environmental impacts of refurbishment measures should be assessed within the whole life cycle of the building and reflected in separate modules. However, in practice, refurbishment is often treated as the beginning of a new building life cycle. This leads to difficulties in correctly assessing the environmental impacts for the components that are reused or recycled after the refurbishment. The division of a building’s life cycle into two separate life cycles indicates that the environmental impacts must be divided between the life cycle before and the life cycle after the refurbishment for a correct assessment of the environmental impacts and a calculation of the residual value. We propose a newly developed methodology for calculating the environmental impacts and the residual value of refurbishment measures that also involves a division between life cycles. The new methodology is a combi-nation of already exiting methodologies that are innovatively combined and consists of four sequential steps. In the first step, the input, output and reuse flows between the life cycles before and after the refurbishment are defined. In the second step, the environmental impacts are assessed using the chosen allocation approach (i.e., the cut-off, cut-off with module D, avoided-burden, 50:50 and the product environmental footprint (PEF)). In the third step, a maintenance scenario is implemented according to the selected reference-service-life (RSL) database. In the fourth step, the residual value is estimated. The methodology was tested on selected building components. A sensitivity analysis for different allocation approaches and RSL databases was performed to show how the choice of these parameters can influence the results. The differences between the selected allocation approaches emerge if materials with recycled content are used or if the materials are being recycled or reused at the end of their life cycle. The developed methodology reliably estimates the environmental impacts as well as the residual value of the life cycle before and after the refurbishment. We expect that this research will stimulate practitioners to avoid the negligence of previous environmental flows, bringing scientific consistency to future assessments of refurbishment measures.
Ključne besede: Life cycle assessment (LCA), refurbishment, allocation approaches, residual value, reference service life (RSL)
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.07.2023; Ogledov: 196; Prenosov: 102
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,59 MB)
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The influence of calcium sulfate content on the hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements with different clinker phase compositions
Maruša Mrak, Frank Winnefeld, Barbara Lothenbach, Sabina Dolenec, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The influence of different amounts of gypsum on the hydration of a belite-rich and a yeʼelimite-rich belite-calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (BCSA) was investigated. The hydration kinetics, phase assemblages and compressive strength development of cements prepared using yeʼelimite/ calcium sulfate molar ratios of 1, 1.5 and 2 were studied. Besides ettringite and monosulfate, aluminium hydroxide, strätlingite, C-S-H, iron-containing siliceous hydrogarnet and hydrotalcite were present as hydration products. Increasing the amount of gypsum increased the ratio of ettringite to monosulfate formed in the cement paste, lowered the amount of pore solution, delayed the dissolution of belite and ferrite, decreased the formation of strätlingite and, in the case of the yeʼelimite-rich BCSA, led to an increase in compressive strength. Increased amounts of belite in the clinker led to the formation of higher quantities of C-S-H, at the expense of straätlingite and a lower compressive strength, as belite has a lower degree of reaction than yeʼelimite and due to the formation of more C-S-H and stratlingite compared to the more space-filling ettringite. The thermodynamic model established for BCSA cement hydration agrees well with the experimental data. Compressive strength directly correlated with bound water from thermogravimetric analyses and inversely correlated with the porosity calculated from thermodynamic modelling.
Ključne besede: belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement, gypsum, hydration, thermodynamic modelling
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.07.2023; Ogledov: 146; Prenosov: 111
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,74 MB)
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Antifungal effect of polymethyl methacrylate resin base with embedded Au nanoparticles
Ivan Marić, Anamarija Zore, Franc Rojko, Andrijana Sever Škapin, Roman Štukelj, Aleksander Učakar, Rajko Vidrih, Valentina Veselinović, Marijan Gotić, Klemen Bohinc, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Full and partial restorations in dentistry must replicate the characteristics of the patient’s natural teeth. Materials must have good mechanical properties and be non-toxic and biocompatible. Microbes, which can form biofilms, are constantly in contact with restorations. In this study, we investigate how well Candida albicans adheres to a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin base with gold (Au) nanoparticles. We synthesized Au nanoparticles and characterized them. The average size of Au nanoparticles embedded in PMMA was 11 nm. The color difference ∆E between PMMA and PMMA/Au composites was 2.7 and was still esthetically acceptable to patients. PMMA/Au surfaces are rougher and more hydrophilic than pure PMMA surfaces, and the isoelectric point of both types of surfaces was 4.3. Above the isoelectric point, PMMA/Au surfaces are more negatively charged than PMMA surfaces. The added Au nanoparticles decreased the tensile strength, while the hardness did not change significantly. Adhesion measurements showed that PMMA surfaces modified with Au nanoparticles reduced the extent of microbial adhesion of Candida albicans.
Ključne besede: fungal adhesión, C. albicans, polymethyl methacrylate resin, Au, surface properties, composites
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.07.2023; Ogledov: 208; Prenosov: 84
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,90 MB)
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Digital twins and road construction using secondary raw materials
Sebastjan Meža, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Rok Vezočnik, Igor Osmokrović, Stanislav Lenart, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Secondary raw materials (SRMs) tend to be a valuable replacement for finite virgin materials especially since construction works (i.e., building and civil engineering work such as road construction) require vast quantities of raw materials. Using SRM originating from recycling a broad range of inorganic waste materials (e.g., mining waste, different industrial wastes, construction, and demolition waste) has been recognized as a promising, generally more cost-efficient, and environmentally friendly alternative to the exploitation of natural resources. Despite the benefits of using SRM, several challenges need to be addressed before using SRM even more. One of them is the long-term durability and little-known response of construction works built using such alternative materials. In this paper, we present the activities to establish a fully functioning digital twin (DT) of a road constructed using SRM. The first part of the paper is devoted to the theoretical justification of efforts and ways of establishing the monitoring systems, followed by a DT case study where an integrated data environment synthesizing a Building Information Model and monitored data is presented. Although the paper builds upon a small scale, the case study is methodologically designed to allow parallels to be drawn with much larger construction projects.
Ključne besede: digital twins, road construction, circular economy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.07.2023; Ogledov: 163; Prenosov: 121
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,36 MB)
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Cyclic response of insulated steel angle brackets used for cross-laminated timber connections
Meta Kržan, Boris Azinović, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings, in order to reduce the disturbing transmission of sound over the flanking parts, special insulation layers are used between the CLT walls and slabs, together with insulated angle-bracket connections. How-ever, the influence of such CLT connections and insulation layers on the seismic resistance of CLT structures has not yet been studied. In this paper, experimental investigation on CLT panels installed on insulation bedding and fastened to the CLT floor using an innovative, insulated, steel angle bracket, are presented. The novelty of the investigated angle-bracket connection is, in addition to the sound insulation, its resistance to both shear as well as uplift forces as it is intended to be used instead of traditional angle brackets and hold-down connections to simplify the construction. Therefore, monotonic and cyclic tests on the CLT wall-to-floor connections were performed in shear and tensile/compressive load direction. Specimens with and without insulation under the angle bracket and between the CLT panels were studied and compared. Tests of insulated specimens have proved that the insulation has a marginal influence on the load-bearing capacity; however, it significantly influences the stiffness characteristics. In general, the experiments have shown that the connection could also be used for seismic resistant CLT structures, although some minor improvements should be made.
Ključne besede: CLT connection, equivalent viscous damping, experimental shear tests, polyurethane sound-insulation, steel angle bracket
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.07.2023; Ogledov: 163; Prenosov: 67
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,57 MB)
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Effect of the microstructural properties of copper on corrosion performance
Tadeja Kosec, Jure Voglar, Petra Močnik, Andraž Legat, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The aim of the study was to define the influence of microstructural properties on the electrochemical properties of copper in four different forms: copper in sheet form, copper doped with phosphorus, electroplated copper and copper wire. Open circuit potential and polarization resistance measurements were carried out in order to determine the electrochemical properties and corrosion rates of copper in 0.1 M NaCl solution in oxic conditions at ambient temperature. Statistical evaluation of the electrochemical data was performed in order to differentiate between the various forms of copper samples. Microstructural and electrochemical investigations were combined with electron microscopy and Raman analysis of the corrosion products after immersion of the copper samples in a 0.1 M NaCl solution for 30 days. The various morphologies of copper corrosion products were identified and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy for the various forms of copper.
Ključne besede: copper, microstructura, corrosion, Raman
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.07.2023; Ogledov: 158; Prenosov: 76
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,24 MB)
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Corrosion protection of brown and green patinated bronze
Tadeja Kosec, Živa Novak, Erika Švara Fabjan, Luka Škrlep, Andrijana Sever Škapin, Polonca Ropret, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Bronze surfaces, whether bare or patinated, tend to change when exposed to an outdoor atmosphere. Art made of bronze which is exposed to the outdoors is usually artificially patinated. This patina changes when exposed to rain, especially in polluted rain, where sulphuric, nitric or carbonic acids are present. In order to gain optimal protection of different patinas and consequently reduce the patina changes over the time different protection systems were developed, tested and tailored. Three types of patina (brown, green sulphate, and green persulphate) were prepared, protected and subsequently studied. The protections were based on two coatings (i) fluoropolymer based coating (FA-MS) and (ii) newly developed fluoropolymer based coating with addition of mercaptopropyl groups, named as alternative fluoropolymer coating (FA-MS-SH). Both the pure patinas applied on bronze surfaces as well as the bare bronze were electrochemically tested, first unprotected and then following the application of two different types of protection. After the protection was applied to the pa- tinas, the change in colour was defined. Different techniques were utilised in order to define the morphology and structure of the patinas, as well as the change in colour following application of the coating. It was shown that a fluoropolymer coating (FA-MS) provided the most efficient protection to bare bronze and the sulphate patina, while a newly proposed alternative fluoropolymer coating (FA-MS-SH) offered good protection to bare and brown patinated bronze. A mechanism for the protection of bare and patinated bronze was suggested.
Ključne besede: bronze, patina, protection
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.07.2023; Ogledov: 159; Prenosov: 105
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,46 MB)
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Effects of selected printing parameters on the fire properties of 3D-printed neat polylactic acid (PLA) and wood/PLA composites
Nataša Knez, Mirko Kariž, Friderik Knez, Nadir Ayrilmis, Manja Kitek Kuzman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The effects of selected printing parameters on the fire properties of additively produced composites from neat polylactic acid (PLA) and wood/PLA filaments were investigated. The reaction to fire of the 3D-printed specimens was tested according to the ISO 5660-1 cone calorimeter test method. The results showed that the properties of the specimens when exposed to fire were significantly affected by the incorporation of wood flour into the PLA filament. It was also interesting that PLA specimens had much better reactions to fire than the wood/PLA specimens. Time to ignition was found to be much longer in the 3D-printed PLA specimens. Although the maximal heat release rate was a little higher in the PLA than the wood/PLA specimens, the duration of HRR was longer for the wood/PLA specimens. The initial mass of the specimens was smaller in the wood/PLA composites, but during the radiant heat exposure the mass typically decreased slower than in the PLA specimens.
Ključne besede: reaction to fire, wood, polylactic acid (PLA), filament, 3D printer, biocomposite
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.07.2023; Ogledov: 125; Prenosov: 84
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,37 MB)
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