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Influence of the size and type of pores on brick resistance to freeze-thaw cycles
Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Martina Vračević, Vilma Ducman, Berislav Marković, Imre Szenti, Ákos Kukovecz, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper estimates the frost resistance of bricks using the ratio of compressive strength before freezing to compressive strength after freezing to describe the damage degree of bricks being exposed to freeze-thaw cycles. In an effort to find the ratio that clearly distinguishes resistant bricks from non-resistant bricks, the authors attempted to establish the correlation between the ratio and Maage factor as a recognized model for assessing brick resistance. To clarify the degree of damage of individual bricks, the pore size distribution has been investigated by means of mercury porosimetry. Additionally, micro computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been employed to define the influence of the type of pores (open or closed) and their connectivity on the frost resistance of bricks. According to the results, it can be concluded that there is a good correlation between the Maage factor and the ratio of pre- to post-freeze-thaw cycle compressive strengths, and that the latter ratio strongly correlates with the percentage of large pores (≥3 mm) in the brick. If such a correlation could be confirmed in a larger sample, then the ratio of pre- to post-freeze-thaw cycle compressive strengths could be used as a new method for assessing brick resistance to freeze-thaw cycles and it would be possible to determine the minimum percentage of large pores required to ensure the overall resistance of brick to freeze-thaw conditions. The complexity of the problem is, however, evidenced by the fact that no clear connection between the type (open versus closed) or connectivity of pores and the frost resistance of bricks could be revealed by micro-CT.
Ključne besede: clay masonry units, porosity, freeze-thaw resistance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.08.2023; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 81
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,02 MB)
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RILEM TC 247-DTA round robin test : sulfate resistance, alkali-silica reaction and freeze-thaw resistance of alkali-activated concretes
Frank Winnefeld, Gregor J. G. Gluth, Susana Bernal, Maria Chiara Bignozzi, Lorenza Carabba, Sundararaman Chithiraputhiran, Alireza Dehghan, Sabina Dolenec, Katja Dombrowski-Daube, Ashish Dubey, Vilma Ducman, Yu Jin, Karl Peterson, Stephen Dietmar, John L. Provis, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The RILEM technical committee TC 247-DTA ‘Durability Testing of Alkali-Activated Materials’ conducted a round robin testing programme to determine the validity of various durability testing methods, originally developed for Portland cement based-concretes, for the assessment of the durability of alkali-activated concretes. The outcomes of the round robin tests evaluating sulfate resistance, alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and freeze–thaw resistance are presented in this contribution. Five different alkali-activated concretes, based on ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, or metakaolin were investigated. The extent of sulfate damage to concretes based on slag or fly ash seems to be limited when exposed to an Na2SO4 solution. The mixture based on metakaolin showed an excessive, very early expansion, followed by a dimensionally stable period, which cannot be explained at present. In the slag-based concretes, MgSO4 caused more expansion and visual damage than Na2SO4; however, the expansion limits defined in the respective standards were not exceeded. Both the ASTM C1293 and RILEM AAR-3.1 test methods for the determination of ASR expansion appear to give essentially reliable identification of expansion caused by highly reactive aggregates. Alkali-activated materials in combination with an unreactive or potentially expansive aggregate were in no case seen to cause larger expansions; only the aggregates of known very high reactivity were seen to be problematic. The results of freeze–thaw testing (with/without deicing salts) of alkali-activated concretes suggest an important influence of the curing conditions and experimental conditions on the test outcomes, which need to be understood before the tests can be reliably applied and interpreted.
Ključne besede: alkali-activated materials/geopolymers, sulphate resistance, alkali silica reactivity, freeze-thaw resistance, Rilem TC
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.08.2023; Ogledov: 119; Prenosov: 84
.pdf Celotno besedilo (560,56 KB)
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Methodology for evaluating the CO2 sequestration capacity of waste ashes
Sara Tominc, Vilma Ducman, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is constantly increasing, leading to an increase in the average global temperature and, thus, affecting climate change. Hence, various initiatives have been proposed to mitigate this process, among which CO2 sequestration is a technically simple and efficient approach. The spontaneous carbonation of ashes with atmospheric CO2 is very slow, and this is why accelerated carbonation is encouraged. However, not all ashes are equally suitable for this process, so a methodology to evaluate their potential should be developed. Such a methodology involves a combination of techniques, from theoretical calculations to XRF, XRD, DTA-TG, and the calcimetric determination of the CaCO3 content. The present study followed the approach of exposing ashes to accelerated carbonation conditions (4% v/v CO2, 50–55% and 80–85% RH, 20 ◦C) in a closed carbonation chamber for different periods of time until the maximum CO2 uptake is reached. The amount of sequestered CO2 was quantified by thermogravimetry. The results show that the highest CO2 sequestration capacity (33.8%) and carbonation efficiency (67.9%) were obtained for wood biomass bottom ash. This method was applied to eight combustion ashes and could serve to evaluate other ashes or comparable carbon storage materials.
Ključne besede: CO2 sequestration, carbonation efficiency, coal ash, wood biomass ash, co-combustion ash, DTA-TG analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.08.2023; Ogledov: 197; Prenosov: 95
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,73 MB)
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Effects of the temperature on the pore evolution during sintering of the belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinker using x-ray computed microtomography
Sabina Dolenec, Lidija Korat, Maruša Mrak, Andrej Ipavec, Lea Žibret, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In this paper, the effects of the sintering temperature on the pore evolution of the belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinker were evaluated. Belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinker with a targeted composition of 65 w/% b-belite, 20 w/% calcium sulfoaluminate and 10 w/% ferrite was sintered at three different temperatures: 1200 °C, 1250 °C and 1300 °C. To quantitatively evaluate the pore evolution during sintering, a 3D microstructure reconstruction by micro-CT was used. From the data, the pore volume frac- tion and pore number were extracted and compared, and the pore size distribution with the sintering temperature was obtained as well. Additionally, the pore shape and distribution were displayed in 3D based on actual microstructure data. Clinker samples were also characterized by Hg-intrusion porosimetry and gas sorption. The changes in the pore evolution occurred to a larger extent when sintering at 1300 °C. Apart from a significant porosity decrease, pore coarsening was evident at this temperature, reducing their connectivity and shrinkage of the clinker. Simultaneously, the bulk and apparent densities increased with the temperature due to densification, while the BET surface area of the studied clinkers decreased, indicating the rounding of pores and particle coalescence with an increasing grain growth.
Ključne besede: klinker, belit-sulfoaluminat, razvoj por, sintranje
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.08.2023; Ogledov: 164; Prenosov: 77
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,27 MB)
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A red Roman column from Emona (Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Andreja Maver, Bernarda Županek, Maja Gutman, Dragomir Skaberne, Sabina Dolenec, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The excavation conducted in 1999 in Ljubljana (Slovenia), in Insula XXVII of the Roman colonia Iulia Emona, un-earthed the remains of a column shaft with an organic core set onto a stone block. The contribution presents this find, its context and likely parallels, the mineralogical-petrographic composition of the stucco, type of the pigments used, as well as the rock of the plinth and its provenance. Of the shaft, only the stucco survives, applied in four mortar layers and painted in red ochre, while its interior surface shows the impressions of reeds. The plinth is a rectangular block made of locally available Lower Jurassic oolitic limestone, presumably from Podpeč. The column may have formed part of a porticus or peristyle, possibly associated with a pool or a bath complex in this part of Late Roman Emona.
Ključne besede: NUK II Site (Ljubljana, Slovenia), columns, Roman architecture, reed impressions, stucco, limestone, Late Roman period
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.08.2023; Ogledov: 147; Prenosov: 123
.pdf Celotno besedilo (12,00 MB)
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Phase development and hydration kinetics of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements at different curing temperatures
Maruša Mrak, Nina Daneu, Sabina Dolenec, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The influence of different curing temperatures on the hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement was investigated at 20, 40 and 60 °C. The hydration kinetics and the hydrated phase assemblages were studied by isothermal calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis, as well as field emission scanning electron microscopy. The compressive strength development of the cement pastes was also determined. Results showed that, at early ages, hydration was faster and early compressive strength was higher at elevated temperatures than at ambient temperature. On the other hand, at late ages in cement pastes cured at 60 °C, the amount of ettringite decreased, leading to lower compressive strength, indicating that the degree of hydration was lower at higher temperatures. Moreover, at elevated temperatures prismatic ettringite crystals became smaller due to faster hydration. Other hydration products present were aluminium hydroxide, which is formed together with ettringite from the hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate and gypsum, and C–S–H which precipitates as a main hydration product of belite. Belite hydrated in a lesser amount, especially at 60 °C, when the lowest amount of C–S–H was observed.
Ključne besede: hydration, cement, temperature, belite, calcium sulfoaluminate, open access, hidratacija, cement, temperatura, belit, kalcijev sulfoaluminat
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.08.2023; Ogledov: 120; Prenosov: 86
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,33 MB)
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Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on corrosion properties of various high-speed steels
Jure Voglar, Živa Novak, Patricia Jovičević Klug, Bojan Podgornik, Tadeja Kosec, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The aim of the study was to evaluate the corrosion properties of three different grades of high-speed steel following a heat treatment procedure involving deep cryogenic treatment after quenching and to investigate how these properties are connected to the microstructure and hard- ness of the material. The hardness of steels was measured, and microstructural properties were determined through observation of the metallographically prepared steels using scanning electron microscopy. These studies were complemented corrosion evaluation by the use of corrosion potential measurement and linear polarization measurement of steels in a sodium tetraborate buffer at pH 10. The results showed that the deep cryogenic procedure of high-speed steel changed the microstructure and consequently affected the hardness of the investigated steels to different extents, depending on their chemical composition. Corrosion studies have confirmed that some high-speed steels have improved corrosion properties after deep cryogenic treatment. The most important improvement in corrosion resistance was observed for deep cryogenically treated high-speed steel EN 1.3395 (M3:2) by 31% when hardened to high hardness values and by 116% under lower hardness conditions. The test procedure for differentiating corrosion properties of differently heat-treated tool steels was established alongside the investigation.
Ključne besede: deep cryogenic treatment, corrosion, microstructure, hardness
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.08.2023; Ogledov: 160; Prenosov: 71
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,82 MB)
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The Incorporation of steel slag into belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinkers
Lea Žibret, Katarina Šter, Maruša Mrak, Mojca Loncnar, Sabina Dolenec, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The potential use of steel slag from treated steel slag in belite-sulfoaluminate cements was investigated in this study. Cement clinkers with two phase compositions were synthesized, allowing the incorporation of different amounts of steel slag. The phase composition and microstructure of cement clinkers at three different sintering temperatures were studied by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method, as well as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. The results showed that the targeted phase composition of clinkers was achieved at a sintering temperature of 1250%C. However, a higher amount of perovskite instead of ferrite was detected in the clinker with a higher content of Ti-bearing bauxite. Apart from the main phases, such asbelite, calcium sulfoaluminate, and ferrite, several minor phases were identified, including mayenite, perovskite, periclase, and alkali sulfates. In both clinker mixtures, a higher content of MgO in the steelslags resulted in the formation of periclase. Furthermore, the hydration kinetics and compressive strength at 7 and 28 days were studied in two cements prepared from clinkers sintered at 1250%C. As evidenced by the results of isothermal calorimetry, the hydration kinetics were also influenced by the minor clinker phases. Cement with a higher content of calcium sulfoaluminate phase developed a higher compressive strength.
Ključne besede: cements, BCSA, steel slag, secundary row materials, microstructure, clinker phase
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.08.2023; Ogledov: 130; Prenosov: 69
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,50 MB)
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High temperature resistant fly-ash and metakaolin-based alkali-activated foams
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Srečo D. Škapin, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated foams (AAFs) present one of the most promising materials for use in the construction sector. Their main advantages lie in their utilization of waste material and their ability to form at temperatures well below 100 °C, while still competing in performance with foamed glass or ceramics. The present body of research has focused on improving the thermal stability of fly-ash foams by i) adding metakaolin, and ii) changing the activator from sodium-based to potassium-based components. It has been confirmed that a certain increase in thermal resistance is achieved through the addition of metakaolin while changing activators played a crucial role. While sodium-based AAFs without metakaolin start to shrink at approximately 600 °C, samples that have had metakaolin added start to shrink at approximately 700 °C. Samples without metakaolin that have used a potassium activator start to shrink at approximately 800 °C, whereas potassium-based samples with the addition of metakaolin start to shrink at approximately 900 °C.
Ključne besede: alkali activated materials, geopolymers, high temperature, resistance, foams
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.08.2023; Ogledov: 124; Prenosov: 99
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,91 MB)
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Improving the flame retardancy of wood using an eco-friendly mineralisation process
Andreja Pondelak, Andrijana Sever Škapin, Nataša Knez, Friderik Knez, Tomaž Pazlar, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: A novel environmentally friendly method for in situ formation of CaCO3 deep inside a wood’s structure is presented. The method is based on vacuum-pressure impregnation using a one-component treatment medium – a water solution of calcium acetoacetate - and a single stage process to significantly improve the fire retardancy of the treated material.
Ključne besede: mineralisation, flame retardancy, calcium acetoacetate, calcium carbonate, wood
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.07.2023; Ogledov: 140; Prenosov: 108
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,69 MB)
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