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Rejuvenator obtained by pyrolysis of waste tires for use in asphalt mixtures with added reclaimed asphalt
Lidija Ržek, Mojca Ravnikar Turk, Marjan Tušar, 2022, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Povzetek: Although in recent years, big progress has been made in the field of recovering waste tires, they still represent an unwanted waste and their production is constantly increasing. We can use waste tires as a raw material for a new product. In our study, multiple liquid products were produced by pyrolysis of waste tires. After extensive testing of their properties, we selected the most suitable pyrolytic product for the purpose of rejuvenation. Rejuvenators are designed to soften the old, brittle and stiff aged bitumen in reclaimed asphalt. Bitumen with its viscoelastic characteristics is the most important component of asphalt and dictates its behaviour. Commonly bitumen, after adding rejuvenator, becomes less viscous, more ductile and its coating properties are restored. By using a pyrolytic rejuvenator, the proportion of reclaimed asphalt added to the asphalt mixture was increased. The reuse of reclaimed asphalt and waste tires means a reduction in waste material and is therefore important for the preservation of the environment and sustainable development.
Ključne besede: pyrolyse, rejuvenator, bitumen, reclaimed asphalt, waste tires
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.01.2024; Ogledov: 334; Prenosov: 136
.pdf Celotno besedilo (840,71 KB)
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Development of an advanced methodology for assessing the environmental impacts of refurbishments
Tajda Potrč Obrecht, Sabina Jordan, Andraž Legat, Marcella Ruschi Mendes Saade, Alexander Passer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: The refurbishment of the building stock is one of the key tasks for reducing the future environmental emissions in building sector. The assessment of the environmental impacts (EI) of refurbishments with LCA methodology remains a challenge. In the current practice, the refurbishment is threated as the beginning of the new lifecycle and all the impacts associated with the previous life cycle are generally neglected. The exclusion of materials and components used prior to the refurbishment produces a data gap at the end-of-life since information about materials that remained in the building after the refurbishment are missing. Furthermore, no information about what impacts have already been considered in the past bears the risk that some of the impacts are double-counted. In order to overcome these problems, an advanced methodology for the assessment of the embodied impacts in the case of refurbishment was developed that combines two sub-methodologies that can also be used separately. The first submethodology is used for remodelling the input data in order to make them time corresponding. The second sub-methodology is used for the assessment of the EI in the residual value of building materials and components and is including the allocation of EI between the life cycle before and after the refurbishment. The combination of the two sub-methodologies enables a more realistic and accurate assessment of the environmental impacts. The methodology is illustrated on the case on the case of a façade refurbishment. Five different allocation approaches are investigated and the residual value is calculated after a selected time period before and after the refurbishment. For all the inputs time-corresponding data is modelled and used. The study showed that for the life cycle before the refurbishment the EI and the residual value are generally higher if time-corresponding data is used since the EI of the electricity mix are higher. It turned out that the use of different allocation approaches is favouring either the use of recycled or reused materials or the recycling of the materials at the end. The PEF and the cut-off approach with module D are both enhancing the circular economy. It can be assumed that they are likely to prevail in the future.
Ključne besede: LCA, refurbishment, allocation, module D, dynamic LCA
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.01.2024; Ogledov: 302; Prenosov: 148
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,62 MB)
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Warm mix asphalt use in Slovenia and in Europe : a review
Primož Pavšič, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Recently, we have witnessed an extreme increase in the prices of energy and raw materials, on the one hand, and economic expansion, due to the business growth in construction sector, part of which is also the asphalt industry, on the other hand. The asphalt industry in particular is facing increasing challenges of economic acceptability and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as well as improving working conditions. One of the possible solutions proved to be warm mix asphalts (WMA), which can be produced and compacted at reduced temperatures in comparison to hot mix asphalt (HMA). The beginnings of WMA technology in Europe date back to 1999, while in Slovenia the first field test was conducted in 2005. In the last two decades a numerous research and studies on the properties and technologies of WMA production have been conducted. According to EAPA (European Asphalt Pavement Association), the use of WMA cumulatively in Europe in period from 2013 to 2020 is slowly increasing, but the differences in WMA production in individual European countries are significant. The article presents an overview of WMA production techniques, their advantages and disadvantages and their usage in individual European countries in comparison to Slovenia.
Ključne besede: warm mix asphalt, pavement, environment, greenhouse gas emmissions
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.01.2024; Ogledov: 331; Prenosov: 142
.pdf Celotno besedilo (470,00 KB)
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Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure assessment among active daily commuters to induce behaviour change to reduce air pollution
Anja Ilenič, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Nina Zupančič, Radmila Milačič, Janez Ščančar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a detrimental urban air pollutant primarily emitted by traffic and biomass burning, poses disproportionately significant health risks at relatively limited exposure during commuting. Previous studies have mainly focused on fixed locations when assessing PM2.5 exposure, while neglecting pedestrians and cyclists, who often experience higher pollution levels. In response, this research aimed to independently validate the effectiveness of bicycle-mounted low-cost sensors (LCS) adopted by citizens, evaluate temporal and spatial PM2.5 exposure, and assess associated health risks in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The LCS quality assurance results, verified by co-location field tests by air quality monitoring stations (AQMS), showed comparable outcomes with an average percentage difference of 21.29 %, attributed to humidity-induced nucleation effects. The colder months exhibited the highest air pollution levels (μ = 32.31 μg/m3) due to frequent thermal inversions and weak wind circulation, hindering vertical air mixing and the adequate dispersion of pollutants. Additionally, PM2.5 levels in all sampling periods were lowest in the afternoon (μ = 12.09 μg/m3) and highest during the night (μ = 61.00 μg/m3) when the planetary boundary layer thins, leading to the trapping of pollutants near the surface, thus significantly affecting diurnal and seasonal patterns. Analysis of exposure factors revealed that cyclists were approximately three times more exposed than pedestrians. However, the toxicological risk assessment indicated a minimal potential risk of PM2.5 exposure. The collaborative integration of data from official AQMS and LCS can enhance evidence-based policy-making processes and facilitates the realignment of effective regulatory frameworks to reduce urban air pollution.
Ključne besede: air pollution monitoring, PM2.5 exposure, citizen science, bicycle-mounted low-cost sensors
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.01.2024; Ogledov: 383; Prenosov: 142
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,57 MB)
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Vehicle–bridge interaction modelling using precise 3D road surface analysis
Maja Kreslin, Peter Češarek, Aleš Žnidarič, Darko Kokot, Jan Kalin, Rok Vezočnik, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Uneven road surfaces are the primary source of excitation in the dynamic interaction between a bridge and a vehicle and can lead to errors in bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM) systems. In order to correctly reproduce this interaction in a numerical model of a bridge, it is essential to know the magnitude and location of the various roadway irregularities. This paper presents a methodology for measuring the 3D road surface using static terrestrial laser scanning and a numerical model for simulating vehicle passage over a bridge with a measured road surface. This model allows the evaluation of strain responses in the time domain at any bridge location considering different parameters such as vehicle type, lateral position and speed, road surface unevenness, bridge type, etc. Since the time domain strains are crucial for B-WIM algorithms, the proposed approach facilitates the analysis of the different factors affecting the B-WIM results. The first validation of the proposed methodology was carried out on a real bridge, where extensive measurements were performed using different sensors, including measurements of the road surface, the response of the bridge when crossed by a test vehicle and the dynamic properties of the bridge and vehicle. The comparison between the simulated and measured bridge response marks a promising step towards investigating the influence of unevenness on the results of B-WIM.
Ključne besede: interakcija vozilo in most, terestično lasersko skeniranje, neravnost vozišča, numerično modeliranje
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.01.2024; Ogledov: 441; Prenosov: 159
.pdf Celotno besedilo (12,08 MB)
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Alternative alkali activators based on waste bottle glass and waste cathode-ray tube glass
Katja Koenig, Katja Traven, Vilma Ducman, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Alkali-activated binders are an environmentally friendly alternative to Portland cement, particularly when locally-available raw materials are used. It is well known that alkali activation with a sodium silicate activator generates a hardened binder with higher compressive strength than a binder hardened with sodium hydroxide. As the alkali-silicate activators are produced through energy extensive processes, and their use can significantly increase the carbon footprint of the final products, it is of great significance to develop alternative alkaline activators based on locally-available waste materials. This article assesses the potential to apply waste bottle glass and waste cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass to synthesise alternative alkali activators by the hydrothermal method. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to determine silicon and aluminium content in the alternative activators. The influence of dissolution process parameters (time, temperature, particle size) on the concentrations of silicon and aluminium in the alternative activators was investigated. The alternative activators with silicon concentration up to 19 g/L and aluminium concentration up to 0.9 g/L were prepared at T = 120 °C and boiling time 24 h. The alternative alkali activators and, for comparison, also commercial sodium silicate were used in the alkali activation of fly ash powder. The formed pastes were cured at 70 °C for 72 h. Mechanical strength measurements indicated that alkali activation of fly ash with the optimal alternative activator yielded hardened paste with compressive strength of 33 MPa. However, the compressive strength of hardened paste prepared from fly ash and commercial sodium silicate reached 70 MPa. Part of this difference can be ascribed to the lower density of hardened pastes prepared with alternative activators.
Ključne besede: alkali -activated materials, alternative alkali activators, waste bottle glass, waste cathode -ray tube glass, fly ash, hydrothermal method
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 337; Prenosov: 196
.pdf Celotno besedilo (14,96 MB)
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Temperature pre-treatment of gypsum for powder based 3D printing technology
Vesna Zalar Serjun, Lidija Korat, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: In recent years many researchers have been involved in studies in the field of pre-treatment of various raw materials. Temperature treatment of materials results in several advantages, which have been already recognised and successfully applied in various fields of applications. Where at the same time, the practices has been adopted also in the field of 3D printing. Enhanced strength and stiffness, assuring desirable performance criteria of the 3D printed models, reflect the most important characteristics. 3D printing binder jetting technology is based on the application of liquid binders onto powdered material, where gypsum powders have been commercially used as a base raw material. As natural raw materials can be replaced by other materials, such as recycled industrial by products, the aim of this research work was to evaluate the potential usage of three synthetic gypsum powders from different industrial processes for 3D printing. The investigation covered (a) mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of gypsums from different origin and (b) the effect of pre-treatment of gypsum powders at different temperatures (up to 500 °C). On the basis of the results, the most promising temperature regime for each different waste gypsum powder treatment, reflecting in the most optimal setting time, was defined. Synthetic gypsums were characterized by X-ray diffraction (QXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The results showed that all three synthetic gypsums (calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO 4∙2H2O) thermally degrade into calcium sulfate anhydrite (CaSO 4) via an intermediate calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4∙ ½H2 O, bassanite) phase. Microstructural and mineralogical differences were observed when temperature treated gypsums from different origins were compared. The detailed knowledge of gypsum powder properties at different temperature regime is important parameter for the assurance of 3D printing key parameters such as flowability, roughness and wettability, especially for determination of saturation levels and setting time. After all, these parameters define final mechanical properties of 3D printed structures. By using such approach, the understanding of material compatibility for 3D printing technology can be defined and improved if necessary.
Ključne besede: 3D print, additive manufacturing, gypsum, temperature
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 366; Prenosov: 206
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,29 MB)
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LCA and LCC assessment of UHPFRC application for railway steel bridge strengthening
Irina Stipanović, Sandra Škarić Palić, Aljoša Šajna, Martín-Sanz Henar, Eleni Chatzi, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Most of the existing railway steel bridges are nowadays older than 70 years, experiencing serious aging and overload problems. Therefore they either need to be replaced or strengthened to fulfil the increased requirements. The main idea of strengthening existing steel bridges is considering the possibility of adding load bearing deck above the main girders without replacing them. In this particular case study, the original steel structure of the 9m long railway bridge was dismantled and transported to the laboratory for the experimental assessment and development of the new rehabilitation method. Based on the assessment results, a strengthening slab was designed using Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) formula. In the life cycle analysis, using LCC and LCA models, the comparison of the application of UHPFRC cast in-situ deck is compared to the bridge replacement solution, which was actually selected method by the owner. The executed solution used also a temporary bridge in order to enable continuous traffic, which has caused very high construction costs. In order to compare different options, we have additionally analysed a solution without a temporary bridge, which created three life cycle scenarios. Most important steps during the construction, exploitation and end-of-life stage have been taken into account and integrated into the LCA and LCC models. Finally the environmental, economy and societal impacts of three solutions were compared over the period of 60 years. The rehabilitation option with UHPFRC deck has shown by far the lowest direct and environmental cost while the user delay costs only after the period of 50 years are not the most convenient for users. Superior characteristics of UHPFRC enabled the optimization of the load bearing deck and by that a very low total used quantity of material resulting in minimum direct and indirect costs.
Ključne besede: railway steel bridge, UHPFRC, strengthening, LCA, LCC model
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 292; Prenosov: 191
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,29 MB)
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Experimental carbonation study for durability assessment of novel cementitious materials
Sebastijan Robič, Aljoša Šajna, Lucija Hanžič, Alisa Machner, Marie Helene Bjørndal, Klaartje De Weerdt, Yushan Gu, Benoit Bary, Rosamaria Lample, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: The design process of concrete structures is carried out using standards and guidelines, while the durability predictions of concrete structures is supported only with exposure classes and experience-based requirements. To improve durability predictions of the carbonation resistance of concrete, a numerical model is being developed within the Horizon 2020 project EnDurCrete, coupling the rate of carbonation, and the drying rate. To verify the numerical model, an accelerated carbonation study was carried out. Experiments were conducted on mortars incorporating a novel CEM II/C (S-LL) cement, developed within the EnDurCrete project, and a commercially available reference cementCEM II/A-S. EnDurCrete mortars (EnM) and reference mortars (RefM) were prepared with water-cement ratios of 0.6 and 0.5 (denoted with label extensions -06 and -05). Visual assessments and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to measure the carbonation rates, which were found to be ~1.0 mm day-0.5 in EnM-06 and ~0.6 mm day-0.5 in RefM-06, while in EnM-05 and RefM-05 the values were ~0.7 and ~0.2 mm day-0.5 respectively. Additionally, TGA shows that the initial portlandite (CH) content is ~1.5 wt% in EnM-06 as opposed to ~3.0 wt% in RefM-06. The difference in the initial CH content in the two hydrated binders might explain the difference in their carbonation rate. During the moisture transport experiments a gravimetric method was used to determine mass changes as specimens underwent drying and resaturation with and without CO2 present. The drying led to a decrease in mass, but in the presence of CO2 this mass loss was compensated by the mass gain due to uptake of CO2 during carbonation. The resaturation experiments indicate an increase in the suction porosity in the carbonated samples compared to the non-carbonated samples.
Ključne besede: concrete, absorption of water, carbonation, durability assessment, model verification
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 346; Prenosov: 216
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,29 MB)
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