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Environmental impacts of mixed aggregates for use in unbound layers in road construction
Metka Gostečnik, Predrag Šinik, Ana Mladenovič, Janez Ščančar, Radmila Milačič, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: During carbon steel manufacturing, large amounts of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are generated. EAF slag, if properly treated and processed into aggregate, is an alternative source of high-quality material, which can substitute the use of natural aggregates in most demanding applications in the construction sector, mostly for wearing asphalt courses. In this screening process of high-quality aggregates, a side material with grainsize 0/32 mm is also produced, which can be used as an aggregate for unbound layers in road construction. In this study, the environmental impacts of slag aggregate (fraction 0/32 mm) were evaluated in mixed natural/slag aggregates. Different mixtures of natural/slag aggregates were prepared from aged (28 days) and fresh slag, and their environmental impacts were evaluated using leaching tests. It was shown that among the elements, chromium (Cr) was leached from some mixed aggregates in quantities that exceeded the criterion for inert waste. The data from the present investigation revealed that mixed aggregates, prepared from aged slag (fraction 0/32 mm) and natural stone in the ratio 10/90, are environmentally acceptable and can be safely used in unbound materials for road construction.
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.08.2023; Ogledov: 130; Prenosov: 61
.pdf Celotno besedilo (537,85 KB)
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Stress corrosion crack initiation testing with tapered specimens in high-temperature water - results of a collaborative research project
Rik-Wouter Bosch, Stefan Ritter, Matthias Herbst, Renate Kilian, Grace Burke, Jonathan Duff, Fabio Scenini, Yuchen Gu, Alice Dinu, Ulla Ehrnsten, Aki Toivonen, Radek Novotny, Oliver Martin, Francisco Javier Perosanz, Andraž Legat, Bojan Zajec, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The applicability of an accelerated test technique using tapered tensile specimens for investigating the stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation behaviour of structural materials in high-temperature water was assessed in the framework of a European collaborative research project (MICRIN – MItigation of CRack INitiation). The main advantage of using a tapered geometry is, that in a single test a stress gradient is obtained through the gauge length, and therefore a stress threshold for SCC initiation can be determined in a reasonable timeframe. This method was used to investigate two different materials that were known to be susceptible to SCC in light water reactor environment: a high-Si stainless steel and a Ni-base weld metal (Alloy 182). The results of the international test programme confirmed that the tapered specimen test methodology could be used to identify a SCC initiation stress threshold, albeit that significant scatter was present in the data.
Ključne besede: stress corrosion cracking, surface finish impact, tapered tensile specimen, autoclave, accelerated testing, light water nuclear reactor, critical threshold stress
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.08.2023; Ogledov: 115; Prenosov: 61
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,05 MB)
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Life cycle assessment of prefabricated geopolymeric façade cladding panels made from large fractions of recycled construction and demolition waste
Davor Kvočka, Anja Lešek, Friderik Knez, Vilma Ducman, Matteo Panizza, Constantinos Tsoutis, Adriana Bernardi, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The construction and demolition sector is one of the biggest consumers of natural resources in the world and consequently, one of the biggest waste producers worldwide. The proper management of construction and demolition waste (CDW) can provide major benefits for the construction and recycling industry. However, the recycling rate of CDW is relatively low, as there is still a lack of confidence in the quality of recycled CDW materials. Therefore, new research projects are looking for innovative solutions within recycling of CDW in order to overcome uncertainties currently associated with the use of construction products made from recycled or re-used CDW. In this paper, a “cradle-to-cradle” life cycle assessment (LCA) study has been conducted to investigate the environmental performance of the prefabricated geopolymeric façade cladding panels made from large fractions of CDW. The LCA results indicate that the majority of the environmental burden arises within the manufacturing stage; however, the environmental burden can be reduced with simple optimisation of the manufacturing process. Furthermore, the environmental impact of the prefabricated geopolymeric façade cladding panels is generally lower than the environmental burden associated with the façade cladding panels made from virgin materials.
Ključne besede: construction and demolition waste, alkali activated materials, geopolymers, LCA
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.08.2023; Ogledov: 125; Prenosov: 69
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,03 MB)
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Tribocorrosive study of new and in vivo exposed nickel titanium and stainless steel orthodontic archwires
Tadeja Kosec, Petra Močnik, Uroš Mezeg, Andraž Legat, Maja Ovsenik, Monika Jenko, John T. Grant, Jasmina Primožič, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The surface, corrosion and wear properties of new and in vivo exposed nickel titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) archwires used in orthodontic treatment were investigated. Electrochemical and tribo-electrochemical tests in artificial saliva were performed in order to define corrosion properties and to estimate wear rate of new and in vivo exposed NiTi and SS archwires. The surface chemical analysis of the passive film on the NiTi and SS archwires before and after tribocorrosion tests was performed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). In vivo exposed NiTi and SS archwires had better electrochemical properties than new archwires due to the protective nature of oral deposits. Total wear and coefficients of friction were higher among in vivo exposed archwires and higher in NiTi archwires in comparison to SS archwires. The estimated thickness of the TiO2 passive film on as-received NiTi is 8 nm, while the passive Cr2O3 film on as-received SS is just 1–2 nm. On in vivo exposed NiTi archwire, a 60–80 nm thick organic film/dental plaque was observed, and on SS, it was thinner, at about 60 nm. This research shows the importance of combining AES with electrochemical testing, to characterize tribocorrosive properties of NiTi and SS orthodontic archwires.
Ključne besede: archwires, NiTi, stainless steel, wear
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.08.2023; Ogledov: 122; Prenosov: 56
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,18 MB)
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Characterization of fly ash alkali activated foams obtained using sodium perborate monohydrate as a foaming agent at room and elevated temperatures
Lidija Korat, Vilma Ducman, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali activated foams have been extensively studied in recent years, due to their high performance and low environmental footprint compared to foams produced via other methods. Three types of fly ash differing in chemical and mineralogical composition and specific surface were used to synthesize alkali activated foams. Sodium perborate monohydrate was added as a foaming agent and sodium dodecyl sulphate as a stabilizing agent. Foams were characterized at room temperature and after exposure to an elevated temperature (1,000 °C). Densities from 1.2 down to 0.3 g/cm 3 were obtained, depending on the type of fly ash and quantity of foaming agent added. Correspondingly, compressive strength ranged from 1 to 6 MPa. Comparing all three fly ashes the most favorable results, in terms of density and corresponding compressive strength, were achieved from the fly ash with the highest amounts of SiO 2 and Al2 O 3 , as well as the highest amorphous phase content i.e., RI fly ash. Furthermore, after firing to 1,000 °C, the density of samples prepared using fly ash RI remained approximately the same, while the compressive strength increased on average by 50%. In the other two types of fly ash the density increased slightly after firing, due to significant shrinkage, and compressive strength increased by as much as 800%. X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the occurrence of a crystallization process after firing to 1,000 ° C, which resulted in newly formed crystal phases, including nepheline, sodalite, tridymite, and gehlenite.
Ključne besede: foamed alkali activated materials, geopolymers, properties, micro-CT
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.08.2023; Ogledov: 131; Prenosov: 67
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,94 MB)
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Evaluation of locally available amorphous waste materials as a source for alternative alkali activators
Katja Koenig, Katja Traven, Majda Pavlin, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The production of alkali-activated materials with excellent mechanical performance requires the use of waterglass, which has a significant carbon footprint. Such materials can have a lower carbon footprint if we replace water glass with alternative activators sourced from waste. In this study, we assessed the suitability of locally available amorphous waste materials (stone wool, glass wool, bottle glass and cathode-ray tube glass) as a source for the preparation of alternative alkali activators. We quantified the amount of silicon and aluminium dissolved in the activator solutions via inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The alternative activators were then used to produce alkali-activated fly ash and slag. The compressive strength values of alkali-activated fly ash specimens upon the addition of NaOH, water glass and the most promising alternative activator were 38.98 MPa, 31.34 MPa and 40.37 MPa, respectively. The compressive strength of slag specimens activated with alternative activators with the highest concentration of dissolved silicon (21 g/L) was, however, 70% higher than the compressive strength of slag specimens activated with only 10 M sodium hydroxide. The compressive strength of slag specimens with the addition of the most promising alternative activator was significantly lower (3.5 MPa) than the compressive strength of those that had been activated by commercial water glass (34.3 MPa).
Ključne besede: alkalijsko aktivirani materiali, alternativni aktivatorji, lastnosti, alkali activated materials/geopolimers, alternative activators, properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.08.2023; Ogledov: 104; Prenosov: 87
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,02 MB)
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Corrosion behavior of steel in pore solutions extracted from different blended cements
Miha Hren, Tadeja Kosec, Andraž Legat, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Mortar specimens made from four different types of cement, CEM I, CEM II, CEM III, and CEM IV, were prepared and pore solutions extracted. Three different types of exposure were studied: noncarbonated without chlorides, noncarbonated with chlorides, and carbonated with chlorides. Various electrochemical methods (linear polarization, potentiodynamic polarization measurements) were implemented to characterize the processes of corrosion on steel in these solutions. The type and extent of corrosion products were evaluated by means of various spectroscopic techniques. Specific differences in the type and extent of corrosion damage were determined and compared for each of the extracted pore solutions from the different blended cements. An attempt was made to classify these differences in comparison with the reference cement (CEM I) and in relation to the different types of exposure.
Ključne besede: corrosion, steel in pore water, blended cements, Raman Spectroscopy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.08.2023; Ogledov: 134; Prenosov: 67
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,25 MB)
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Influence of particle size on compressive strength of alkali activated refractory materials
Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Influence of particle size on the mechanical strength of alkali activated material from waste refractory monolithic was investigated in this study. Precursor was chemically and mineralogically analysed, separated on 4 fractions and alkali activated with Na-water glass. Alkali activated materials were thoroughly investigated under SEM and XRD to evaluate the not predicted differences in mechanical strength. Influence of curing temperature and time dependence at curing temperatures on mechanical strength were investigated in the sample prepared from a fraction that caused the highest compressive strength.
Ključne besede: refractory materials, alkali activation, particle size, SEM, XRF, XRD, compressive strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.08.2023; Ogledov: 202; Prenosov: 178
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,36 MB)
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Validation of combinatorial evaluation of strain-gauge amplifier linearity
Miha Hiti, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper describes a validation of a combinatorial calibration technique based calibration procedure for strain-gauge amplifier calibration. The deviation between two strain-gauge amplifiers at calibration using the combinatorial technique is compared to the deviation between the same two amplifiers at calibration on a force calibration machine as a transducer-amplifier chain under unchanged conditions, serving as an amplifier linearity comparator. This enables the validation to be confirmed with a suitable expanded measurement uncertainty of 3 nV/V.
Ključne besede: strain-gauge amplifier, calibration, combinatorial technique, validation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.08.2023; Ogledov: 155; Prenosov: 42
.pdf Celotno besedilo (438,26 KB)
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Monitoring the corrosion of steel in concrete exposed to a marine environment
Nina Gartner, Tadeja Kosec, Andraž Legat, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Reinforced concrete structures require continuous monitoring and maintenance to prevent corrosion of the carbon steel reinforcement. In this work, concrete columns with carbon and stainless steel reinforcements were exposed to a real marine environment. In order to monitor the corrosion processes, two types of corrosion probes were embedded in these columns at different height levels. The results from the monitoring of the probes were compared to the actual corrosion damage in the different exposure zones. Electrical resistance (ER) probes and coupled multi-electrodes (CMEs) were shown to be promising methods for long-term corrosion monitoring in concrete. Correlations between the different exposure zones and the corrosion processes of the steel in the concrete were found. Macrocell corrosion properties and the distribution of the separated anodic/cathodic places on the steel in chloride-contaminated concrete were addressed as two of the key issues for understanding the corrosion mechanisms in such environments. The specific advantages and limitations of the tested measuring techniques for long-term corrosion monitoring were also indicated. The results of the measurements and the corrosion damage evaluation clearly confirmed that the tested stainless steels (AISI 304 and AISI 304L) in a chloride-contaminated environment behave significantly better than ordinary carbon steel, with corrosion rates from 110% to 9500% lower in the most severe (tidal) exposure conditions.
Ključne besede: corrosion in concrete, steel reinforcement, long-term exposure, field exposure, electrical resistance (ER) probes, coupled multi-electrodes
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.08.2023; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 84
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,42 MB)
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