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491.
Challenges and solutions in early detection, rapid response and communication about potential invasive alien species in forests
Jana Kus Veenvliet, Simon Zidar, David Williams, Laura Verbrugge, Elena Tricarico, Jon Sweeney, Craig Shuttleworth, Nikki Robinson, Aleksander Marinšek, Márton Korda, Natalia Kirichenko, Eugenio Gervasini, Massimo Faccoli, Ágnes Csíszár, György Csóka, Erin Bullas-Appleton, Richard O'Hanlon, Maarten De Groot, 2020

Povzetek: Invasive alien species (IAS) are an important threat to forests. One of the best ways to manage potential IAS is through early detection and rapid response (EDRR) strategies. However, when dealing with IAS in forests, EU regulations are divided between phytosanitary regulations and IAS regulations. A version of EDRR for the former has been in place in the EU for more than 15 years while the latter is still in the process of being implemented. During 2019, a workshop was held to gather international experts on different plant health pests and IAS. The purpose of this workshop was to identify the opportunities and difficulties in applying the EDRR system in the EU phytosanitary and IAS legislation to four species for providing suggestions to improve the EDRR system. The model species are well known and come from different trophic levels. These species were the American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis); and the plant health pests Geosmithia morbida and Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). We identified the similarities in the challenges of early detection, rapid response and communication of these species. For all species, difficulties in species identification, knowledge gaps on the pathways of spread, a lack of resources and uncertainty over which national government service was the competent authority were identified as the main challenges. Other challenges like public perception for the grey squirrel or methodological problems were species-specific. Regarding the rapid response: public perception, determination of the eradication area, sufficient scientific capacity and the lack of resources were common challenges for all species. Therefore, collaboration between institutes dealing with plant health pests and IAS can lead to better control of both groups of unwanted %organisms in forests.
Ključne besede: early warning system, plant health legislation, EU IAS legislation, alien species, Geosmithia morbida, Emerald ash borer, American pokeweed, Grey squirrel, rapid response system
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.12.2020; Ogledov: 634; Prenosov: 228
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

492.
Kirurško zdravljenje melanoma
Marko Hočevar, 2013

Povzetek: Kožni melanom je z vidika zdravljenja kirurška bolezen, saj kirurgija predstavlja zelo pomemben način zdravljenja pri vseh stadijih bolezni. Ločimo kirurško zdravljenje primarne lezije, regionalnih, in-transit in oddaljenih zasevkov. Pri primarni leziji ločimo diagnostično in široko (radikalno) ekscizijo. Varnostni rob je pri prvi do 5 mm, pri drugi pa med 1 do 2 cm, odvisno od debeline melanoma. Pri regionalnih zasevkih melanoma govorimo glede na njihovo velikost o klinično okultnih in klinično prepoznavnih zasevkih. Prve ugotovimo s pomočjo biopsije sentinel bezgavke in jih nato zdravimo tako kot klinično prepoznavne zasevke z radikalno limfadenektomijo regionalne bezgavčne lože. In-transit zasevke lahko zdravimo s preprosto ekscizijo ali pa v primerih, ko jih je več in so locirani na ekstremitetah s pomočjo tehnično zahtevnih izolirane ekstremitetne perfuzije ali infuzije. Pri sistemskem razsoju je kirurško zdravljenje vedno prvi izbor zdravljenja, v kolikor je možno zasevke odstraniti v celoti.
Ključne besede: kirurgija, melanom, zdravljenje
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.12.2020; Ogledov: 495; Prenosov: 99
.pdf Celotno besedilo (299,19 KB)

493.
Hepatocelični rak - možnost resekcije jeter
Arpad Ivanecz, Marko Sremec, Tomaž Jagrič, Stojan Potrč, 2014

Povzetek: Resekcija jeter (RJ) je ostala glavna oblika terapije pri solitarnem hepatoceličnem raku (HCC), pri bolnikih z ohranjeno funkcijsko rezervo jeter in v primernem splošnem stanju. Izpopolnjene slikovne preiskave so pripomogle k boljši izbiri bolnikov. Kirurgija jeter je napredovala: uporabne so številne tehnike transekcije jetrnega tkiva; dosegljive so različne naprave, ki omogočajo hitrejše in natančnejše operiranje v brezkrvnem operativnem polju. Izboljšana kirurška tehnika, vzdrževanje nizkega centralnega venskega pritiska in napredek pri negi bolnika po operaciji so omogočili, da se je smrtnost po operaciji jeter v izbranih serijah znižala celo do 0%. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) klasifikacija poleg zamejitve bolezni, nudi priporočila tudi glede izbora terapije. Kirurško terapijo omejuje zgolj na bolnike z zgodnjim stadijem raka. Namen tega prispevka je raziskati, ali je v sedanjem času mogoče RJ opraviti s sprejemljivimi kratko- in dolgoročnimi rezultati tudi pri bolnikih s takšnim HCC, pri katerem so prisotni številni in veliki tumorji, ki makroskopsko vdirajo v žile.
Ključne besede: jetra, hepatocelični rak, resekcija, kirurški postopki, operativni, zapleti, smrtnost, preživetje
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.12.2020; Ogledov: 631; Prenosov: 283
.pdf Celotno besedilo (520,99 KB)
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494.
Varna interoperabilna infrastruktura za pametna mesta
Blaž Ivanc, Dušan Gabrijelčič, Borka Jerman-Blažič, 2015

DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.12.2020; Ogledov: 703; Prenosov: 203
.pdf Celotno besedilo (722,01 KB)

495.
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497.
Težke odločitve pri zdravljenju bolnikov z vensko trombembolijo in rakom
Ana Kovač Bograf, Monika Štalc, Gregor Tratar, Alenka Mavri, 2016

Povzetek: Venska trombembolija (VTE) je pogost zaplet pri bolnikih z rakom. Zdravljenje VTE pri teh bolnikih predstavlja velik izziv, saj je pri bolnikih z rakom dodatno povečano tako tveganje za trombembolične zaplete kot tudi tveganje za krvavitve. Predstavili bomo nekaj kliničnih situacij, s katerimi se v klinični praksi pogosto srečamo in predstavljajo dileme pri antikoagulacijskem zdravljenju bolnikov z VTE ter rakom, in sicer ponovitve VTE kljub zdravljenju, pojav trombocitopenije, tumorje osrednjega živčevja, uporabo filtrov v spodnji votli veni, uporabo novih peroralnih antikoagulacijskih zdravil in pojav naključno odkrite VTE.
Ključne besede: venska trombembolija, rak (medicina), zdravljenje
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.12.2020; Ogledov: 616; Prenosov: 246
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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498.
Uvodnik
Zvonimir Rudolf, 2016

Ključne besede: onkologija, novosti, sistemsko zdravljenje
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.12.2020; Ogledov: 495; Prenosov: 195
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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499.
Mast cell activation test in the diagnosis of allergic disease and anaphylaxis
Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korošec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Mira Šilar, 2018

Povzetek: Background. Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the commonest cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy resulting in over-diagnosis and adverse impact on health-related quality of life. Objective. To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, the mast cell activation test (MAT). Methods. Primary human mast cells (hMCs) were generated from peripheral blood precursors, and sensitized using patient sera and then incubated with allergen. Mast cell degranulation was assessed by flow cytometry and mediator release. We compared the diagnostic performance of MAT to existing diagnostic tools to assess in a cohort of peanut-sensitized individuals undergoing double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge. Results. hMCs sensitized with sera from peanut, grass pollen and hymenoptera- (wasp venom) allergic patients demonstrated allergen-specific and dose-dependent degranulation by both expression of surface activation markers (CD63 and CD107a) and functional assays (prostaglandins D2 and ß-hexosaminidase release). In this cohort of peanut-sensitized individuals, MAT was found to have superior discrimination performance compared to other testing modalities including component-resolved diagnostics and basophil activation test. Using functional principle component analysis, we identified 5 clusters or patterns of reactivity in the resulting dose-response curves, which at preliminary analysis corresponded to the reaction phenotypes seen at challenge. Conclusion. MAT is a robust tool which may confer superior diagnostic performance compared to existing allergy diagnostics, and may be useful to explore differences in effector cell function between basophils and mast cells during allergic reactions.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, anaphylaxis, immunologic tests, mast cells, food hypersensitivity, basophil activation test, BAT, mast cell activation test
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 30.11.2020; Ogledov: 758; Prenosov: 373
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,30 MB)

500.
Comparison of European ICU patients in 2012 (ICON) versus 2002 (SOAP)
Jean Louis Vincent, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Katarzyna Kotfis, Rahul Nanchal, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Xavier Wittebole, Samir G. Sakka, Peter Pickkers, Rui P. Moreno, Yasser Sakr, 2018

Povzetek: Purpose: To evaluate differences in the characteristics and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients over time. Methods: We reviewed all epidemiological data, including comorbidities, types and severity of organ failure, interventions, lengths of stay and outcome, for patients from the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) study, an observational study conducted in European intensive care units in 2002, and the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit, a survey of intensive care unit patients conducted in 2012. Results: We compared the 3147 patients from the SOAP study with the 4852 patients from the ICON audit admitted to intensive care units in the same countries as those in the SOAP study. The ICON patients were older (62.5 +/- 17.0 vs. 60.6 +/- 17.4 years) and had higher severity scores than the SOAP patients. The proportion of patients with sepsis at any time during the intensive care unit stay was slightly higher in the ICON study (31.9 vs. 29.6%, p = 0.03). In multilevel analysis, the adjusted odds of ICU mortality were significantly lower for ICON patients than for SOAP patients, particularly in patients with sepsis [OR 0.45 (0.35-0.59), p < 0.001]. Conclusions: Over the 10-year period between 2002 and 2012, the proportion of patients with sepsis admitted to European ICUs remained relatively stable, but the severity of disease increased. In multilevel analysis, the odds of ICU mortality were lower in our 2012 cohort compared to our 2002 cohort, particularly in patients with sepsis.
Ključne besede: intensive care units -- analysis -- epidemiology -- mortality, sepsis, severity of disease
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 30.11.2020; Ogledov: 731; Prenosov: 401
.pdf Celotno besedilo (867,51 KB)

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