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Attic dust: an archive of historical air contamination of the urban environment and potential hazard to health?
Martin Gaberšek, Michael J. Watts, Mateja Gosar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: A comprehensive study of attic dust in an urban area is presented. Its entire life cycle, from determining historical emission sources to recognising the processes that take place in attic dust and its potential to impact human health is discussed. Its chemical composition and morphological characteristics of individual solid particles reflect past anthropogenic activities. High levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sb-Sn-Pb-Te-Zn and occurrence of Cu-Zn shavings are typical for an industrial zone characterised by a foundry and a battery factory. High levels of Co-Fe-Mo-Ni-W-Ba-Cr-Mg-Mn-Nb-Ti and occurrence of various solid Fe-oxides, particularly spherical particles, were identified in another industrial zone, which was dominated by the automotive and metal-processing industries. Emissions from coal combustion affected the distribution of S-Se-Hg-Tl-As-Ag-U. The predominant mineral in attic dust is gypsum, which was presumably formed in situ by the reaction of carbonate dust particles and atmospheric SO2 gas. The high oral bioaccessibility of As-Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn in the gastric phase and high bioaccessibility of As-Cu-Cd-Ni in the gastrointestinal phase were identified. Determined characteristics of attic dust and identified possibilities of prolonged human exposure to it indicate that attic dust should be treated as an excellent proxy for historical air contamination as well as a potentially hazardous material for human health.
Ključne besede: multi-element composition, scanning electron microscopy, oral bioaccessibility, unified BARGE method, urban geochemistry
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.06.2022; Ogledov: 95; Prenosov: 52
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,39 MB)

Assessment of natural zeolite clinoptilolite for remediation of mercury-contaminated environment
Ivona Nuić, Mateja Gosar, Marin Ugrina, Marina Trgo, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The soil at ancient roasting sites in the surroundings of the Idrija mine (Slovenia) is highly contaminated with mercury. To assess the impact of mercury on groundwater by infiltration and find an eco-friendly remediation method, the leaching of mercury from the soil containing 1347 mg Hg/kg, followed by sorption of the total leached mercury on cost-effective natural zeolite (NZ) clinoptilolite, was performed. The leaching of soil in ultrapure water of pHo = 3.00–11.46 after 24 h resulted in the total leached mercury concentration in the range 0.33–17.43 µg/L. Much higher concentrations (136.9–488.0 µg/L) were determined after the first few hours of leaching and were high above the maximum permissible level in water for human consumption. The NZ showed very good sorption of the total leached mercury, with a maximum removal efficiency of 94.2%. The leaching of mercury in presence of the NZ resulted in a significant decrease of the total leached mercury (1.9–20.3 µg/L compared to 12.8–42.2 µg/L), with removal efficiencies up to 90.5%, indicating immobilization of mercury species. The NZ has a great potential for economically viable remediation of mercury-contaminated environment. However, efforts should be made in the further study of mercury leachability to reduce the mercury concentration in water to acceptable levels.
Ključne besede: Idrija mine, mercury-contaminated soil and water, leaching, natural zeolite clinoptilolite, remediation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.06.2022; Ogledov: 97; Prenosov: 44
.pdf Celotno besedilo (54,30 MB)

Mercury in the unconfined aquifer of the Isonzo/Soča River alluvial plain downstream from the Idrija mining area
Andrea Cerovac, Stefano Covelli, Andrea Emili, Elena Pavoni, Elisa Petranich, Asta Gregorič, Janko Urbanc, Enrico Zavagno, Luca Zini, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This work aims at evaluating mercury (Hg) occurrence, spatial distribution and speciation in groundwater of the Isonzo/Soča River upper alluvial plain downstream from the Idrija Hg mine (Western Slovenia). Several wells and piezometers were sampled both in static and dynamic mode. On the basis of hydrochemistry and isotopic composition, the main sources of groundwater were established. Hg concentrations in the Slovenian sector, supplied by local rainfall, are comparable to values measured close to the Isonzo River. Possible further Hg local sources have been suggested. Stability field analysis for the aqueous Hg species revealed that in the presence of chloride Hg solubility may be increased by the formation of chlorocomplexes. Mercury that rarely enters reduced surrounding conditions can be bound to sulphur to form polysulphide species depending on the pH of water. Since Hg-contaminated alluvial sediments of the Isonzo River may act as a secondary Hg source in groundwater, a borehole was dug down to the water table. Mercury content and speciation revealed that cinnabar (HgS) is the prevalent form followed by the matrix-bound Hg (Hgbound). Variations of the physico-chemical boundary conditions, as well as the raising/lowering of the water table, may be locally responsible for the slight variability of Hg concentrations in the aquifer.
Ključne besede: aquifers, groundwater, mercury
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.06.2022; Ogledov: 79; Prenosov: 51
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Control of organic contaminants in groundwater by passive sampling and multivariate statistical analysis
Anja Koroša, Nina Mali, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Organic contaminants in groundwater are among the most challenging chemical compound contaminants today, particularly when it comes to understanding their occurrence, origin, and relations in groundwater, as well as the transport processes, fate, and environmental impacts involved. This paper presents the use of active carbon fibre (AFC) passive sampling and multivariate statistical processing of the results to predict the possible occurrence of organic compounds (OCs) in groundwater and to determine the origin of various anthropogenic activity. This study aims to deepen our knowledge on the control of OCs in groundwater by introducing a multi-analytical and multielemental holistic approach, using the Dravsko polje aquifer, the largest intergranular aquifer in Slovenia, as an example.
Ključne besede: compounds of concern, groundwater contaminants, organic compounds, passive sampling
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.06.2022; Ogledov: 117; Prenosov: 47
.pdf Celotno besedilo (11,61 MB)

Impact of motor-cognitive interventions on selected gait and balance outcomes in older adults : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Kaja Teraž, Luka Šlosar, Armin Paravlić, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background: Efficient performance of most daily activities requires intact and simultaneous execution of motor and cognitive tasks. To mitigate age-related functional decline, various combinations of motor and cognitive training have shown promising results. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy of different types of motor-cognitive training interventions (e.g., sequential and simultaneous) on selected functional outcomes in healthy older adults. Methods: Six online academic databases were used to retrieve eligible RCTs up to April 2021, following PRISMA guidelines and PICO criteria. A random-effects model was used for all meta-analyses conducted on selected functional outcomes: single- and dual-task gait speed, the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score. Effect size (ES) was calculated as Hedges' g and interpreted as: trivial: <0.20, small: 0.20–0.60, moderate: 0.61–1.20, large: 1.21–2.00, very large: 2.01–4.00 or extremely large >4.00. Results: From 2,546 retrieved records, 91 RCTs were included for meta-analysis (n = 3,745 participants; 64.7–86.9 years). The motor-cognitive interventions included differed according to the type of training (e.g., sequential, simultaneous with additional cognitive task or exergame training. The results showed that motor-cognitive interventions can improve gait speed under single-task conditions (small ES = 0.34, P = 0.003). The effect of the intervention was moderated by the type of control group (Q = 6.203, P = 0.013): passive (moderate ES = 0.941, P = 0.001) vs. active controls (trivial ES = 0.153, P = 0.180). No significant effect was found for dual-task walking outcomes (P = 0.063). Motor-cognitive intervention had a positive effect on TUG (small ES = 0.42, P < 0.001), where the effect of intervention was moderated by control group [passive (moderate ES = 0.73, P = 0.001) vs. active (small ES = 0.20, P = 0.020)], but not by the type of training (P = 0.064). Finally, BBS scores were positively affected by motor-cognitive interventions (small ES = 0.59, P < 0.001) with however no significant differences between type of control group (P = 0.529) or intervention modality (P = 0.585). Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of various types of motor-cognitive interventions on performance-based measures of functional mobility in healthy older adults. With respect to significant effects, gait speed under single-task condition was improved by motor-cognitive interventions, but the evidence shows that this type of intervention is not necessarily more beneficial than motor training alone. On the other hand, motor-cognitive interventions are better at improving multicomponent tasks of dynamic balance and mobility function, as measured by the TUG. Because of substantial heterogeneity and the current limited availability of different types of interventions, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution.
Ključne besede: motor-cognitive interventions, dual-task, elderly, mobility, postural control
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.06.2022; Ogledov: 61; Prenosov: 65
.pdf Celotno besedilo (402,79 KB)
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Brain dynamics underlying preserved cycling ability in patients with Parkinson’s disease and freezing of gait
Teja Ličen, Martin Rakuša, Nicolaas I. Bohnen, Paolo Manganotti, Uroš Marušič, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is generally associated with abnormally increased beta band oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia loop during walking. PD patients with freezing of gait (FOG) exhibit a more distinct, prolonged narrow band of beta oscillations that are locked to the initiation of movement at ∼18 Hz. Upon initiation of cycling movements, this oscillation has been reported to be weaker and rather brief in duration. Due to the suppression of the overall beta band power during cycling and its continuous nature of the movement, cycling is considered to be less demanding for cortical networks compared to walking, including reduced need for sensorimotor processing, and thus unimpaired continuous cycling motion. Furthermore, cycling has been considered one of the most efficient non-pharmacological therapies with an influence on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) beta rhythms implicative of the deep brain stimulation effects. In the current review, we provide an overview of the currently available studies and discuss the underlying mechanism of preserved cycling ability in relation to the FOG in PD patients. The mechanisms are presented in detail using a graphical scheme comparing cortical oscillations during walking and cycling in PD.
Ključne besede: gait, freezing of gait, Parkinson's disease, cycling, cortical oscillations, beta band
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.06.2022; Ogledov: 83; Prenosov: 91
.pdf Celotno besedilo (469,86 KB)
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