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Atmosphere–cryosphere interactions during the last phase of the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) in the European Alps
Costanza Del Gobbo, Renato R. Colucci, Giovanni Monegato, Manja Žebre, Filippo Giorgi, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Evidence that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glaciers extended well into the piedmont plains is still identifiable in the alpine foreland as a system of well-preserved moraines. Glaciers are strongly controlled by temperature and precipitation, and therefore, they are excellent indicators of climate change. Here, we use a regional climate model (RCM) to investigate some of the physical processes sustaining Alpine glaciers during the last phase of the LGM during Greenland Stadial 2 at 21 ka. We find a predominance of convection during summer and increased southwesterly stratiform precipitation over the southern Alps when compared to pre-industrial (PI) conditions. This precipitation pattern, along with lower temperatures, determined summer snowfall extending to low elevations, with a consequent substantial drop of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), which is consistent with the estimated LGM glacier extent. Our RCM-based estimates of 21 ka ELA at the LGM yield excellent consistency with Alpine ELA reconstructions, further demonstrating the great potential of this technique for use in palaeoclimate studies.
Keywords: Quaternary, ice age, atmosphere, glaciers, climate change, the Alps
Published in DiRROS: 19.09.2023; Views: 167; Downloads: 61
.pdf Full text (10,56 MB)

Impact of Open-Loop Systems on Groundwater Temperature in NE Slovenia
Simona Adrinek, Mitja Janža, Mihael Brenčič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: To achieve sustainable and efficient use of shallow geothermal resources, it is important to understand the heat transfer in the subsurface of the planned geothermal system. In the City Municipality of Murska Sobota, NE Slovenia, the use of geothermal open-loop systems has increased in recent years. Their high spatial density raises the question of possible mutual interference between the systems. By compiling geological, hydrogeological, and thermal data, obtained from the monitoring network, fieldwork, and knowledge of regional hydrogeological conditions, we have developed a transient groundwater flow and heat transfer model to evaluate the impact of the open-loop systems on the subsurface and surrounding systems. The transient simulation showed that the thermal state in the observed area is restored over the summer, when the systems are not in operation. Also, the systems do not have significant mutual interference that would affect their efficiency. However, as interest in installing new systems in the area increases, simulations of the thermal plumes of new geothermal systems are needed to ensure sustainable and efficient use of shallow geothermal energy in the future.
Keywords: geothermal energy, open-loop system, groundwater heat pump, intergranular aquifer, numerical modelling, thermal plume
Published in DiRROS: 19.09.2023; Views: 164; Downloads: 51
.pdf Full text (36,17 MB)

Underwater measurements with UX robots; a new and available tool developed by UNEXUP
Norbert Zajzon, Boglárka Anna Topa, Richárd Zoltán Papp, Jussi Aaltonen, José Miguel Almeida, Carlos Almeida, Alfredo Martins, Balázs Bodó, Stephen Henley, Márcio Tameirão Pinto, Gorazd Žibret, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The UNEXMIN (Horizon 2020) and UNEXUP (EIT RawMaterials) projects developed a novel technology to send robots and even autonomously deliver optical images, 3D maps and other georeferenced scientific data from flooded underground environments, like abandoned mines, caves or wells. The concept turned into a market ready solution in seven years, where the last few years of field trials of the development beautifully demonstrating the technology's premier capabilities. Here in this paper, we focus on the wide variety of environments, circumstances and measurements where the UNEXMIN technology can be the best solution or the only solution to deliver certain research or engineering data. These are obtained from both simple and complex environments like different mines and caves, small and large cavities, long and tight tunnels and shafts, different visibility conditions, even different densities of the liquid medium where UX robots operated.
Keywords: autonomous robot, underwater measurements, UNEXUP project
Published in DiRROS: 07.09.2023; Views: 168; Downloads: 68
.pdf Full text (8,86 MB)

Pseudofurnishius (Conodonta) from the Triassic Drežnica section, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek, Carlos Martínez Pérez, Hazim Hrvatović, Dunja Aljinović, Špela Goričan, Ferid Skopljak, Bogdan Jurkovšek, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Triassic strata in the Drežnica section, Bosnia and Herzegovina have been examined biostratigraphically. The limestone and dolostone strata were deposited in deep pelagic environment. The conodont faunas are marked by prevailing elements of the genus Pseudofurnishius including clusters that enabled to distinguish the huddlei (lower Longobardian) and murcianus (upper Longobardian–?Cordevolian) Zones, the later fauna is characterized by the presence of Budurovignathus with rare representation of Gladigondolella and Paragondolella. This is the first report on recovery of Pseudofurnishius in the region.
Keywords: Ladinian–?Carnian, conodonts, Pseudofurnishius, Budurovignathus, paleogeography, Dinarides
Published in DiRROS: 06.09.2023; Views: 145; Downloads: 70
.pdf Full text (7,77 MB)

Quality-assurance of heat-flow data: the new structure and evaluation scheme of the IHFC Global Heat Flow Database
Sven Fuchs, Ben Norden, Florian Neumann, Norbert Kaul, Akiko Tanaka, Ilmo T. Kukkonen, Christophe Pascal, Rodolfo Christiansen, Gianluca Gola, Dušan Rajver, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Since 1963, the International Heat Flow Commission has been fostering the compilation of the Global Heat Flow Database to provide reliable heat-flow data. Over time, techniques and methodologies evolved, calling for a reorganization of the database structure and for a reassessment of stored heat-flow data. Here, we provide the results of a collaborative, community-driven approach to set-up a new, quality-approved global heat-flow database. We present background information on how heat-flow is determined and how this important thermal parameter could be systematically evaluated. The latter requires appropriate documentation of metadata to allow the application of a consistent evaluation scheme. The knowledge of basic data (name and coordinates of the site, depth range of temperature measurements, etc.), details on temperature and thermal-conductivity data and possible perturbing effects need to be given. The proposed heat-flow quality evaluation scheme can discriminate between different quality aspects affecting heat flow: numerical uncertainties, methodological uncertainties, and environmental effects. The resulting quality codes allow the evaluation of every stored heat-flow data entry. If mandatory basic data are missing, the entry is marked accordingly. In cases where more than one heat-flow determination is presented for one specific site, and all of them are considered for the site, the poorest evaluation score is inherited to the site level. The required data and the proposed scheme are presented in this paper. Due to the requirements of the newly developed evaluation scheme, the database structure as presented in 2021 has been updated and is available in the appendix of this paper. The new quality scheme will allow a comprehensible evaluation of the stored heat-flow data for the first time.
Keywords: heat-flow density, quality scheme, thermal geophysics, global heat flow database (GHFD), thermal parameter, data information system, International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC)
Published in DiRROS: 09.08.2023; Views: 183; Downloads: 72
.pdf Full text (4,78 MB)

Upper Miocene ostracods from the Krško Basin, SE Slovenia
Miha Marinšek, Valentina Hajek-Tadesse, Marijan Poljak, Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek, Luka Gale, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the ostracod assemblage from a 43 m thick section of the Bizeljsko Formation, which constitutes the middle part of the Upper Miocene Posavje Group. The succession comprises sandstone, siltstone, and marlstone, deposited in a delta front environment. The determined ostracods belong to the families Cyprididae, Cytheridae, Darwinulidae, and Loxoconchidae. In total, 30 species were identified. Additionally, 8 morphotypes were determined at the genus level. The most common genera are Candona, Hemicytheria, and Cyprideis. The assemblage belongs to the Caspiocypris labiata subzone from the upper Pannonian. The ostracod assemblage from the Krško Basin is similar in species composition to Pannonian ostracod assemblages from Croatia and Serbia.
Keywords: Lake Pannon, Bizeljsko Formation, Pannonian, biostratigraphy, palaeoenvironment
Published in DiRROS: 27.07.2023; Views: 164; Downloads: 106
.pdf Full text (8,96 MB)

Distribution of chemical elements in surface waters from the Strumica River Basin, North Macedonia
Katerina Trajanova, Robert Šajn, Trajče Stafilov, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: In this work, the distribution of chemical elements in samples of surface water from the Strumica River Basin, North Macedonia, was studied. The water samples were collected from a total of twelve sites. In addition to the Strumica River, samples were collected from its tributaries: Bansko, Dabile, Turija, Vodoča, Radoviška, and Injevska. The determination of the concentration of 21 elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) was performed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). All detailed information on the studied items was statistically processed using Stat Soft, 11.0 software. Using the obtained data on the concentration of the studied elements, descriptive statistical analysis of the values ​​for the concentration of the elements was performed. A map of spatial distribution was obtained for each element. The obtained results show that the concentrations of the studied elements in the surface water samples are relatively low and the distribution of most of the elements follows the lithology of the study area.
Keywords: rivers, surface water, heavy metals, Strumica River Basin, North Macedonia
Published in DiRROS: 20.07.2023; Views: 208; Downloads: 64
.pdf Full text (2,11 MB)

Integrating geological data in Europe to foster multidisciplinary research
Marc Urvois, Sylvain Grellet, Henning Lorenz, Rainer Haener, Christelle Loiselet, Matthew Harrison, Matija Krivic, Christian Brogaard Pedersen, Marianne B. Wiese, Amelia Baptie, Martin Nayembil, James Trench, Ivor Marsh, Carlo Cipolloni, Chiara d'Ambrogi, Maria Pia Congi, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents novel data discovery and integration, facilitated using borehole logging information with on-demand web services to produce 3D geological structures. This domain interoperability across EPOS was created for the purpose of research, but it is also highly relevant for the response to societal grand challenges such as natural hazards and climate change. European and international interoperability implementation frameworks are well described and used (e.g., INSPIRE, ISO, OGC, and IUGS/CGI). It can be difficult for data providers to deploy web services that support the full semantic data definition (e.g., OGC Complex Feature) to expose several millions of geological entities through web-enabled data portals as required by pan-European projects.
Keywords: EPOS, geological information, borehole, FAIR, linked data
Published in DiRROS: 19.07.2023; Views: 197; Downloads: 67
.pdf Full text (1,98 MB)

Neogene block rotation inside the dextral fault zone at the Adriatic-European collision zone: reexamination of existing results
Lea Žibret, Gorazd Žibret, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The study focused on the post-Middle-Miocene stress analysis within the dextral strike-slip zone of the Dinaric fault system in the collision zone between the European plate, the Adria microplate and the Pannonian Domain. Block rotations were studied by re-examination of available paleostress data and their spatial distribution. The results are in agreement with the existing block model of the area, indicating CCW rotations within blocks between the main strike-slip faults in which rotation angle increases from W to E. The improved kinematic model, which is proposed in this study, will contribute to the knowledge on the kinematics within the complex collision zones and improve the seismic hazard models.
Keywords: collision zone, NW External Dinarides, Southern Alps, paleostress tensor, strike-slip zone, block rotation
Published in DiRROS: 06.07.2023; Views: 204; Downloads: 100
.pdf Full text (8,47 MB)

Evasion of gaseous elemental mercury from forest and urban soils contaminated by historical and modern ore roasting processes (Idrija, Slovenia)
Federico Floreani, Elena Pavoni, Mateja Gosar, Stefano Covelli, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Considerable amounts of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) can be released into the atmosphere from Hg-enriched substrates, such as those from former mining areas, posing a potential environmental threat. In this work, Hg0 fluxes at the soil–air interface under natural vegetation covers were measured in various locations within the Idrija Hg mining area (Slovenia) and its surroundings. Sites were selected in order to compare Hg0 fluxes from both forest soils heavily impacted by historical ore roasting and urban soils characterised by a different degree of Hg enrichment due to the natural occurrence of Hg in rocks or recent mining and roasting processes. Replicate measurements at each site were conducted using a non-steady state flux chamber coupled with a real-time Hg0 analyser (Lumex RA-915M). Moreover, topsoil samples (0–2 cm) were analysed for Hg total concentration and speciation. Cinnabar was the predominant Hg form in almost all the sites. Despite Hg0 being undetectable in soils using thermo-desorption, substantial emissions were observed (70.7–701.8 ng m−2 h−1). Urban soils in a naturally enriched area showed on average the highest Hg0 fluxes, whereas relatively low emissions were found at the historical roasting site, which is currently forested, despite the significantly high total Hg content in soils (up to 219.0 and 10,400 mg kg−1, respectively). Overall, our findings confirm that shading by trees or litter may effectively limit the amount of Hg0 released into the atmosphere even from extremely enriched soils, thus acting as a natural mitigation.
Keywords: legacy soil contamination, Hg mining, gaseous Hg fluxes, flux chamber, ore roasting, Hg speciation
Published in DiRROS: 30.06.2023; Views: 249; Downloads: 65
.pdf Full text (3,86 MB)

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