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1.
Analysis of the geological control on the spatial distribution of potentially toxic concentrations of As and F- in groundwater on a Pan-European scale
Elena Giménez-Forcada, Juan Antonio Luque-Espinar, María Teresa López-Bahut, Juan Grima-Olmedo, Jorge Jiménez-Sánchez, Carlos Ontiveros-Beltranena, José Angel Díaz-Muñoz, Daniel Elster, Ferid Skopljak, Denitza D. Voutchkova, Birgitte Hansen, Klaus Hinsby, Jörg Schullehner, Eline Malcuit, Laurence Gourcy, Teodóra Szőcs, Nóra Gál, Daði Þorbjörnsson, Katie Tedd, Dāvis Borozdins, Henry Debattista, Nina Rman, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The distribution of the high concentrations of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F-) in groundwater on a Pan-European scale could be explained by the geological European context (lithology and structural faults). To test this hypothesis, seventeen countries and eighteen geological survey organizations (GSOs) have participated in the dataset. The methodology has used the HydroGeoToxicity (HGT) and the Baseline Concentration (BLC) index. The results prove that most of the waters considered in this study are in good conditions for drinking water consumption, in terms of As and/or F- content. A low proportion of the analysed samples present HGT≥ 1 levels (4% and 7% for As and F-, respectively). The spatial distribution of the highest As and/or F- concentrations (via BLC values) has been analysed using GIS tools. The highest values are identified associated with fissured hard rock outcrops (crystalline rocks) or Cenozoic sedimentary zones, where basement fractures seems to have an obvious control on the distribution of maximum concentrations of these elements in groundwaters.
Keywords: trace elements, arsenic fluoride, groundwater, geo-hydrochemistry, spatial analysis
Published in DiRROS: 30.01.2023; Views: 11; Downloads: 6
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2.
Landslide monitoring techniques in the Geological Surveys of Europe
Mateja Jemec Auflič, Gerardo Herrera, Rosa María Mateos, Eleftheria Poyiadji, Lídia Quental, Bernardie Severine, Tina Peternel, Laszlo Podolszki, Stefano Calcaterra, Arben Kociu, Bartłomiej Warmuz, Jan Jelének, Kleopas Hadjicharalambous, Gustaf Peterson Becher, Claire Dashwood, Peter Ondrus, Vytautas Minkevičius, Saša Todorović, Jens Jørgen Møller, Jordi Marturia, 2023, review article

Abstract: Landslide monitoring is a mandatory step in landslide risk assessment. It requires collecting data on landslide conditions (e.g., areal extent, landslide kinematics, surface topography, hydrogeometeorological parameters, and failure surfaces) from different time periods and at different scales, from site-specific to local, regional, and national, to assess landslide activity. In this analysis, we collected information on landslide monitoring techniques from 17 members of the Earth Observation and Geohazards Expert Group (from EuroGeoSurveys) deployed between 2005 and 2021. We examined the types of the 75 recorded landslides, the landslide techniques, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, status of the technique (operational, non-operational), time of using (before the event, during the event, after the event), and the applicability of the technique in early warning systems. The research does not indicate the accuracy of each technique but, rather, the extent to which Geological Surveys conduct landslide monitoring and the predominant techniques used. Among the types of landslides, earth slides predominate and are mostly monitored by geological and engineering geological mapping. The results showed that Geological Surveys mostly utilized more traditional monitoring techniques since they have a broad mandate to collect geological data. In addition, this paper provides new insights into the role of the Geological Surveys on landslide monitoring in Europe and contributes to landslide risk reduction initiatives and commitments (e.g., the Kyoto Landslide Commitment 2020).
Keywords: landslide, monitoring techniques, geological data, Geological Surveys of Europe
Published in DiRROS: 30.01.2023; Views: 11; Downloads: 3
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3.
Depositional environment of the Middle Triassic Strelovec Formation on Mt. Raduha, Kamnik-Savinja Alps, northern Slovenia
Primož Miklavc, Bogomir Celarc, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The Raduha section represents a continuation of the research of the Anisian Strelovec Formation in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. The Strelovec Formation was deposited during the Anisian on a drowned section of the Serla Dolomite carbonate platform in a restricted probably outer ramp environment associated with an intraplatform basin. The base of the section is represented by dolostone breccia containing angular carbonate lithoclasts of shallow-marine origin. This is followed by alternations of laminated and homogenous hemipelagic limestones deposited in a restricted and anoxic environment. Hemipelagic sedimentation was occasionally interrupted by clay input and deposition of sediments from gravity mass flows. Slow filling of the basin lead to a gradual cessation of anoxic conditions and sedimentation of bedded shallow-marine limestones. After shallow water conditions were established, bioclastic dolostone of the Contrin Formation was deposited.
Keywords: Southern Alps, bituminous limestones, restricted basin, intraformational breccia, Anisian, facies analysis
Published in DiRROS: 18.01.2023; Views: 222; Downloads: 26
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4.
Statistical approach to interpretation of geochemical data of stream sediment in Pleše mining area
Simona Jarc, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The Ba, Pb and Zn ore deposit Pleše near Ljubljana is one of the formerly productive mines. The stream sediments were sampled and analysed by XRF to establish the effect of grain size, mineralization, and downstream location of sampling sites on geochemical composition based on various statistical analyses. Statistical analyses of the geochemical data confirm the impact of mineralization. The parametric t-test, non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and cluster analysis showed only minor differences in the geochemical composition of the samples with different grain sizes (< 0.063 mm and 0.063-2 mm). The parametric and non-parametric correlation coefficients as well as cluster analysis indicate that the contents of Si, Al, K, Rb, and Fe are associated with weathered rock forming minerals such as micas, and clay minerals, whereas Nb and Zr are associated with minerals resistant to weathering. Ca and Mg are associated with carbonates. S, Ba, Sr, Pb, Zn, and Mn indicate local mineralization with sulphates and sulphides. The results of the t-test and analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney tests and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA of the groups established by the cluster analysis confirm that the contents of Ba, Pb and Sr have a statistically significant influence on the classification of the cluster group - i.e., the influence of sediment mineralization. There are no differences in elemental contents in the sediment samples downstream. The statistical approach to evaluate the geochemical data has proven useful and provides a good basis for further interpretation.
Keywords: ANOVA, t-test, correlation, cluster analysis, XRF, mineralization
Published in DiRROS: 18.01.2023; Views: 45; Downloads: 27
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5.
Lower Permian (Artinskian) chondrichthyan tooth remains (Petalodontidae) from Dovje (Karavanke Mts., NW Slovenia)
Matija Križnar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Fossil remains of chondrichthyan tooth bases (roots) were found in Lower Permian beds exposed along the forest road between Dovje and Plavški Rovt. These layers are part of the clastic development of the Trogkofel Group beds. They are composed of an alternation of dark to light-grey shales, siltstone, and sandstone with rare beds of the conglomerate. Within the clastic succession, layers or lenses of dark-grey to black limestones (biosparitic, biomicritic and oolitic) and limestone breccias occur. The limestone consists remains of algae, fusulinids, brachiopods, and mostly crinoids (Palermocrinus and Entrochus). Detail study has shown that two remains of tooth bases belong to the genus Petalodus, one of them to the species Petalodus ohioensis. The bases are tongue-shaped and come to a rounded point in the distal (base end) edge. On the surface of the base, the typical oval-shaped foramina are visible. In addition, the osteodentine is visible on the cross-section of one specimen. Teeth of Petalodus are often the most common chondrichthyan fossil vertebrate remains reported from the Carboniferous and Permian rocks of the USA, Europe, and Russia. In Slovenia, Petalodus ohioensishas been recorded only from Upper Carboniferous beds. The new record of Lower Permian remains contributes to the knowledge of this cosmopolitan but still common genus of Late Paleozoic chondrichthyans.
Keywords: fossils, Petalodontiformes, Petalodus ohioensis, Upper Paleozoic, Artinskian, Karavanke Mountains, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 18.01.2023; Views: 63; Downloads: 25
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6.
Prediction of the peak shear strength of the rock joints with artificial neural networks
Karmen Fifer Bizjak, Rok Vezočnik, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: With the development of computer technology, artificial neural networks are becoming increasingly useful in the field of engineering geology and geotechnics. With artificial neural networks, the geomechanical properties of rocks or their behaviour could be predicted under different stress conditions. Slope failures or underground excavations in rocks mostly occurred through joints, which are essential for the stability of geotechnical structures. This is why the peak shear strength of a rock joint is the most important parameter for a rock mass stability. Testing of the shear characteristics of joints is often time consuming and suitable specimens for testing are difficult to obtain during the research phase. The roughness of the joint surface, tensile strength and vertical load have a great influence on the peak shear strength of the rock joint. In the presented paper, the surface roughness of joints was measured with a photogrammetric scanner, and the peak shear strength was determined by the Robertson direct shear test. Based on six input characteristics of the rock joints, the artificial neural network, using a backpropagation learning algorithm, successfully learned to predict the peak shear strength of the rock joint. The trained artificial neural network predicted the peak shear strength for similar lithological and geological conditions with average estimation error of 6%. The results of the calculation with artificial neural networks were compared with the Grasselli experimental model, which showed a higher error in comparison with the artificial neural network model.
Keywords: artificial neural network, camera-type 3D scanner, rock mechanics, rock joint, joint roughness
Published in DiRROS: 18.01.2023; Views: 45; Downloads: 32
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7.
A glimpse of the lost Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic architecture of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform margin and slope
Boštjan Rožič, Luka Gale, Primož Oprčkal, Astrid Švara, Tomislav Popit, Lara Kunst, Dragica Turnšek, Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek, Andrej Šmuc, Aljaž Iveković, Jan Udovč, David Gerčar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: In the southernmost outcrops of the Slovenian Basin the Middle Jurassic coarse-grained limestone breccia (mega)beds are interstratifiedwithin a succession that is otherwise dominated by hemipelagites and distal turbidites. In this paper, these beds are described as the Ponikve Breccia Member of the Tolmin Formation. We provide descriptions of the studied sections with detailed geological maps and analysis of the breccia lithoclasts. Fro m the latter, a non-outcropping margin of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform is reconstructed. In the Late Triassic the platform margin was characterized by a Dachstein-type marginal reef. After the end-Triassic extinction event, the platform architecture remained, but the reefs were replaced by sand shoals characterized by ooids. In the late Early Jurassic and/or early Middle Jurassic a slope area might have been dissected by normal faults and a step-like paleotopography was formed. In the Bajocian, during a period of major regional geodynamic perturbations, extensional or transtensional tectonic activity intensified and triggered the large-scale collapses of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform margin producing the limestone breccias described herein. This may in turn have caused a backstepping of the platform margin, as is evident from the occurrence of Late Ju rassic marginal reefs that are installed directly above the Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic inner platform successions.
Keywords: Slovenian Basin, Dinaric Carbonate Platform, Middle Jurassic, limestone breccia, debris-flow, stratigraphy, Ponikve breccia
Published in DiRROS: 18.01.2023; Views: 51; Downloads: 31
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8.
Composite landslide in the dynamic alpine conditions: a case study of Urbas landslide
Ela Šegina, Mateja Jemec Auflič, Matija Zupan, Jernej Jež, Tina Peternel, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The alpine environment is characterized by complex geology, high-energy terrain, deeply incised river valleys with high erosional potential, extreme weather conditions and dynamic geomorphic processes. Such settings provide favourable conditions for the formation of composite landslides rather than individual slope mass movement phenomena. As an example, we present the kinematics of the composite landslide Urbas in the North of Slovenia which developed in the complex geological and morphological settings characteristic of the alpine environment. The research combines several monitoring techniques and involves the integration of both surface and subsurface displacements measured in the landslide area. The results indicate that the composite sliding process consists of several simultaneous and interrelated types of movements occurring in different segments of the unstable mass that are governed by different mechanisms of displacements, such as rockfall, sliding and debris flow. The kinematic characteristics of a deep-seated landslide that formed in such conditions vary spatially, but is rather homogenuous vertically, indicating translational type of movement. Spatial kinematic heterogeneity is primarily related to the diverse terrain topography, reflecting in different displacement trends. Based on the revealed kinematic proprieties of the sliding material, the sediment discharge illustrates the sliding material balance which estimates the volume of the retaining material that represents the potential for slope mass movement events of larger scales.
Keywords: composite landslide, alpine conditions, kinematics, monitoring, sediment discharge
Published in DiRROS: 15.12.2022; Views: 110; Downloads: 33
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9.
Influence of alkalis on the phase development of belite-sulfoaluminate clinkers
Barbara Čeplak, Katarina Šter, Maruša Mrak, Luka Škrlep, Mirijam Vrabec, Sabina Dolenec, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a study on the influence of different amounts of alkalis (K2O and Na2O) on clinker phase formation, microstructure, phase composition and reactivity of belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinker. Using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry, it was found that the amount of C2S and C4AF increases with the incorporation of alkalis, while the amount of C4A3Ś and CŚ decreases. In addition to the major phases, the samples with alkalis also consist of minor phases such as C3A (tricalcium aluminate), KŚ (arcanite), and KC2Ś3 (Ca-langbeinite). The major ions in the major phases were substituted by alkali cations and some other ions (Ca2+, Al3+, Fe3+, S2-, S6+, Si4+). The alkalis also affect the microstructure of the clinker, e.g., the shape of the grains. Consequently, isothermal calorimetry was used to detect differences in hydration kinetics. The clinker with 2 wt. % K2O content was the most reactive, while the sample with 0.5 wt. % Na content was the least reactive. The latter was primarily influenced by the content of the main and minor phases of the clinker.
Keywords: klinker, alkalije, razvoj
Published in DiRROS: 06.12.2022; Views: 117; Downloads: 55
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10.
Preliminary chemical and mineralogical characterization of tailings from base metal sulfide deposits in Serbia and North Macedonia
Timotheus Martin Christoph Steiner, Viktor Bertrandsson Erlandsson, Robert Šajn, Frank Melcher, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Tailings of old mines often contain metals, which were not of economic interest or could not be recovered with the existing technology at the time of active mining. This is especially true for metals that often occur as by-products in Cu-Pb-Zn-(Ag-Au) ores as Sb, Mo, Ge, and In. A fundamental characterization of some tailings is presented in terms of their mineralogy and content of valuable metals which could be extracted to finance a possible remediation and improve the supply of the EU with critical metals. Tailings from active and abandoned mines in Serbia (Bor, porphyry Cu/Au; Krivelj, porphyry Cu/Au; Blagodat, hydrothermal Pb-Zn; Lece, epithermal Au; Rudnik, hydrothermal/skarn Pb-Zn) and North Macedonia (Sasa, Pb-Zn; Probištip, Pb-Zn; Bučim, porphyry Cu; Lojane, fault-bound vein-type low-temperature As, Sb, Cr at the contact of rhyolite and serpentinite) were studied. Analysis for major and trace elements used a multi-method approach (lithium borate fusion and ICP-MS/OES analysis, gravimetric analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis, total digestion ICP-OES, infrared spectroscopy) with mineral identification by scanning electron microscopy. Concentrations of the major commodity elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag) varies within several orders of magnitude depending on mineralogy and ore type. Critical metals (Co, Ga, Ge, Sb) contents are low with some exceptions. Some tailings contain moderate to elevated potentially toxic element levels (As, Cd, Pb, Tl). For the sample from Probištip which yielded the highest valuable metal concentrations (>5000 ppm Pb, 4020 ppm Zn), a heavy mineral concentrate of the sand size fraction (0.06 mm to 0.5 mm) was produced and analyzed by SEM and LA-ICP-MS for additional rare phases and trace elements. In all tailings studied, additional milling would be needed to separate ore from gangue minerals. Increasing metal prices might facilitate feasibility studies for some of the localities in the future, despite the limited quantitative information about the characterized tailings.
Keywords: rudniški odpadki, kemija, mineralogija, rudna nahajališča, sulfidi
Published in DiRROS: 22.11.2022; Views: 196; Downloads: 35
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