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Iskalni niz: "polno besedilo" AND "organizacija" (Zavod za gradbeništvo Slovenije) .

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An investigation into corrosion around voids at the steel-concrete interface
Miha Hren, Tadeja Kosec, Andraž Legat, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In this study, the influence of voids on corrosion process at the steel-concrete interface was investigated, as the exact influence of these features on corrosion processes under various environmental conditions is not entirely understood. Coupled multi electrode arrays and electrical resistance probes were implemented to monitor the evolution of corrosion under cyclic exposure to chlorides and carbonation. MicroCT was used to determine the location and volume of corrosion damage. It was found that, in most cases, corrosion damage initiated outside the voids. During initiation and the early propagation phase, the steel beneath the voids rarely participated in the redox reaction. In following phases, various kinds of corrosion evolution were observed. Specific corrosion mechanisms were proposed and discussed to explain these corrosion processes.
Ključne besede: microtomography, corrosion, coupled multi-electrode array, steel-concrete interface
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.06.2024; Ogledov: 65; Prenosov: 64
.pdf Celotno besedilo (23,73 MB)
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Biocompatible polyelectrolyte multilayers with copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles for inhibiting bacterial growth
Nives Matijaković Mlinarić, Stefanie Altenried, Atiđa Selmani, Juraj Nikolić, Aleksander Učakar, Anamarija Zore, Anže Abram, Sandro Lehner, Andrijana Sever Škapin, Monika Kušter, Eva Roblegg, Davor Kovačević, Qun Ren, Klemen Bohinc, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The prevalence of bacterial infections presents a significant challenge in the medical field, demanding effective strategies to impede bacterial adhesion and growth on various surfaces. The conducted study investigates the efficacy of polyelectrolyte multilayers─comprising poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and alginate (ALG)─embedded with zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) to inhibit bacterial adhesion on stainless-steel surfaces. Surface characterization involved zeta potential, contact angle, and roughness assessments. The effect of NP composition, size, and morphology in conjunction with polycation or polyanion terminating multilayers was evaluated against planktonic and surface-adhered Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Surfaces with the positively charged PAH-terminating multilayer displayed higher water contact angles (≈ 63°) than the negatively charged ALG-terminating multilayers (≈ 45°). Multilayers containing ZnO NPs showed a significant inhibition of planktonic E. coli growth, >99%. Moreover, complete growth inhibition of surface-adhered E. coli was achieved for multilayers containing both ZnO and CuO. Due to their larger specific surface area, rod-like ZnO NPs displayed higher antibacterial activity. The samples with ALG as the terminating layer showed more substantial antibacterial properties than samples with PAH as the terminating layer. Biocompatibility tests on immortalized human keratinocyte cells revealed good compatibility with multilayers incorporating NPs. In summary, this study underscores the potential of ZnO and CuO NPs within PAH/ALG multilayers for antibacterial applications without compromising their cytocompatibility.
Ključne besede: polyelectrolyte multilayers, alginate, poly(allylamine hydrochloride), CuO, ZnO, nanoparticles, Escherichia coli
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.06.2024; Ogledov: 70; Prenosov: 71
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,90 MB)
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Risk based life-cycle planning for flood-resilient critical infrastructure
Sandra Škarić Palić, I. Stipanovic, E. Ganic, Mirko Kosič, Andrej Anžlin, M. Bacic, M. S. Kovacevic, K. Gavin, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: The paper presents a risk assessment model, developed in the project oVER-FLOw and further implemented in the project CROSScade, for determining the direct and indirect impacts of flooding hazards. As a consequence of flooding, transport infrastructure and flood protection systems can be significantly damaged and cause cascading effects on other infrastructure. To achieve flood resilient infrastructure, it is necessary to assess the vulnerability of critical assets in the affected area. The model uses novel vulnerability assessment methods for embankments and bridges exposed to different flood hazard scenarios allowing the asset owners to understand risk and performance of their infrastructure. Scarce financial resources are allocated on the critical assets allowing significant cost savings and avoiding the waste of non-renewable resources in strengthening large sections which have sufficient resilience. The consequence analysis is based on an improved quantification model for direct and indirect impacts of different flood hazard scenarios used for risk mapping of the affected area.
Ključne besede: flooding, risk assessment, critical infrastructure, economic loss
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.05.2024; Ogledov: 115; Prenosov: 100
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,35 MB)
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Multi-scale and multi-modal imaging study of mantle xenoliths and petrological implications
Marco Venier, Luca Ziberna, Lucia Mancini, Alexander P. Kao, Federico Bernardini, Giacomo Roncoroni, Sula Milani, Nasrrddine Youbi, Yondon Majigsuren, Angelo De Min, Davide Lenaz, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The accurate textural characterization of mantle xenoliths is one of the fundamental steps to understanding the main processes occurring in the upper mantle, such as sub-solidus recrystallization, magmatic crystallization, and metasomatism. Texture, composition, and mineralogy reflect the temperature, pressure, stress conditions, melting, and/or contamination events undergone before and during the entrapment in the host magma. For these reasons, characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) texture of silicate, oxide, sulfide, and glass phases has great importance in the study of mantle xenoliths. We performed a multi-scale and multi-modal 3D textural analysis based on X-ray computed microtomography (µ-CT) data of three mantle xenoliths from different geodynamic settings (i.e., mobile belt zone, pericraton, oceanic hotspot). The samples were selected to represent different, variably complex internal structures composed of grains of different phases, fractures, voids, and fluid inclusions of different sizes. We used an approach structured in increasing steps of spatial and contrast resolution, starting with in-house X-ray µ-CT imaging (spatial resolution from 30 µm down to 6.25 µm) and moving to high-resolution synchrotron X-ray µ-CT at the micrometer scale. We performed a 3D characterization of mantle xenoliths, comparing the results with the analysis of conventional 2D images (thin sections) obtained by optical microscopy and simulating the random sectioning of several thin sections to estimate the probability of correct modal classification. The 3D models allow the extraction of textural information that cannot be quantified solely from thin sections: spinel layering, distribution of silicic glass, and related vesicles. Moreover, high-density volumes identified as sulfides were detected in two xenoliths, showing no relation with the spinel layering in one case and a preferential concentration along fractures in the other. Given the variety of textures and mineral assemblages of mantle xenoliths worldwide, the results are used to suggest experimental and analytical protocols for the characterization of these materials.
Ključne besede: petrology, mantle xenoliths, X-ray microtomography, multi-scale image analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.05.2024; Ogledov: 82; Prenosov: 18
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,64 MB)
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Increasing the amorphous content in river sediments intended for supplementary cementitious materials using flame synthesis
Wolfgang Wisniewski, Jozef Kraxner, Lea Žibret, Dušan Galusek, Vilma Ducman, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Dredged river sediments are currently a waste material which is mainly landfilled or reintegrated into rivers. They can also be used as a renewable resource for the construction sector. Pre- treatments at high temperatures allow their use for more advanced applications such as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or as a precursor for alkali activated materials (AAMs). The work presented here shows that flame synthesis can be used to almost completely vitrify such sediments and increase their leachability for Al and Si beyond the levels achieved by conventional calcination at 750–950 ◦C for 1h. The reactivity of the prepared samples was analyzed via the Si and Al solubility in 10 M NaOH and was generally increased by the applied treatments but maximized by flame synthesis. Their microstructure was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and their phase composition was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The results show an almost complete amorphization of the sediments by flame synthesis, however their reactivity does not increase at the same rate.
Ključne besede: sediments, SCM, vitrification, properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.05.2024; Ogledov: 133; Prenosov: 118
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,50 MB)
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The Middle Pleistocene human metatarsal from Sedia del Diavolo (Rome, Italy)
Alessandro Riga, Antonio Profico, Tommaso Mori, Riccardo Frittitta, Alessia Nava, Lucia Mancini, Diego Dreossi, Davorka Radovčić, Hannah Rice, Luca Bondioli, Damiano Marchi, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The peopling of Europe during the Middle Pleistocene is a debated topic among paleoanthropologists. Some authors suggest the coexistence of multiple human lineages in this period, while others propose a single evolving lineage from Homo heidelbergensis to Homo neanderthalensis. The recent reassessment of the stratigraphy at the Sedia del Diavolo (SdD) site (Latium, Italy), now dated to the beginning of marine isotope stage (MIS) 8, calls for a revision of the human fossils from the site. In this paper, we present the morphometric, biomechanical and palaeopathological study of the second right metatarsal SdD2, to both re-evaluate its taxonomical affinities and possibly determine the levels of physical activity experienced by the individual during lifetime. Results demonstrate the persistence of archaic features in SdD2 suggesting new insights into the technology and hunting strategies adopted by Homo between MIS 9 and MIS 8.
Ključne besede: anthropology, evolution, palaeontology
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.05.2024; Ogledov: 122; Prenosov: 128
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,86 MB)
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Adsorption efficiency of cadmium (II) by different alkali-activated materials
Nataša Mladenović Nikolić, Ljiljana Kljajević, Snežana B. Nenadović, Jelena Potočnik, Sanja Knežević, Sabina Dolenec, Katarina Trivunac, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential utilization of fly ash (FA), wood ash (WA), and metakaolin (MK) in developing new alkali-activated materials (AAMs) for the removal of cadmium ions from waste water. The synthesis of AAMs involved the dissolution of solid precursors, FA, WA, and MK, by a liquid activator (Na2SiO3 and NaOH). In concentrated solutions of the activator, the formation of an aluminosilicate gel structure occurred. DRIFT spectroscopy of the AAMs indicated main vibration bands between 1036 cm−1 and 996 cm−1, corresponding to Si-O-Si/Si-O-Al bands. Shifting vibration bands were seen at 1028 cm−1 to 1021 cm−1, indicating that the Si-O-Si/Si-O-Al bond is elongating, and the bond angle is decreasing. Based on the X-ray diffraction results, alkali-activated samples consist of an amorphous phase and residual mineral phases. The characteristic “hump” of an amorphous phase in the range from 20 to 40◦ 2θ was observed in FA and in all AWAFA samples. By the XRD patterns of the AAMs obtained by the activation of a solid three-component system, a new crystalline phase, gehlenite, was identified. The efficiency of AAMs in removing cadmium ions from aqueous solutions was tested under various conditions. The highest values of adsorption capacity, 64.76 mg/g (AWAFA6), 67.02 mg/g (AWAFAMK6), and 72.84 mg/gmg/g (AWAMK6), were obtained for materials activated with a 6 M NaOH solution in the alkali activator. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second kinetic order provided the best fit for all investigated AAMs.
Ključne besede: fly ash, metakaolin, wood ash, adsorption kinetics, cadmium (II)
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.05.2024; Ogledov: 143; Prenosov: 100
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,68 MB)
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Susceptibility of X17CrNi16-2 martensitic stainless steel to hydrogen embrittlement after conventional and deep cryogenic heat treatment
Mirjam Bajt Leban, Bojan Zajec, Bojan Podgornik, Črtomir Donik, Patricia Jovičević Klug, Miha Hren, Andraž Legat, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: A low carbon/ high chromium martensitic stainless steel, X17CrNi16-2, was heat treated using two different hardening and tempering regimes (1050 ◦ C/480 ◦ C or 980 ◦C/600 ◦C) — promoting either a high strength or high toughness state, respectively and further combined with deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) at 196 ◦C for 24 h. Over recent years DCT has been recognized as a promising technique to improve the properties of steel, predominantly with respect to its tensile strength, toughness and wear resistance. The influence of DCT on the hydrogen embrittlement resistance of martensitic stainless steel has not yet, however, been reported. A slow strain rate tensile test (SSRT) with simultaneous cathodic hydrogen charging was selected as the method to assess potential susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (HE). Relatively low-intensity hydrogen charging, utilizing a constant current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, in a non-corrosive, slightly alkaline buffer solution, led to a clear reduction in the ultimate tensile stress. This reduction, and therefore the HE susceptibility, was more pronounced in the steel with a higher strength (i.e. that subject to the 1050 ◦C/ 480 ◦C heat treatment condition). Furthermore, DCT did not appear to have any impact on the steel’s mechanical properties in the presence of hydrogen. Fractographic analysis showed clear evidence of HE in the hydrogen-charged specimens. This paper presents results of the SSRT tests and further fractography results, and discusses the impact of conventional and deep cryogenic treatment on HE susceptibility.
Ključne besede: martensitic stainless steel, deep cryogenic treatment, hydrogen embrittlement, slow strain rate tensile test
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.05.2024; Ogledov: 122; Prenosov: 134
.pdf Celotno besedilo (17,73 MB)
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The impact of urban rain on the changes of bare and artificially patinated bronze during 9-year exposure
Tadeja Kosec, Mirjam Bajt Leban, Polonca Ropret, Matjaž Finšgar, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Atmospheric pollutants in the air form acid rain which interacts with bronze surfaces exposed in urban outdoor environment. In this study, different types of patinas on bronze were investigated during and after 9 years of exposure to urban environment in moderately polluted continental city. Natural bronze patina and artificial brown sulphide, green chloride, and green–blue nitrate patinas were investigated. Visual assessment was carried out at defined periods. After 9 years of exposure, an electrochemical study was performed to investigate the electrochemical activity of the patinas in artificial urban rain. Additionally, the patinas were characterised using a variety of techniques, including metallographic examination, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to analyse the surface morphology, chemical composition, and stratigraphic features of the patinas. Evolution of the patinas was shown to be a result of both, the composition of the acid rain and the hydrophobicity of the patinated surfaces.
Ključne besede: bronze, bronze, corrosion, patina characterization
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 29.04.2024; Ogledov: 182; Prenosov: 432
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,67 MB)
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State of the art methodologies for the estimation of fire costs in buildings to support cost–benefit analysis
Ikwulono David Unobe, Andrea Lucherini, Shuna Ni, Thomas Gernay, Ranjit Kumar Chaudhary, Ruben Van Coile, 2024, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fires can lead to costly building damage as well as loss of lives and injuries. Installed to protect buildings from fire, or to limit the damage from such outbreaks, fire protection measures are a common feature in buildings. However, these features come at a cost. Although quite ubiquitous in buildings, the value of these features to private individuals and to society is not fully understood. To understand their value, a cost benefit analysis detailing the costs and benefits of fire protection measures is needed. Carrying out such an analysis requires methods for computing both the cost of these fire protection measures, and losses from fires (including both direct and indirect losses). This study outlines methodologies for evaluating those costs and losses. An exhaustive collection of available data necessary for estimating both costs and losses is presented. Several limitations in current methodologies and data constraints were identified, with recommendations proposed to address these shortcomings. Relevant sections of a study by the authors that refines fire protection cost estimation at national and sub-national levels are emphasized, including updated building categories, guidance on computing multipliers, and detailed cost calculation methods for installation and maintenance costs. The calculation uses regularly updated U.S. Census Bureau construction data, ensuring timely multiplier updates. The insights and suggestions presented in this study will ultimately refine the process of selecting fire protection strategies that maximize the net benefit of fire protection measures for both private stakeholders and society at large.
Ključne besede: fire protection measures, cost of fire protection, losses from fire, cost benefit analysis, installation costs, maintenance costs
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.04.2024; Ogledov: 201; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (879,08 KB)
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