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Empirical vs. light-use efficiency modelling for estimating carbon fluxes in a mid-succession ecosystem developed on abandoned karst grassland
Koffi Dodji Noumonvi, Mitja Ferlan, 2020

Povzetek: Karst systems represent an important carbon sink worldwide. However, several phenomena such as the CO2 degassing and the exchange of cave air return a considerable amount of CO2 to the atmosphere. It is therefore of paramount importance to understand the contribution of the ecosystem to the carbon budget of karst areas. In this study conducted in a mid-succession ecosystem developed on abandoned karst grassland, two types of model were assessed, estimating the gross primary production (GPP) or the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on seven years of eddy covariance data (2013%2019): (1) a quadratic vegetation index-based empirical model with five alternative vegetation indices as proxies of GPP and NEE, and (2) the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) which is a light use efficiency model to estimate only GPP. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was the best proxy for NEE whereas SAVI performed very similarly to EVI in the case of GPP in the empirical model setting. The empirical model performed better than the VPM model which tended to underestimate GPP. Therefore, for this ecosystem, we suggest the use of the empirical model provided that the quadratic relationship observed persists. However, the VPM model would be a good alternative under a changing climate, as it is rooted in the understanding of the photosynthesis process, if the scalars it involves could be improved to better estimate GPP.
Ključne besede: eddy covariance, carbon flux, GPP, NEE, vegetation indices, remote sensing, satellite data, GPP map
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 28
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,07 MB)

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COVID-19 related travel restrictions prevented numerous wildlife deaths on roads : ǂa ǂcomparative analysis of results from 11 countries
Michal Bíl, Richard Andrášik, Vojtěch Cícha, Amir Arnon, Maris Kruuse, Jochen Langbein, András Náhlik, Milla Niemig, Boštjan Pokorny, Victor J. Colino-Rabanal, Christer M. Rolandsen, Andreas Seiler, 2021

Povzetek: Millions of wild animals are killed annually on roads worldwide. During spring 2020, the volume of road traffic was reduced globally as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. We gathered data on wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) from Czechia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Israel, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and for Scotland and England within the United Kingdom. In all studied countries WVC statistics tend to be dominated by large mammals (various deer species and wild boar), while information on smaller mammals as well as birds are less well recorded. The expected number of WVC for 2020 was predicted on the basis of 2015%2019 WVC time series representing expected WVC numbers under normal traffic conditions. Then, the forecasted and reported WVC data were compared. The results indicate varying levels of WVC decrease between countries during the COVID-19 related traffic flow reduction (CRTR). While no significant change was determined in Sweden, where the state-wide response to COVID-19 was the least intensive, a decrease as marked as 37.4% was identified in Estonia. The greatest WVC decrease, more than 40%, was determined during the first weeks of CRTR for Estonia, Spain, Israel, and Czechia. Measures taken during spring 2020 allowed the survival of large numbers of wild animals which would have been killed under normal traffic conditions. The significant effects of even just a few weeks of reduced traffic, help to highlight the negative impacts of roads on wildlife mortality and the need to boost global efforts of wildlife conservation, including systematic gathering of roadkill data.
Ključne besede: wildlife-vehicle collisions, wildlife crash reporting systems, traffic flow, ungulates, mesocarnivores, COVID-19 lockdown
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 51; Prenosov: 33
.pdf Celotno besedilo (976,24 KB)

40.
A meta-analysis of global fungal distribution reveals climate-driven patterns
Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecky, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Mészárosová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, 2019

Povzetek: The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes, in contrast with the opposite pattern previously shown for plants and other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi appear to have narrower climatic tolerances than pathogenic fungi. We speculate that climate change could affect ecosystem functioning because of the narrow climatic tolerances of key fungal taxa.
Ključne besede: fungi, global distribution, climate
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 41; Prenosov: 37
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,59 MB)

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