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1.
Heterogeneous response of airway eosinophilia to anti-IL-5 biologics in severe asthma patients
Maruša Kopač, Matija Rijavec, Peter Korošec, Urška Bidovec, Izidor Kern, Romana Vantur, Sabina Škrgat, 2022

Povzetek: Many questions concerning responders (R) and nonresponders (NR) in severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA) after blocking the IL-5 (interleukin 5) pathway are still not clear, especially regarding the early parameters of response to biologics in personalized treatment strategies. We evaluated 17 SEA patients treated with anti-IL-5 biologics (16 patients mepolizumab, one patient benralizumab) before the introduction of biologics, and at a week 16 follow-up. Clinical, cellular and immunological parameters in peripheral blood were measured in R and NR. Sputum induction with the measurement of cellular and immunological parameters was performed at 16 weeks only. There were 12 R and 5 NR to biologics. After 16 weeks, there was a significant improvement in percentages of FEV1 (p = 0.001), and asthma control test (ACT) (p = 0.001) in the R group, but not in NR. After 16 weeks, the eosinophils in induced sputum were 27.0% in NR and 4.5% in R (p = 0.05), with no difference in IL-5 concentrations (p = 0.743). Peripheral eosinophilia decreased significantly in NR (p = 0.032) and R (p = 0.002). In patients with SEA on anti-IL-5 therapy, there was a marked difference in airway eosinophilic inflammation between R and NR already at 16 weeks, after anti-IL-5 introduction.
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.01.2022; Ogledov: 20; Prenosov: 13
.pdf Celotno besedilo (805,99 KB)

2.
Covid-19 pulmonary pathology : the experience of European pulmonary pathologists throughout the first two waves of the pandemic
Francesco Fortarezza, Federica Pezzuto, Paul Hofman, Izidor Kern, Angel Panizo, Jan von der Thüsen, Sergei Timofeev, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Sabina Berezowska, Laurence de Level, Cristian Ortiz-Villalón, Francesca Lunardi, Fiorella Calabrese, 2022

Povzetek: Autoptic studies of patients who died from COVID-19 constitute an important step forward in improving our knowledge in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Systematic analyses of lung tissue, the organ primarily targeted by the disease, were mostly performed during the first wave of the pandemic. Analyses of pathological lesions at different times offer a good opportunity to better understand the disease and how its evolution has been influenced mostly by new SARS-CoV-2 variants or the different therapeutic approaches. In this short report we summarize responses collected from a questionnaire survey that investigated important pathological data during the first two pandemic waves (spring-summer 2020; autumn-winter 2020–2021). The survey was submitted to expert lung pathologists from nine European countries involved in autoptic procedures in both pandemic waves. The frequency of each lung lesion was quite heterogeneous among the participants. However, a higher frequency of pulmonary superinfections, both bacterial and especially fungal, was observed in the second wave compared to the first. Obtaining a deeper knowledge of the pathological lesions at the basis of this complex and severe disease, which change over time, is crucial for correct patient management and treatment. Autoptic examination is a useful tool to achieve this goal.
Ključne besede: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, autopsy, lung - pathology, pulmonary aspergillosis
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.01.2022; Ogledov: 26; Prenosov: 13
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,30 MB)

3.
Latent preferences of residents regarding an urban forest recreation setting in Ljubljana, Slovenia
Anže Japelj, Robert Mavsar, Donald G. Hodges, Marko Kovač, Luka Juvančič, 2016

Povzetek: The goal of this study is to assess residents' preferences for a set of attributes describing the recreation setting in an urban forest (outstanding trees, forest openings, waymarks and information boards, and paved walking trails) and to explore the heterogeneity of those preferences. It was captured by a four-class latent class model used to segment a sample of residents of Ljubljana (the capital of Slovenia), who responded to a choice experiment-based poll. The survey focused on the Rožnik urban forest, for which preferences (also willingness-to-pay) for hypothetical changes in the attributes were assessed. Respondents in class 1 were invariant to changes in the recreation setting. Those in class 2 and 4 stated positive preferences for having more outstanding trees. Class 3 and 4 were in favour of increasing the area of forest openings and enhancing the maintenance of waymarks and information boards. Those in class 4 expressed positive preferences for more walking trails, whereas class 3 valued this negatively. Class membership was affected by respondent age, number of adults in the household, frequency of forest visits, income, and purpose of the visit.
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.01.2022; Ogledov: 29; Prenosov: 36
.pdf Celotno besedilo (480,00 KB)
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Genetic resources strategy for Europe
2021

DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.01.2022; Ogledov: 22; Prenosov: 15
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,09 MB)

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Novosti v imunoterapiji pri solidnih rakih, 15.-16. 12. 2021, Ljubljana
2021

Ključne besede: imunoonkologija, zdravljenje, imunoterapija
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.01.2022; Ogledov: 30; Prenosov: 14
.pdf Celotno besedilo (76,97 MB)

9.
International consensus on lung function testing during COVID-19 pandemic and beyond
Aisling McGowan, Pierantonio Laveneziana, Sam Bayat, Nicole Beydon, Piotr Boros, Felip Burgos, Matjaž Fležar, Monika Franczuk, Maria-Alejandra Galarza, Adrian H. Kendrick, Frans de Jongh, 2021

Povzetek: COVID-19 has negatively affected the delivery of respiratory diagnostic services across the world due to the potential risk of disease transmission during lung function testing. Community prevalence, reoccurrence of COVID-19 surges, and the emergence of different variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have impeded attempts to restore services. Finding consensus on how to deliver safe lung function services for both patients attending and for staff performing the tests are of paramount importance. This international statement presents the consensus opinion of 23 experts in the field of lung function and respiratory physiology balanced with evidence from the reviewed literature. It describes a robust roadmap for restoration and continuity of lung function testing services during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Important strategies presented in this consensus statement relate to the patient journey when attending for lung function tests. We discuss appointment preparation, operational and environmental issues, testing room requirements including mitigation strategies for transmission risk, requirement for improved ventilation, maintaining physical distance, and use of personal protection equipment. We also provide consensus opinion on precautions relating to specific tests, filters, management of special patient groups, and alternative options to testing in hospitals. The pandemic has highlighted how vulnerable lung function services are and forces us to re-think how long term mitigation strategies can protect our services during this and any possible future pandemic. This statement aspires to address the safety concerns that exist and provide strategies to make lung function tests and the testing environment safer when tests are required.
Ključne besede: Covid-19, testi pljučne funkcije - organizacija in vodenje, zagotavljanje varnosti -metode, soglasje
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.01.2022; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 23
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,22 MB)

10.
Next-generation sequencing to characterize pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from two Balkan countries
Eva Sodja, Simon Koren, Nataša Toplak, Sara Truden, Marija Žolnir-Dovč, 2021

Povzetek: Objectives. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide a comprehensive analysis of the genetic alterations that are most commonly linked with pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance. There are no studies reporting molecular background of PZA resistance in TB isolates from Balkan Peninsula. We aimed to examine the feasibility of full-length analysis of a gene linked with PZA resistance, pncA, using Ion Torrent technology in comparison to phenotypic BACTEC MGIT 960 DST in clinical TB isolates from two countries of the Balkan Peninsula. Methods. Between 1996 and 2017, we retrospectively selected 61 TB isolates. To identify gene variants related to drug resistance in genomic DNA extracted from TB isolates, AmpliSeq libraries were generated automatically using the AmpliSeq™ Kit for Chef DL8 and the Ion AmpliSeq TB Research Panel. Result.s Of all 61 TB isolates included, 56 TB were phenotypically resistant to any antibiotic. Among them, 38/56 (67.9%) TB isolates were phenotypically resistant to pyrazinamide and pncA mutations were detected in 33/38 cases (86.8%). A mutation in the pncA promoter region was the most prevalent genetic alteration, detected in eight TB isolates. Comparison of NGS to conventional BACTEC MGIT 960 DST revealed very strong agreement (90.2%) between the two methods in identifying PZA resistance, with high sensitivity (89.5%) and specificity (95.7%) for NGS. Conclusions. Detection of PZA resistance using NGS seems to be a valuable tool for surveillance of TB drug resistance also in the Balkan Peninsula, with great potential to provide useful information at least one weak earlier than is possible with phenotypic DST.
Ključne besede: tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, pyrazinamide, microbial sensitivity tests, next-generation sequencing, drug susceptibility testing, Slovenia, Republic of North Macedonia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.01.2022; Ogledov: 28; Prenosov: 24
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,53 MB)

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