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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (venoms) .

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1.
Heritable risk for severe anaphylaxis associated with increased [alpha]-tryptase-encoding germline copy number at TPSAB1
Jonathan J. Lyons, Jack Chovanec, Michael P. O'Connell, Yihui Liu, Julij Šelb, Roberta Zanotti, Yun Bai, Jiwon Kim, Quang T. Le, Tom DiMaggio, Matija Rijavec, Peter Korošec, 2020

Povzetek: Background: An elevated basal serum tryptase level is associated with severe systemic anaphylaxis, most notably caused by Hymenoptera envenomation. Although clonal mast cell disease is the culprit in some individuals, it does not fully explain this clinical association. Objective: Our aim was to determine the prevalence and associated impact of tryptase genotypes on anaphylaxis in humans. Methods: Cohorts with systemic mastocytosis (SM) and venom as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis from referral centers in Italy, Slovenia, and the United States, underwent tryptase genotyping by droplet digital PCR. Associated anaphylaxis severity (Mueller scale) was subsequently examined. Healthy volunteers and controls with nonatopic disease were recruited and tryptase was genotyped by droplet digital PCR and in silico analysis of genome sequence, respectively. The effects of pooled and recombinant human tryptases, protease activated receptor 2 agonist and antagonist peptides, and a tryptase-neutralizing mAb on human umbilical vein endothelial cell permeability were assayed using a Transwell system. Results: Hereditary [alpha]-tryptasemia (H[alpha]T)--a genetic trait caused by increased [alpha]-tryptase-encoding Tryptase-[alpha]/[beta]1 (TPSAB1) copy number resulting in elevated BST level--was common in healthy individuals (5.6% [n = 7 of 125]) and controls with nonatopic disease (5.3% [n = 21 of 398]). H[alpha]T was associated with grade IV venom anaphylaxis (relative risk = 2.0; P < .05) and more prevalent in both idiopathic anaphylaxis (n = 8 of 47; [17%; P = .006]) and SM (n = 10 of 82 [12.2%; P = .03]) relative to the controls. Among patients with SM, concomitant H[alpha]T was associated with increased risk for systemic anaphylaxis (relative risk = 9.5; P = .007). In vitro, protease-activated receptor-2-dependent vascular permeability was induced by pooled mature tryptases but not [alpha]- or [beta]-tryptase homotetramers. Conclusions: Risk for severe anaphylaxis in humans is associated with inherited differences in [alpha]-tryptase-encoding copies at TPSAB1.
Ključne besede: mastocytosis, venoms, hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis - diagnosis, mast cells, idiopathic anaphylaxis, mast cell activation, hereditary alpha-tryptasemia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.09.2020; Ogledov: 838; Prenosov: 162

2.
Worldwide perspectives on venom allergy
Peter Korošec, Thilo Jakob, Harfi Harb, Robert Heddle, Sarah Karabus, Ricardo de Lima Zollner, Julij Šelb, Bernard Yu-Hor Thong, Fares Zaitoun, David B. K. Golden, Michael Levin, 2019

Povzetek: Venom immunotherapy is the standard of care for people with severe reactions and has been proven to reduce risk of future anaphylactic events. There is a moral imperative to ensure production, supply and worldwide availability of locally relevant, registered, standardized commercial venom extracts for diagnosis and treatment. Insects causing severe immediate allergic reactions vary by region worldwide. The most common culprits include honeybees (Apis mellifera), social wasps including yellow jackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula), paper wasps (Polistes) and hornets (Vespa), stinging ants (Solenopsis, Myrmecia, Pachycondyla, and Pogonomyrmex), and bumblebees (Bombus). Insects with importance in specific areas of the world include the Australian tick (Ixodes holocyclus), the kissing bug (Triatoma spp), horseflies (Tabanus spp), and mosquitoes (Aedes, Culex, Anopheles). Reliable access to high quality venom immunotherapy to locally relevant allergens is not available throughout the world. Many current commercially available therapeutic vaccines have deficiencies, are not suitable for, or are unavailable in vast areas of the globe. New products are required to replace products that are unstandardized or inadequate, particularly whole-body extract products. New products are required for insects in which no current treatment options exist. Venom immunotherapy should be promoted throughout the world and the provision thereof be supported by health authorities, regulatory authorities and all sectors of the health care service.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, venoms, Hymenoptera, bee venoms, wasp venoms, insecta, ants hornet, bumblebee, mosquitoes, venom immunotherapy, immunologic desensitization
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.09.2020; Ogledov: 795; Prenosov: 396
.pdf Celotno besedilo (313,42 KB)

3.
Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy : immune mechanisms of induced protection and tolerance
Ajda Demšar, Peter Korošec, Mitja Košnik, Mihaela Zidarn, Matija Rijavec, 2021

Povzetek: Hymenoptera venom allergy is one of the most severe allergic diseases, with a considerable prevalence of anaphylactic reaction, making it potentially lethal. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge and recent findings in understanding induced immune mechanisms during different phases of venom immunotherapy. We focus on protection mechanisms that occur early, during the build-up phase, and on the immune tolerance, which occurs later, during and after Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. The short-term protection seems to be established by the early desensitization of mast cells and basophils, which plays a crucial role in preventing anaphylaxis during the build-up phase of treatment. The early generation of blocking IgG antibodies seems to be one of the main reasons for the lower activation of effector cells. Long-term tolerance is reached after at least three years of venom immunotherapy. A decrease in basophil responsiveness correlates with tolerated sting challenge. Furthermore, the persistent decline in IgE levels and, by monitoring the cytokine profiles, a shift from a Th2 to Th1 immune response, can be observed. In addition, the generation of regulatory T and B cells has proven to be essential for inducing allergen tolerance. Most studies on the mechanisms and effectiveness data have been obtained during venom immunotherapy (VIT). Despite the high success rate of VIT, allergen tolerance may not persist for a prolonged time. There is not much known about immune mechanisms that assure longterm tolerance post-therapy.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, hypersensitivity, immunotherapy, immune tolerance, venoms, Hymenoptera, Hymenoptera venom, short-term protection, long-term tolerance
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.08.2021; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 46

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