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Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) is more drought tolerant and better reflects climate variations compared to pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in lowland mixed forests in northwestern Serbia : ǂa ǂstable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and radial growth approach
Saša Kostić, Tom Levanič, Saša Orlović, Bratislav Matović, Dejan Stojanović, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree-ring width (TRW), stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) data set chronologies were built for the period 1961–2000 for two oak species (pedunculate oak – Quercus robur L. and Turkey oak – Quercus cerris L.) in northwestern Serbia (Vojvodina province). We focused on the response of the two oak species to measured meteorological data (temperature, precipitation and cloud cover), drought events expressed by six meteorological drought indices, and river water level to better understand their drought tolerance and stress and to assess the reliability of the species response to climate and drought indices when using TRW or δ13C. Turkey oak exhibited better drought tolerance (and less drought stress) compared to pedunculate oak, as manifested, respectively, by less negative δ13C and lower iWUE values. Based on a generalised additive mixed model (GAMM) among the six drought indices studied, the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index and the standardised precipitation index showed the best fit with both TRW and δ13C, while the Palmer drought severity index exerted a strong influence only on TRW. It was thus concluded that δ13C responds more strongly and rapidly to climate variations than TRW.
Ključne besede: dendrochronology, stable carbon isotope, tree ring, Quercus robur, Quercus cerris, drought, climate change
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.08.2022; Ogledov: 261; Prenosov: 146
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,19 MB)
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Early-warning signals of individual tree mortality based on annual radial growth
Maxime Cailleret, Vasilis Dakos, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M.R. Robert, Tuomas Aakala, Mariano M. Amoroso, Joe A. Antos, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianaga, Katarina Čufar, Tom Levanič, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree mortality is a key driver of forest dynamics and its occurrence is projected to increase in the future due to climate change. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to death, we still lack robust indicators of mortality risk that could be applied at the individual tree scale. Here, we build on a previous contribution exploring the differences in growth level between trees that died and survived a given mortality event to assess whether changes in temporal autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony in time-series of annual radial growth data can be used as early warning signals of mortality risk. Taking advantage of a unique global ring-width database of 3065 dead trees and 4389 living trees growing together at 198 sites (belonging to 36 gymnosperm and angiosperm species), we analyzed temporal changes in autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony before tree death (diachronic analysis), and also compared these metrics between trees that died and trees that survived a given mortality event (synchronic analysis). Changes in autocorrelation were a poor indicator of mortality risk. However, we found a gradual increase in interannual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony in the last %20 years before mortality of gymnosperms, irrespective of the cause of mortality. These changes could be associated with drought-induced alterations in carbon economy and allocation patterns. In angiosperms, we did not find any consistent changes in any metric. Such lack of any signal might be explained by the relatively high capacity of angiosperms to recover after a stress-induced growth decline. Our analysis provides a robust method for estimating early-warning signals of tree mortality based on annual growth data. In addition to the frequently reported decrease in growth rates, an increase in inter-annual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony may be powerful predictors of gymnosperm mortality risk, but not necessarily so for angiosperms.
Ključne besede: tree mortality, ring-width, forest, growth, resilience indicators, drought, biotic agents, variance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.07.2022; Ogledov: 197; Prenosov: 138
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,19 MB)
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A comparison of radial increment and wood density from beech provenance trials in Slovenia and Hungary
Luka Krajnc, Peter Prislan, Gregor Božič, Marjana Westergren, Domen Arnič, Csaba Mátyás, Jožica Gričar, Hojka Kraigher, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Provenance trials are a valuable source of information, especially in species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which will likely increase its distribution due to global warming. The current study compares radial increment and wood density of beech provenances in the juvenile development stage from contrasting environments in Europe (Belgium, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Italy) planted at a mesic to wet site in Slovenia and a xeric site in Hungary. Existing data (past measurements of diameters and height) were combined with new measurements of tree height, diameter, dendrochronological and resistance drilling density measurements to assess differences in provenance radial growth. The wood density data were evaluated using a Bayesian general linear model. In order to study the differences in radial increment in more detail, two weather-wise contrasting years (2014 and 2017) were selected from the last decade, based on calculations of the 12-month Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index. The differences in average tree-ring width among provenances at each sampled site appeared to be relatively small when averaged over a whole decade of data. However, according to year-to-year data, some provenances grew faster than others, especially in favorable weather conditions. In unfavorable conditions, the differences in tree-ring widths among provenances were smaller. For most provenances, variation in tree-ring widths within the same provenance increased in unfavorable conditions. The difference between the provenances with the highest and lowest wood densities at both locations did not exceed 5%. The model results indicate that the Idrija (Slovenia) provenance probably has a higher median wood density than other studied provenances at both sites. Although the current study confirmed some differences in wood density between provenances and trial locations, the differences are negligible in practice due to their low magnitude and the fact that the analyzed trees were still juvenile. As beech has a diffuse-porous wood, negligible differences in wood density would also be expected in adult trees. Beech provenances for planting in relation to changing weather should probably be chosen for their ability to survive more extreme weather events rather than to improve radial increment or wood density, especially as the differences in wood density of juvenile trees are relatively small.
Ključne besede: Fagus sylvatica, tree-ring width, common garden, resistance drilling
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.04.2022; Ogledov: 252; Prenosov: 278
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Reconstruction of landslide activity using dendrogeomorphological analysis in the Karavanke mountains in NW Slovenia
Domen Oven, Tom Levanič, Jernej Jež, Milan Kobal, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree ring eccentricity was used to reconstruct landslide activity in the last 138 years in the Urbas landslide located at Potoška planina in the NW part of the Karavanke Mountains, Slovenia. The research was based on the dendrochronological sampling of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in areas of varying landslide intensity. Analysis of a sudden change in the eccentricity index of 82 curved trees concluded that there were 139 growth disturbances and 16 landslide reactivations between 1880 and 2015, with a landslide return period of 8.5 years. Using lidar data, changes in the surface of the digital terrain model (DTM) were compared with changes in the eccentricity index of trees at the same location in the period 2014-2017. On the basis of temporal changes in the eccentricity index and by using spatial interpolation, landslide activity was reconstructed for the period 1943%2015. During this period, landslide intensity increased in the central part of the landslide. Although categorization into seven categories of different stem curvature was proposed, no distinction between categories with respect to their eccentricity index was found.
Ključne besede: landslide activity, dendrogeomorphology, tree ring eccentricity, eccentricity index, digital terrain model, spatial interpolation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 1444; Prenosov: 1035
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,35 MB)
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Daily climate data reveal stronger climate-growth relationships for an extended European tree-ring network
Jernej Jevšenak, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: An extended European tree-ring network was compiled from various sources of tree-ring data from Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. A total of 1860 tree-ring chronologies were used to compare correlation coefficients calculated with aggregated day-wise and month-wise mean temperature, sums of precipitation and standardised precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI). For the daily approach, climate data were aggregated over periods ranging from 21 to 365 days. Absolute correlations calculated with day-wise aggregated climate data were on average higher by 0.060 (temperature data), 0.076 (precipitation data) and 0.075 (SPEI data). Bootstrapped correlations are computationally expensive and were therefore calculated on a 69.4% subset of the data. Bootstrapped correlations indicated statistically significant differences between the daily and monthly approach in approximately 1% of examples. A comparison of time windows used for calculations of correlations revealed slightly later onset and earlier ending day of the year for the daily approach, while the largest differences between the two approaches arise from window lengths: Correlations calculated with day-wise aggregated climate data were calculated using fewer days than the monthly approach. Differences in the onset and ending dates of periods for the daily and monthly approaches were greater for precipitation and SPEI data than for temperature data.
Ključne besede: tree rings, dendroclimatology, tree-ring network, daily climate data, climate-growth relationships, dendroTools
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.08.2019; Ogledov: 1901; Prenosov: 789
.pdf Celotno besedilo (889,22 KB)
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Examination of stable carbon and oxygen isotopic variability in the cellulose and wholewood of Castanea sativa Mill., Fagus sylvatica L., Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus robur L.
B. Sladden, N.J. Loader, G.H.F. Young, D. McCarroll, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper presents results from a comparison of wholewood and cellulose carbon and oxygen isotope ratios for four UK tree species. These species occur within the historic buildings archive as both primary and supplementary construction materials and have been used to reconstruct the climate of the past. New advances in the application of stable isotopes have widened the scope of the isotope approach, but require the time-consuming purification of cellulose. Comparison of the oxygen and carbon isotope signals preserved in the wood and cellulose components confirms and builds upon previous research in this field and provides additional insight into the covariance of these two sample types between species, an
Ključne besede: stable isotopes, tree ring, dendrochronology, dendroclimatology
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.02.2019; Ogledov: 4135; Prenosov: 2926
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,63 MB)
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Green water reconstructed for Rižana watershed, SW Slovenia
Simon Poljanšek, Urša Vilhar, Tom Levanič, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In this case study, set in south-west Slovenia, the feasibility of reconstructing green water (the combined amount of evaporated and transpired water in trees and available in the soil) was investigated. In a simplifed scheme, the amounts of green water were calculated as the diference between precipitation and discharge of the Rižana river. Based on the methods of dendroclimatology, the climate signal was tested on black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees growing in the south-western part of the Rižana watershed near the Slovenian sea coast. Results showed that the measured tree-ring parameters of tree-ring width and density are strongly dependent on the amount of green water. The strongest correlation was between available green water in the period May-August and tree-ring width (r=0.61) and latewood width (r=%0.64) (both n=46, p<0.001). The climate signal is signifcant and stable through time, which enabled the reconstruction of green water data into the period before instrumentally measured data. Green water data from the May-August period were extended from 1966 back to 1937 using tree-ring width, and back to 1940 using latewood width. With additional coring of older trees and the extension of existing chronologies, even longer reconstructions could be developed.
Ključne besede: tree-ring width, tree-ring density, dendrochronology, dendroclimatology, reconstruction
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.04.2018; Ogledov: 2394; Prenosov: 1348
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DendroTools : R package for studying linear and nonlinear responses between tree-rings and daily environmental data
Jernej Jevšenak, Tom Levanič, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: We introduce in this paper the dendroTools R package for studying the statistical relationships between tree-ring parameters and daily environmental data. The core function of the package is daily_response(), which works by sliding a moving window through daily environmental data and calculating statistical metrics with one or more tree ring proxies. Possible metrics are correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination and adjusted coeffi- cient of determination. In addition to linear regression, it is possible to use a nonlinear artificial neural network with the Bayesian regularization training algorithm (brnn). dendroTools provides the opportunity to use daily climate data and robust nonlinear functions for the analysis of climate-growth relationships. Models should thus be better adapted to the real (continuous) growth of trees and should gain in predictive capabilities. The dendroTools R package is freely available in the CRAN repository. The functionality of the package is demonstrated on two examples, one using a mean vessel area (MVA) chronology and one a traditional tree-ring width (TRW).
Ključne besede: dendroclimatology, daily climate data, running window, nonlinear modelling, tree-ring proxies, climate reconstruction
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.04.2018; Ogledov: 2607; Prenosov: 1502
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