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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (temperature) .

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Effects of specific parameters on simulations of energy use and air temperatures in offices equipped with radiant heating/cooling panels
Sabina Jordan, Jože Hafner, Martina Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Andraž Legat, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: When creating a simulation model to assess the performance of buildings, there is usually a lack of feedback information. Only in the case of measurements of a real building is a direct comparison of the measured values and simulated results possible. Parameter data related to users’ behavior or other events can also be obtained. Their evaluated frequency, magnitude and duration, along with boundary conditions, are crucial for the results. It is clear that none of them can be predicted very accurately. Most of them, however, are needed for computer modeling. In this paper we analyzed the well-defined TRNSYS simulation model of offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels for heating and cooling. The model was based on real case offices and was validated based on measurements for 1 year. The analysis included simulations in order to define what effect the parameters related mainly to users have on the energy use and the indoor air temperatures. The study confirmed that specific human activities influence the annual energy use to a relatively small degree and that their effects often counteract. It also confirmed the even more important fact that although small, these activities can influence the thermal comfort of users. It is believed that despite the fact that this research was based on an analysis of offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels, most of the results could be applied generally.
Ključne besede: measurements, modeling, simulation, validation, analysis, energy use, temperature
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.09.2023; Ogledov: 122; Prenosov: 63
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,83 MB)
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Investigations of 6-pane glazing : properties and possibilities
Aleš Kralj, Marija Drev, Matjaž Žnidaršič, Boštjan Černe, Jože Hafner, Bjørn Petter Jelle, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Today there is increasing interest and demand for energy savings in the building sector. Windows still represent a weak point in the building envelope with respect to thermal performance due to thermal losses from the interior to the exterior as well as overheating of the interior due to excessive solar radiation from the exterior environment into the interior. However, windows and glazing structures enable the utilisation of daylight and heat from incident solar radiation, while at the same time providing comfort and a view to the outdoor surroundings. Multipane glazing and windows may represent a possible way to lower energy consumption related to heating and cooling. In this study, a multipane glazing structure, more specifically a 6-pane glazing, has been constructed and investigated with regard to various properties and possibilities. The general configuration of the 6-pane glazing is described. Furthermore, properties such as U-value, solar energy transmittance, visible transmittance, solar heat gain coefficient, glass pane temperatures, vapour permeability, economical aspects, and comfort of living, among others, are analysed. Finally, a case study is presented that demonstrates a 50% reduction in the annual energy consumption after renovation with this 6-pane glazing.
Ključne besede: window, multipane glazing, building, U-value, solar transmittance, temperature
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.09.2023; Ogledov: 129; Prenosov: 55
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,74 MB)
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Using bridge weigh-in-motion systems to monitor single-span bridge influence lines
Aleš Žnidarič, Jan Kalin, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Bridge weigh-in-motion systems use instrumented bridges or culverts to weigh vehicles as they pass over the structures. They also provide data to allow the calculation of several bridge performance indicators. The article starts with the basics of a bridge weigh-in-motion system and briefly describes two key bridge performance indicators, girder distribution factor and dynamic amplification factor, which are also derived from B-WIM measurements. The central part of the article focuses on monitoring of influence lines, the third key parameter that characterises the bridge performance under traffic loads. First, the method of calculating the bending moment influence lines from random heavy traffic is described. A coefficient of rotational stiffness is introduced, which defines the shape of influence lines around the supports as a linear combination of the ideal simply supported and fixed supported influence lines, to allow quantifying the influence line changes. Then the long-term monitoring of influence lines is investigated on four different single-span test bridges. The initial focus is given on the examination of the effect of temperature on the shape of influence lines. Finally, two sets of influence lines are compared on one test bridge, one from before and the other from after replacing the expansion joints and bearings. The work done so far confirms that calculating of influence lines from random vehicles with a B-WIM system is entirely feasible and that differences in their shape can be detected on single-span bridges. What remains to be investigated is the comparison of these differences to the actual damages and under which circumstances the proposed procedure can compete with or better the routine bridge inspection and the conventional monitoring techniques.
Ključne besede: bridge loading, bridge response, temperature dependency, influence line, monitoring
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.09.2023; Ogledov: 190; Prenosov: 62
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,38 MB)
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Recombination of oxygen atoms on the surface of oxidized polycrystalline nickel—temperature and pressure dependences
Domen Paul, Miran Mozetič, Rok Zaplotnik, Jernej Ekar, Alenka Vesel, Gregor Primc, Denis Đonlagić, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The recombination of neutral oxygen atoms in the ground state on the oxidized nickel samples was studied experimentally in the range of pressures where the maximum density occurs in weakly ionized low-pressure oxygen plasma, i.e. between 40 and 200 Pa. The recombination coefficient was determined in the flowing afterglow. The source of oxygen atoms was plasma sustained in a quartz tube of inner diameter 4.7 mm by a microwave discharge in the surfatron mode. The recombination coefficient was determined in the afterglow chamber, which was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 36 mm. The density of oxygen atoms in the afterglow chamber was varied by adjusting the discharge power, the gas flow, the pressure, and the position of a recombinator. Such flexibility of the experimental system enabled adjustment of the temperature of the oxidized nickel samples independently from the O-atom density in its vicinity or other parameters. The density of oxygen atoms in the afterglow chamber at various system parameters was determined by the Šorli method, which is reliable, and has an accuracy of about 20%. The recombination coefficient was determined by calorimetry. The coefficient was inversely proportional to the square root of the pressure and exponentially to the sample temperature. Systematic measurements performed at various pressures and temperatures enabled empirical formula, which were explained qualitatively by recombination kinetics.
Ključne besede: heterogenous surface recombination, recombination coefficient, nickel, nickel oxide, temperature
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.08.2023; Ogledov: 166; Prenosov: 90
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,44 MB)
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Phase development and hydration kinetics of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements at different curing temperatures
Maruša Mrak, Nina Daneu, Sabina Dolenec, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The influence of different curing temperatures on the hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement was investigated at 20, 40 and 60 °C. The hydration kinetics and the hydrated phase assemblages were studied by isothermal calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis, as well as field emission scanning electron microscopy. The compressive strength development of the cement pastes was also determined. Results showed that, at early ages, hydration was faster and early compressive strength was higher at elevated temperatures than at ambient temperature. On the other hand, at late ages in cement pastes cured at 60 °C, the amount of ettringite decreased, leading to lower compressive strength, indicating that the degree of hydration was lower at higher temperatures. Moreover, at elevated temperatures prismatic ettringite crystals became smaller due to faster hydration. Other hydration products present were aluminium hydroxide, which is formed together with ettringite from the hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate and gypsum, and C–S–H which precipitates as a main hydration product of belite. Belite hydrated in a lesser amount, especially at 60 °C, when the lowest amount of C–S–H was observed.
Ključne besede: hydration, cement, temperature, belite, calcium sulfoaluminate, open access, hidratacija, cement, temperatura, belit, kalcijev sulfoaluminat
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.08.2023; Ogledov: 118; Prenosov: 86
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,33 MB)
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High temperature resistant fly-ash and metakaolin-based alkali-activated foams
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Srečo D. Škapin, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated foams (AAFs) present one of the most promising materials for use in the construction sector. Their main advantages lie in their utilization of waste material and their ability to form at temperatures well below 100 °C, while still competing in performance with foamed glass or ceramics. The present body of research has focused on improving the thermal stability of fly-ash foams by i) adding metakaolin, and ii) changing the activator from sodium-based to potassium-based components. It has been confirmed that a certain increase in thermal resistance is achieved through the addition of metakaolin while changing activators played a crucial role. While sodium-based AAFs without metakaolin start to shrink at approximately 600 °C, samples that have had metakaolin added start to shrink at approximately 700 °C. Samples without metakaolin that have used a potassium activator start to shrink at approximately 800 °C, whereas potassium-based samples with the addition of metakaolin start to shrink at approximately 900 °C.
Ključne besede: alkali activated materials, geopolymers, high temperature, resistance, foams
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.08.2023; Ogledov: 119; Prenosov: 98
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,91 MB)
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Quantitative in situ X-ray diffraction analysis of early hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement at various defined temperatures
Maruša Mrak, Christian L. Lengauer, Sabina Dolenec, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The influence of temperature on the early hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements with two different calcium sulfate to calcium sulfoaluminate molar ratios was investigated. The phase composition and phase assemblage development of cements prepared using molar ratios of 1 and 2.5 were studied at 25, 40 and 60 ◦C by in situ X-ray powder diffraction. The Rietveld refinement method was used for quantification. The degree of hydration after 24 h was highest at ambient temperatures, but early hydration was significantly accelerated at elevated temperatures. These differences were more noticeable when we increased the temperature from 25 ◦C to 40 ◦C, than it was increased from 40 ◦C to 60 ◦C. The amount of calcium sulfate added controls the amount of the precipitated ettringite, namely, the amount of ettringite increased in the cement with a higher molar ratio. The results showed that temperature also affects full width at half maximum of ettringite peaks, which indicates a decrease in crystallite size of ettringite at elevated temperatures due to faster precipitation of ettringite. When using a calcium sulfate to calcium sulfoaluminate molar ratio of 1, higher d-values of ettringite peaks were observed at elevated temperatures, suggesting that more ions were released from the cement clinker at elevated temperatures, allowing a higher ion uptake in the ettringite structure. At a molar ratio of 2.5, less clinker is available in the cement, therefore these differences were not observed.
Ključne besede: in situ X-ray diffraction, hydration, temperature, cement, rietveld analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.06.2023; Ogledov: 173; Prenosov: 111
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,59 MB)
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Comparison of cycling high temperature corrosion at 650°C in the presence of NaCl of various austenitic stainless steels
Mirjam Bajt Leban, Maja Vončina, Tadeja Kosec, Robert Tisu, Matevž Barborič, Jože Medved, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The high temperature corrosion at 650°C in the presence of NaCl at atmospheric pressure of AISI 304L, AISI 309, AISI 310S, AISI 314 and AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel was studied. The specimens were cyclically heated in the furnace and immersed in a 3.5% aqueous NaCl solution after cooling for 15 min. After each cycle, the change in mass of the samples was measured. The corroded samples were analysed by SEM /EDX, and the corrosion products were analysed by XRD. The chloride ions react with the steel surface to form porous and poorly adherent oxides and metal chlorides. After the mass increase during the first exposure cycles, spalling of the oxides occurred. The high temperature austenitic stainless steels (AISI 309, AISI 310S, AISI 314) showed less mass loss than conventional austenitic steels (AISI 304L). Surprisingly, the stainless steel AISI 321 showed a similar low weight loss after the cyclic test as AISI 309, but a detailed analysis of the exposed surfaces after the test showed a similar corrosion attack as for AISI 304. After the cyclic test at high temperature in the presence of NaCl, a higher concentration of Cr and Ni definitely improves the corrosion resistance under the present conditions, but a certain addition of Si is even more obvious.
Ključne besede: austenitic stainless steel, high temperature corrosion, NaCl, exhaust systems, open access
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.05.2023; Ogledov: 151; Prenosov: 92
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,53 MB)
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Mode I fracture of beech-adhesive bondline at three different temperatures
Jaka Gašper Pečnik, Andreja Pondelak, Michael David Burnard, Václav Sebera, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Single edge-notched three-point bending tests (SEN-TPB) for mode I were utilized to experimentallyevaluate fracture properties of adhesive bondlines in European beech (Fagus SylvaticaL.). Thebondline was examined at two anatomical planes with TR and RT orientation and at control andtwo elevated temperatures (70°C and 140°C). Among epoxy (EPI), melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF), and polyurethane (PUR) adhesives, the highest average critical energyGcwith 0.80 N/mmand fracture energyGfwith 1079.4 N/mm were obtained for EPI in the TR plane and understandard climate conditions (20°C/65% relative humidity), followed by MUF (Gc= 0.50 N/mm andGf= 620 N/mm) and PUR (Gc= 0.25 N/mm andGf= 290.9 N/mm), respectively. PUR was leasteffected by elevated temperature, and no significant differences forGcandGfbetween TR and RTbondline orientations were found for MUF and PUR treated at 20°C/65% relative humidity whilecomparisons between other factors varied significantly. Treatment of specimens at elevatedtemperatures resulted in reduced fracture performance regardless of wood grain orientation orthe adhesive system.
Ključne besede: crack, fracture, grain orientation, temperature, European Beech, odprti dostop
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.05.2023; Ogledov: 256; Prenosov: 173
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Improved synthetic route of incorporation of nanosilicon species into phenol-formaldehyde resin and preparation of novel ZnAl-layered double-hydroxide hybrid phenol-formaldehyde resin
Ana Dremelj, Romana Cerc Korošec, Andreja Pondelak, Branka Mušič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Hybrid phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins represent one of the most important niche groups of binding systems for composites. New industrial needs, environmental requirements, and price fluctuations have led to further research on materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The preparation of novel hybrid materials can be achieved by inclusion of various elements or functional groups in the organic polymer phenolic framework. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a PF-based hybrid material with different nanoscale silicone species and ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH). The main goals of this study were to improve the synthetic pathways of hybrid resin, as well as to prepare granulated composite materials and test samples and determine their characterization. Added inorganic species increased the glass-transition temperature by a minimum of 8 °C, which was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Rheological properties (melting viscosity and flow distance) of the hybrid resin were measured. The homogeneity of distribution of added species across the organic matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With synthesized new hybrid-binding systems, we prepared different granulated composite materials and evaluated them with the measurements of rheological properties (flow curing characteristics). Tensile strength of samples, prepared from granulated composite material, improved by more than 5%.
Ključne besede: phenol-formaldehyde hybrid resins, nano-SiO2, ZnAl-LDH, composites, glass-transition temperature, mechanical properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.05.2023; Ogledov: 259; Prenosov: 102
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,92 MB)
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