Bryophyte diversity, composition and functional traits in relation to bedrock and tree species composition in close-to-nature managed forestsLado Kutnar
, Janez Kermavnar
, Marko S. Sabovljević
, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek
Povzetek: Bryophytes respond to a variety of environmental factors, including tree species composition and geological conditions, which are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Bryophytes growing on a variety of substrates were identified in ICP Forests monitoring plots in a wide range of close-to-nature managed forests, from lowland to high mountain areas in Slovenia. Based on data on tree layer composition (broadleaves vs. conifers) and on bedrock and soil type (calcareous vs. siliceous bedrock), all study plots were classified into five groups representing forest types. Different ordination analyses and statistical tests were used to represent differences between forest types in bryophyte composition, richness and functional traits. Almost 200 bryophyte species were identified in managed forests, with the most common being Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachytheciastrum velutinum and Polytrichum formosum. Bryophyte species composition varied considerably along the tree species composition and edaphic gradients represented by the selected forest types. Bryophyte species richness was significantly higher on calcareous bedrock than on siliceous bedrock. The higher occurrence of rocks on the ground surface may significantly increase the availability of various microhabitats for bryophytes. Bedrock had a significant influence on the functional diversity and composition of bryophytes, while tree species composition had less influence. Bedrock and tree species composition are important drivers of bryophyte species composition and diversity at taxonomic and functional trait levels. The high diversity of bryophyte species in Slovenian forests can also be attributed to close-to-nature and sustainable forest management practices that preserve favourable microclimatic conditions in forest stands and maintain diverse substrates.
Ključne besede: mosses, species richness, functional diversity, site conditions, overstory, sustainable managed forests, European temperate zone
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 320; Prenosov: 80
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Green space area and type affect bird communities in a South-eastern European cityMaarten De Groot
, Katarina Flajšman
, Tomaž Mihelič
, Urša Vilhar
, Primož Simončič
, Andrej Verlič
, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek
Povzetek: Urbanization decreases the species richness and results in the homogenization of bird communities. Bird species are important indicator species for biodiversity and reflect the habitat quality of urban forests and other green spaces. In this study we investigated the key drivers that influence bird communities in urban forests and green spaces in the Southeastern European city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. We were interested in how the number of species, species dissimilarity and indicator species are affected by the type of green space (urban forest vs park), area of green space and type of urbanization (urban vs peri-urban areas). We sampled birds twice in 2012 in 39 standardized point counts across Ljubljana. We found that the abundance was influenced by the area of the green space. Species dissimilarity and species turnover are affected by the area and type of green space. Interestingly, the analysis showed that the species composition of peri-urban areas was similar to that of urban areas. Indicator species were found for all environmental variables. On the basis of the results, we suggest the strategy that would increase the diversity of birds and increase the stability of their populations in urban areas. Urban planners should encourage 1) both forests and parks since they harbour different species of birds, 2) larger green spaces since larger areas have species that are more typical of larger areas and 3) a mosaic of a larger number of smaller forest remnants combined with larger forest complex serving as source areas.
Ključne besede: urban forest, bird species composition, forest remnant, urbanization, peri-urban forest, bird monitoring, species richness
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.06.2021; Ogledov: 1004; Prenosov: 434
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Comparing observer performance in vegetation records by efficiency graphs derived from rarefaction curvesWalter Seidling
, Leena Hamberg
, František Máliš
, Maija Salemaa
, Lado Kutnar
, Janusz Czerepko
, Thomas Kompa
, Václav Buriánek
, Jean-Luc Dupouey
, Anna Vodálová
, Roberto Canullo
, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek
Povzetek: Species richness is a key variable in measuring diversity of ecological communities. It is crucial to get reliable estimates for the number of plant species in space (mapping) and % even more important in the context of monitoring % over time. Therefore, knowledge on error rates related to recordings of species numbers should be considered in such inventories. The performance of observers in four field tests to capture species numbers carried out in forest ecosystems in central and southern Europe were compared. Observer-related species accumulation (rarefaction) curves and derived efficiency curves were analysed, resulting in mean error rates of 29.7% and 39.4% over series of plots sized 4m2 and 100m2 respectively. As a new approach individual rarefaction and efficiency curves reveal site-specific and spatially differentiated capabilities of observers to register plant species. Since expertise and individual searching strategies are difficult to parametrise, reasons for variation in error rates remain largely unknown. However, statistical modelling with site- and scale-specific mean error rates gave an overview on important influential factors like location, scale, spatial integration, and their interactions. Our results underline the importance to incorporate specific training and inter-comparison measures in monitoring programs and critical perception of results on temporal changes of species richness.
Ključne besede: species richness, observer error, overlooking rate, misidentification rate, singleton species, ICP Forests
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 1454; Prenosov: 573
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