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Particle size manipulation as an influential parameter in the development of mechanical properties in electric arc furnace slag-based AAM
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials (AAM) have gained recognition as a promising alternative to technical ceramic and building materials owing to the lower energy demands for production and the potential to use slag as a precursor. In the present study, five sets of slag-based AAM pastes were prepared with different particle sizes (fractions d < 63, 63 < d < 90, and 90 < d < 125 μm in different mass ratios) under the same curing regime and using a fixed precursor to activator (water) mass ratio. Precursors and the hardened AAM are evaluated using BET, XRD, XRF, SEM, FTIR, reactivity of precursors by leaching, and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Chemical analysis indicated only marginal differences among the different-sized fractions of input materials, whereas the BET surface area and reactivity among the precursors differed significantly-smaller particles had the largest surface area, and thus, higher reactivity. The mineralogical differences between the precursors and hardened AAM were negligible. The results revealed that compressive strength was significantly influenced by particle size, i.e., a threefold increase in strength when the particle size was halved. Microstructural evaluation using MIP confirmed that the porosity was the lowest in AAM with the smallest particle size. The low porosity and high reactivity of the fine fractions led to the highest compressive strength, confirming that manipulation of particle size can significantly influence the mechanical properties.
Ključne besede: alkalijsko aktivirani materiali, žlindra iz obločne peči, mehanska aktivacija, mehanske lastnosti, poroznost, alkali-activated materials (AAM), electric arc furnace steel slag, mechanical activation, mechanical properties, porosity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.11.2023; Ogledov: 48; Prenosov: 27
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Impacts of casting scales and harsh conditions on the thermal, acoustic, and mechanical properties of indoor acoustic panels made with fiber-reinforced alkali-activated slag foam concretes
Mohammad Mastali, Paivo Kinnunen, Marjaana Karhu, Zahra Abdollahnejad, Lidija Korat, Vilma Ducman, Ahmad Alzaza, Mirja Illikainen, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper presents experimental results regarding the efficiency of using acoustic panels made with fiber-reinforced alkali-activated slag foam concrete containing lightweight recycled aggregates produced by using Petrit-T (tunnel kiln slag). In the first stage, 72 acoustic panels with dimension 500 % 500 % 35 mm were cast and prepared. The mechanical properties of the panels were then assessed in terms of their compressive and flexural strengths. Moreover, the durability properties of acoustic panels were studied using harsh conditions (freeze/thaw and carbonation tests). The efficiency of the lightweight panels was also assessed in terms of thermal properties. In the second stage, 50 acoustic panels were used to cover the floor area in a reverberation room. The acoustic absorption in diffuse field conditions was measured, and the interrupted random noise source method was used to record the sound pressure decay rate over time. Moreover, the acoustic properties of the panels were separately assessed by impedance tubes and airflow resistivity measurements. The recorded results from these two sound absorption evaluations were compared. Additionally, a comparative study was presented on the results of impedance tube measurements to compare the influence of casting volumes (large and small scales) on the sound absorption of the acoustic panels. In the last stage, a comparative study was implemented to clarify the effects of harsh conditions on the sound absorption of the acoustic panels. The results showed that casting scale had great impacts on the mechanical and physical properties. Additionally, it was revealed that harsh conditions improved the sound properties of acoustic panels due to their effects on the porous structure of materials.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, slag, acoustic panels
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.09.2023; Ogledov: 141; Prenosov: 79
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The potential of ladle slag and electric arc furnace slag use in synthesizing alkali activated materials; the influence of curing on mechanical properties
Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali activation is studied as a potential technology to produce a group of high performance building materials from industrial residues such as metallurgical slag. Namely, slags containing aluminate and silicate form a useful solid material when activated by an alkaline solution. The alkali-activated (AA) slag-based materials are promising alternative products for civil engineering sector and industrial purposes. In the present study the locally available electric arc furnace steel slag (Slag A) and the ladle furnace basic slag (Slag R) from different metallurgical industries in Slovenia were selected for alkali activation because of promising amorphous Al/Si rich content. Different mixtures of selected precursors were prepared in the Slag A/Slag R ratios 1/0, 3/1, 1/1, 1/3 and 0/1 and further activated with potassium silicate using an activator to slag ratio of 1:2 in order to select the optimal composition with respect to their mechanical properties. Bending strength of investigated samples ranged between 4 and 18 MPa, whereas compressive strength varied between 30 and 60 MPa. The optimal mixture (Slag A/Slag R = 1/1) was further used to study strength development under the influence of different curing temperatures at room temperature (R. T.), and in a heat-chamber at 50, 70 and 90 °C, and the effects of curing time for 1, 3, 7 and 28 days was furthermore studied. The influence of curing time at room temperature on the mechanical strength at an early age was found to be nearly linear. Further, it was shown that specimens cured at 70 °C for 3 days attained almost identical (bending/compressive) strength to those cured at room temperature for 28 days. Additionally, microstructure evaluation of input materials and samples cured under different conditions was performed by means of XRD, FTIR, SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP).
Ključne besede: alkali activation, slag, influence of curing regime, FTIR
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.09.2023; Ogledov: 124; Prenosov: 70
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The Incorporation of steel slag into belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinkers
Lea Žibret, Katarina Šter, Maruša Mrak, Mojca Loncnar, Sabina Dolenec, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The potential use of steel slag from treated steel slag in belite-sulfoaluminate cements was investigated in this study. Cement clinkers with two phase compositions were synthesized, allowing the incorporation of different amounts of steel slag. The phase composition and microstructure of cement clinkers at three different sintering temperatures were studied by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method, as well as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. The results showed that the targeted phase composition of clinkers was achieved at a sintering temperature of 1250%C. However, a higher amount of perovskite instead of ferrite was detected in the clinker with a higher content of Ti-bearing bauxite. Apart from the main phases, such asbelite, calcium sulfoaluminate, and ferrite, several minor phases were identified, including mayenite, perovskite, periclase, and alkali sulfates. In both clinker mixtures, a higher content of MgO in the steelslags resulted in the formation of periclase. Furthermore, the hydration kinetics and compressive strength at 7 and 28 days were studied in two cements prepared from clinkers sintered at 1250%C. As evidenced by the results of isothermal calorimetry, the hydration kinetics were also influenced by the minor clinker phases. Cement with a higher content of calcium sulfoaluminate phase developed a higher compressive strength.
Ključne besede: cements, BCSA, steel slag, secundary row materials, microstructure, clinker phase
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.08.2023; Ogledov: 130; Prenosov: 69
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The effect of crystalline waterproofing a dmixtures on the self-healing and permeability of concrete
Anita Gojević, Vilma Ducman, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Ana Baričević, Ivana Banjad Pečur, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper investigates the effectiveness of a specific crystalline waterproofing admixture (CWA) in concrete as a function of a water–binder ratio. Four concrete mixes with and without CWA were prepared; two of them with a water–binder ratio of 0.45 and two of them with a water– binder ratio of 0.55. Water permeability and compressive strength were tested on hardened concrete specimens and self-healing of cracks over time was observed. Cement paste and CWA paste were prepared to clarify the results obtained on the concrete specimens. SEM and EDS and XRD and FTIR were performed on the hardened pastes to explain the mechanism of CWA working. The results show that the addition of CWA had no significant effect on the compressive strength of the concrete, but reduced the water penetration depth in the concrete, and the reduction was more effective for mixes with lower water–binder ratio. Regarding the self-healing effect, it can be concluded that the addition of CWA improves the crack healing in concrete, but the efficiency of self-healing is highly dependent on the initial crack width. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of water penetration depth and crack healing in concrete can be explained by different mechanisms; one is creation of the CSH gel from unreacted clinker grains, then formation carbonate, and additional mechanism is gel formation (highly expansive Mg-rich hydro-carbonate) from magnesium based additives. The presence of sodium silicate, which would transform into carbonate/bicarbonate, also cannot be excluded.
Ključne besede: slag, self healing concrete, crystal admixture, microstructural analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.07.2023; Ogledov: 152; Prenosov: 119
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,84 MB)
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The deformation of alkali-activated materials at an early age under different curing conditions
Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The production of alkali-activated materials (AAMs) is known for its environmentally friendly processing method, where several amorphous-rich aluminosilicate material sources combine with an alkali media solution to form solid, ceramic-like materials. In terms of the Si:Al, Na(K):Al, and Na(K):H2O ratios, the theory of AAM formation is quite well developed, but some open questions in the technology process remain, especially with regards to the means of curing, where the generation of defects can be persistent. Knowing that deformation is extremely high in the early ages, this study investigates the effects of temperature and moisture on shrinkage behavior within the first 72 h of AA pastes made from ladle (LS) and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and activated by sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). The method to determine the deformation of alkali-activated slag-based materials, in terms of both autogenous and drying shrinkage, was based on the modified ASTM C1698-19 standard for the measurement of autogenous shrinkage in cement pastes. Autogenous deformation and strain were measured in four samples, using the standard procedure at room temperature, 40 and 60°C. Furthermore, using an adjusted method, nine samples were characterized for strain and partial surface pressure, while drying at room temperature, 40, or 60°C at a relative humidity of 30 or 90%. The results show that the highest rate of autogenous shrinkage occurred at a temperature of 60°C, followed by drying shrinkage at 60°C and 30% relative humidity, owing to the fact that the rate of evaporation was highest at this moisture content. The study aimed to provide guidance regarding selection of the optimal curing set in order to minimize deformations in slag-based alkali-activated materials. In the present case, curing at a temperature of around 40°C under lower moisture conditions for the first 24 h provided optimal mechanical properties for the slags investigated. The methodology might also be of use for other aluminosilicate sources such as metakaolin, fly ash, and mineral wool–based alkali-activated materials.
Ključne besede: alkali-activated materials, slag, drying, autogenous shrinkage, partial surface pressure, curing deformation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.07.2023; Ogledov: 195; Prenosov: 76
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Mass concrete with EAF steel slag aggregate : workability, strength, temperature rise, and environmental performance
Davor Kvočka, Jakob Šušteršič, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Ana Mladenovič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Temperature control is the primary concern during the design and construction process of mass concrete structures. As the concrete production has an enormous negative environmental impact, the development of green mass concretes will eventually become as important as the thermal characteristics. Therefore, this paper investigates the use of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel slag aggregate for the partial replacement of the natural aggregate in the production of mass concrete. The impact of EAF steel aggregate on mass concrete workability, strength, and thermal behaviour was analysed. In addition, a cradle-to-gate LCA study was conducted to evaluate the environmental footprint and sustainability potential of the tested mass concrete mixtures. The study results suggest that the use of EAF steel slag aggregate in combination with a low-heat cement with a high content of blast furnace slag can significantly lower the temperature, reduce the environmental impact, and increase the sustainability potential of mass concrete, while at the same time providing sufficient workability and compressive strength. The study results indicate that EAF steel slag can be upcycled into an aggregate for the production of green mass concrete mixtures.
Ključne besede: mass concrete, thermal stress, EAF steel slag, green concrete, LCA, sustainability, open access
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.05.2023; Ogledov: 169; Prenosov: 136
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Antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity of 100% waste derived alkali activated materials : slags and stone wool-based binders
Caterina Sgarlata, Giovanni Dal Poggetto, Federica Piccolo, Michelina Catauro, Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Hoang Nguyen, Juho Yliniemi, Luisa Barbieri, Vilma Ducman, Isabella Lancellotti, Cristina Leonelli, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In this study we compare the leaching behavior and the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of 100% slag or stone wool derived alkali activated materials. The antibacterial activity was measured as the inhibiting capacity against two Gram- negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one Gram-positive bacterial strain: Enterococcus faecalis. The cytotoxicity properties were tested on mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH-3T3 cell-line. It was proved that the high quality of the 3D aluminosilicate network of the consolidated materials obtained from powders of CaO or MgO-rich slags or stone wool, opportunely activated with NaO and/or Na-silicate, was capable of stabilizing heavy metal cations. The concentrations of leachate heavy cations were lower than the European law limit when tested in water. The effect of additives in the composites, basal fibers or nanocellulose, did not reduce the chemical stability and slightly influenced the compressive strength. Weight loss in water increased by 20% with basalt fibers addition, while it remained almost constant when nanocellulose was added. All the consolidated materials, cement-like in appearance, exhibited limited antibacterial properties (viability from 50 to 80% depending on the bacterial colony and the amount of sample) and absence of cytotoxicity, envisaging good acceptance from part of the final consumer and zero ecological impact. CaO-rich formulations can replace ordinary Portland cement (showing bacterial viability at 100%) with a certain capability for preventing the reproduction of the E. coli and S. aureus bacteria with health and environmental protection results.
Ključne besede: antibacterial properties, cytotoxicity, alkali-activated materials, slag, stone wool, waste utilization, social acceptance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.05.2023; Ogledov: 203; Prenosov: 101
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Alkali activation of metallurgical slags : reactivity, chemical behavior, and environmental assessment
Isabella Lancellotti, Federica Piccolo, Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, Cristina Leonelli, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) represent a promising alternative to conventional building materials and ceramics. Being produced in large amounts as aluminosilicate-rich secondary products, such as slags, they can be utilized for the formulation of AAMs. Slags are partially crystalline metallurgical residues produced during the high temperature separation of metallic and non-metallic materials in the steelmaking processes. In the present study, the electric arc furnace carbon or stainless steel slag (EAF) and secondary metallurgical slag such as ladle furnace basic slag (LS) were used as precursors in an alkali-activation process. EAF slag, with its amorphous fraction of about 56%, presented higher contents of soluble Si and Al species with respect to ladle slag R (35%). However, both are suitable to produce AAM. The leaching behavior shows that all the release values are below the regulation limit. All the bivalent ions (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are well immobilized in a geopolymeric matrix, while amphoteric elements, such as As and Cr, show a slight increase of release with respect to the corresponding slag in alkaline and aqueous environments. In particular, for Sb and As of AAM, release still remains below the regulation limits, while Mo presents an increase of leaching values that slightly exceeds the limit for landfill non-dangerous waste.
Ključne besede: slag, aluminosilicate materials, chemical reactivity, cold consolidation, alkali activation, leaching test, open access
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.05.2023; Ogledov: 205; Prenosov: 102
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Leaching and geochemical modelling of an electric arc furnace (EAF) and ladle slag heap
Mojca Loncnar, Ana Mladenovič, Vesna Zalar Serjun, Marija Zupančič, Hans A. van der Sloot, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Old metallurgical dumps across Europe represent a loss of valuable land and a potential threat to the environment, especially to groundwater (GW). The Javornik electric arc furnace (EAF) and ladle slag heap, situated in Slovenia, was investigated in this study. The environmental impact of the slag heap was evaluated by combining leaching characterization tests of landfill samples and geochemical modelling. It was shown that throughout the landfill the same minerals and sorptive phases control the leaching of elements of potential concern, despite variations in chemical composi- tion. Although carbonation of the disposed steel slags occurred (molar ratio CO3/(Ca+Mg) = 0.53) relative to fresh slag, it had a limited effect on the leaching behaviour of elements of potential concern. The leaching from the slag heaps had also a limited effect on the quality of the GW. A site-specific case, however, was that leachates from the slag heap were strongly diluted, since a rapid flow of GW fed from the nearby Sava River was observed in the landfill area. The sampling and testing approach applied provides a basis for assessing the long-term impact of release and is a good starting point for evaluating future management options, including beneficial uses for this type of slag.
Ključne besede: EAF slag, field verification, geochemical modelling, ladle slag, leaching, release prediction, steel slag heap
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.04.2023; Ogledov: 222; Prenosov: 128
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