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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (respiration) .

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Listening to the breath, chanting the word : the two breaths in María Zambrano’s Clearings of the forest
Raquel Ferrández, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Clearings of the Forest (Claros del Bosque, 1977), one of the most poetic and chal-lenging works of María Zambrano’s thought, cannot be approached from a breath-less paradigm. For the immersion in these clearings take us into the breathing of being that we contemplate alongside the more obvious physiological breathing, the breathing of life. In this work, Zambrano proposes a poetic and mystical phe-nomenology of the breathing of being through the breathing of its word. Thus, to recover contact with this inner breathing could be to recover the lost chant of the word. This essay does not pretend to be a detailed analysis of Zambrano’s thought as a whole, nor of the vibrant mystery that her clearings reveal. The purpose is to uncover the fundamental role that breathing plays in this poetic-philosophical journey, along with other symbols such as light or love, with the question of what place this type of philosophical exercise occupies today in the classrooms of con-temporary universities.
Ključne besede: poetic reason, María Zambrano, being, love, Unamuno, Ortega, respiration
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.05.2024; Ogledov: 194; Prenosov: 196
.pdf Celotno besedilo (267,10 KB)
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From respiration to fleshpiration : a Merleau-Pontian journey into respiratory philosophy and respiratory religion with Jesus, St. Paul, Claudel, and Merleau-Ponty
Petri Joakim Berndtson, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In this article, I introduce a new word, the neologism “fleshpiration.” It is a word or a name in which I intertwine “flesh” and “spirit” or “spiration.” This new word is inspired by the thinking of Jesus, St. Paul, Paul Claudel, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The interpretative starting point of my article is taken from Clau-del, who states: “the spirit is respiration.” With Claudel’s idea, which has its roots in the etymological analysis of pneuma and spiritus, I interpret the spirit (pneuma) of Jesus and St. Paul to mean respiration in the first place. Within this respira-tory interpretative context, I suggest that both Jesus and St. Paul emphasised the essentiality of breathing in their religious thinking. For St. Paul, life according to the flesh and life according to the Spirit as life according to the Respiration are opposite lifestyles. Within the context of Merleau-Ponty, it can be said that St. Paul’s dichotomy between the flesh and the Spirit can be challenged and surpassed. For Merleau-Ponty, the flesh and the Spirit can be intertwined in a paradoxical manner. Within this framework of paradoxical thinking, it becomes possible to discover this new word “fleshpiration” and initially claim that it names a new res-piratory beginning for philosophy and religion.
Ključne besede: Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Paul Claudel, Jesus, St. Paul, respiration, flesh, fleshpiration
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.05.2024; Ogledov: 226; Prenosov: 165
.pdf Celotno besedilo (781,04 KB)
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Temporal changes in the epidemiology, management, and outcome from acute respiratory distress syndrome in European intensive care units : a comparison of two large cohorts
Yasser Sakr, Bruno François, Jordi Solé-Violan, Katarzyna Kotfis, Ulrich Jaschinski, Angel Estella, Marc Leone, Stephan M. Jakob, Xavier Wittebole, Luis E. Fontes, Viktorija Tomič, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. Mortality rates for patients with ARDS remain high. We assessed temporal changes in the epidemiology and management of ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in European ICUs. We also investigated the association between ventilatory settings and outcome in these patients. Methods. This was a post hoc analysis of two cohorts of adult ICU patients admitted between May 1–15, 2002 (SOAP study, n = 3147), and May 8–18, 2012 (ICON audit, n = 4601 admitted to ICUs in the same 24 countries as the SOAP study). ARDS was defined retrospectively using the Berlin definitions. Values of tidal volume, PEEP, plateau pressure, and FiO2 corresponding to the most abnormal value of arterial PO2 were recorded prospectively every 24 h. In both studies, patients were followed for outcome until death, hospital discharge or for 60 days. Results. The frequency of ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation during the ICU stay was similar in SOAP and ICON (327[10.4%] vs. 494[10.7%], p = 0.793). The diagnosis of ARDS was established at a median of 3 (IQ: 1–7) days after admission in SOAP and 2 (1–6) days in ICON. Within 24 h of diagnosis, ARDS was mild in 244 (29.7%), moderate in 388 (47.3%), and severe in 189 (23.0%) patients. In patients with ARDS, tidal volumes were lower in the later (ICON) than in the earlier (SOAP) cohort. Plateau and driving pressures were also lower in ICON than in SOAP. ICU (134[41.1%] vs 179[36.9%]) and hospital (151[46.2%] vs 212[44.4%]) mortality rates in patients with ARDS were similar in SOAP and ICON. High plateau pressure (> 29 cmH2O) and driving pressure (> 14 cmH2O) on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume (> 8 ml/kg predicted body weight [PBW]) were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death. Conclusion. The frequency of and outcome from ARDS remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2012. Plateau pressure > 29 cmH2O and driving pressure > 14 cmH2O on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume > 8 ml/kg PBW were independently associated with a higher risk of death. These data highlight the continued burden of ARDS and provide hypothesis-generating data for the design of future studies.
Ključne besede: respiratory insufficiency, artificial respiration, tidal volume, airway pressures, driving pressure
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.06.2021; Ogledov: 1328; Prenosov: 617
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Decontamination strategies and bloodstream infections with antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in ventilated patients : a randomized clinical trial
Bastiaan H. Wittekamp, Nienke L. Plantinga, Ben S. Cooper, Joaquin Lopez-Contreras, Pere Coll, Jordi Mancebo, Matt P. Wise, Matt P. G. Morgan, Pieter Depuydt, Jerina Boelens, Viktorija Tomič, Franc Šifrer, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Importance: The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance are unknown. Objective: To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance. Design, setting, and participants: Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible. The final date of follow-up was September 20, 2017. Interventions: Standard care was daily CHX 2% body washings and a hand hygiene improvement program. Following a baseline period from 6 to 14 months, each ICU was assigned in random order to 3 separate 6-month intervention periods with either CHX 2% mouthwash, SOD (mouthpaste with colistin, tobramycin, and nystatin), or SDD (the same mouthpaste and gastrointestinal suspension with the same antibiotics), all applied 4 times daily. Main outcomes and measures: The occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infection with MDRGNB (primary outcome) and 28-day mortality (secondary outcome) during each intervention period compared with the baseline period. Results: A total of 8665 patients (median age, 64.1 years; 5561 men [64.2%]) were included in the study (2251, 2108, 2224, and 2082 in the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively). ICU-acquired bloodstream infection with MDRGNB occurred among 144 patients (154 episodes) in 2.1%, 1.8%, 1.5%, and 1.2% of included patients during the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively. Absolute risk reductions were 0.3% (95% CI, -0.6% to 1.1%), 0.6% (95% CI, -0.2% to 1.4%), and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.1% to 1.6%) for CHX, SOD, and SDD, respectively, compared with baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.68-1.88), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.55-1.45), and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.43-1.14) during the CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively, vs baseline. Crude mortality risks on day 28 were 31.9%, 32.9%, 32.4%, and 34.1% during the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for 28-day mortality were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.32), 1.05 (95% CI, 0.85-1.29), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.80-1.32) for CHX, SOD, and SDD, respectively, vs baseline. Conclusions and relevance: Among patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs with moderate to high antibiotic resistance prevalence, use of CHX mouthwash, SOD, or SDD was not associated with reductions in ICU-acquired bloodstream infections caused by MDRGNB compared with standard care.
Ključne besede: anti-infective agents -- therapeutic use, bacteremia -- prevention and control, chlorhexidine -- therapeutic use, cross infection -- prevention and control, disinfection -- methods, bacterial drug resistance, gastrointestinal tract -- microbiology, Gram-negative bacterial infections -- prevention and control, hospital mortality, intensive care units, mouthwashes -- therapeutic use, oropharynx -- microbiology, artificial respiration, multicenter study, randomized controlled trial
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.11.2020; Ogledov: 1355; Prenosov: 464
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Effect of spatial scale and harvest on heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux in a sessile oak forest
Eva Dařenová, Matjaž Čater, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and it is substantially sensitive to climate change. Monitoring CO2 efflux and its upscaling from field measurements to the ecosystem level is a complex task, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the fluxes. Human intervention, e.g. through forest harvest, may change both CO2 efflux and its spatial heterogeneity. The objective of our study was to quantify spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux within and among plots distributed within a topographically variable sessile oak forest stand before and after harvesting. Forest floor CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil water content were measured monthly in a sessile oak forest during two growing seasons: one before and one after harvesting. Stand structure characteristics (gap fraction, leaf area index, tree number and size) and the amount of understory also were determined. Relationships between individual variables and spatial heterogeneity were analyzed. The small-scale spatial heterogeneity (expresses as the coefficient of variation) of forest floor CO2 efflux and soil water content (SWC) in the undisturbed forest was low, at maximum 0.22 and 0.13, respectively. Studied variables had no effect on spatial heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux except for the amount of understorey vegetation which positively correlated with forest floor CO2 efflux. Although the studied forest was situated in topographically variable terrain, we observed that inter-plot heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux was lower than that within plots. Stand harvest increased the intra-plot heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux but did not affect the inter-plot heterogeneity. This leads to the conclusion that the number of positions within an individual plot should increase after harvest but the number of plots may remain unchanged to determine adequately ecosystem forest floor CO2 efflux.
Ključne besede: gap fraction, LAI, Quercus petraea, soil respiration, soil water content
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 2012; Prenosov: 207

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