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1.
In vitro interactions between Eutypella parasitica and some frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of young Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)
Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, Nikica Ogris, 2020

Povzetek: The ten most frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of Acer pseudoplatanus L. were tested in dual cultures to evaluate their in vitro antagonistic activity against Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz, the causative agent of a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The tested fungi, treated also as challenge isolates, were Diaporthe sp., Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, E. parasitica, Fusarium avenaceum, Neocucurbitaria acerina, Neonectria sp., Peniophora incarnata, Petrakia irregularis, and Phomopsis pustulata. The antagonistic ability of each challenge isolate was evaluated by calculating an index of antagonism (AI) based on the interaction type in the dual cultures. The results of competition between the fungal isolates were quantified after re-isolations from the interaction zone (s). The dual cultures revealed two main types of competitive interactions: Deadlock, consisting of mutual inhibition after mycelial contact or at a distance, and replacement, reflecting in the inhibition of E. parasitica, followed by partial overgrowth by the replacing fungus. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in average AI and s of challenge isolates between different dual culture assays. Based on the results of the antagonism index, Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, Neonectria sp., and P. incarnata had the highest inhibitory effect on E. parasitica growth and were recognized as the most promising candidates for further biocontrol studies of E. parasitica. The mycelium of E. parasitica at the interaction zones remained mostly viable, except in dual cultures with Eutypa sp., F. avenaceum, and Neonectria sp., where re-isolations did not yield any colony of the E. parasitica isolate. Based on the results, we assume that E. parasitica is a weak competitor, which invests less energy in direct mycelial competition. We discuss the potential of the observed antagonists as a possible biocontrol of Eutypella canker of maple. Nevertheless, additional experiments should be performed for a solid conclusion about competitive ability of E. parasitica and usefulness of antagonists as biocontrol.
Ključne besede: Eutypella parasitica, dual culture, hyphal interaction, deadlock, replacement, competition, antagonism, inhibition, re-isolation, biocontrol
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.10.2020; Ogledov: 200; Prenosov: 161
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COVID-19 home confinement negatively impacts social participation and life satisfaction : a worldwide multicenter study
Achraf Ammar, Hamdi Chtourou, Omar Boukhris, Khaled Trabelsi, Liwa Masmoudi, Michael Brach, Bassem Bouaziz, Ellen Bentlage, Daniella How, Mona Ahmed, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Saša Pišot, 2020

Povzetek: Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation, and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to mitigate spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on psychosocial health is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020 to elucidate the behavioral and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the preliminary results from more than one thousand responders on social participation and life satisfaction. Methods: Thirty-five research organizations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia, and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, in 7 languages (English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, and Slovenian). Questions were presented in a differential format with questions related to responses "before" and "during" confinement conditions. Results: 1047 participations (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%), and others (3%) were included in the analysis. Findings revealed psychosocial strain during the enforced COVID-19 home confinement. Large decreases (p < 0.001) in the amount of social activity through family (%58%), friends/neighbors (%44.9%), or entertainment (%46.7%) were triggered by the enforced confinement. These negative effects on social participation were also associated with lower life satisfaction (%30.5%) during the confinement period. Conversely, the social contact score through digital technologies significantly increased (p < 0.001) during the confinement period with more individuals (+24.8%) being socially connected through digital technology. Conclusion: These preliminary findings elucidate the risk of psychosocial strain during the early COVID-19 home confinement period in 2020. Therefore, in order to mitigate the negative psychosocial effects of home confinement, implementation of national strategies focused on promoting social inclusion through a technology-based solution is strongly suggested.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, public health, restrictions, isolation, home confinement, social participation, life satisfaction
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.12.2020; Ogledov: 261; Prenosov: 174
.pdf Celotno besedilo (400,20 KB)

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Psychological consequences of COVID-19 home confinement : the ECLB-COVID19 multicenter study
Achraf Ammar, Patrick Mueller, Khaled Trabelsi, Hamdi Chtourou, Omar Boukhris, Liwa Masmoudi, Bassem Bouaziz, Michael Brach, Marlen Schmicker, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, 2020

Povzetek: Background Public health recommendations and government measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have enforced restrictions on daily-living. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on mental health and emotional wellbeing is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey (ECLB-COVID19) was launched on April 6, 2020 in seven languages to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on mental health and emotional wellbeing. Methods The ECLB-COVID19 electronic survey was designed by a steering group of multidisciplinary scientists, following a structured review of the literature. The survey was uploaded and shared on the Google online-survey-platform and was promoted by thirty-five research organizations from Europe, North-Africa, Western-Asia and the Americas. All participants were asked for their mental wellbeing (SWEMWS) and depressive symptoms (SMFQ) with regard to %during% and %before% home confinement. Results Analysis was conducted on the first 1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%). The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on both mental-wellbeing and on mood and feelings. Specifically, a significant decrease (p < .001 and %% = 9.4%) in total score of the SWEMWS questionnaire was noted. More individuals (+12.89%) reported a low mental wellbeing %during% compared to %before% home confinement. Furthermore, results from the mood and feelings questionnaire showed a significant increase by 44.9% (p < .001) in SMFQ total score with more people (+10%) showing depressive symptoms %during% compared to %before% home confinement. Conclusion The ECLB-COVID19 survey revealed an increased psychosocial strain triggered by the home confinement. To mitigate this high risk of mental disorders and to foster an Active and Healthy Confinement Lifestyle (AHCL), a crisis-oriented interdisciplinary intervention is urgently needed.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, public health, restrictions, isolation, home confinement, psychosocial health, psychological consequences, mental health, emotions, wellbeing, physical inactivity
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.12.2020; Ogledov: 299; Prenosov: 235
.pdf Celotno besedilo (598,03 KB)

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Effects of home confinement on mental health and lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak : insights from the ECLB-COVID19 multicentre study
Saša Pišot, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Bassem Bouaziz, Liwa Masmoudi, Omar Boukhris, Hamdi Chtourou, Michael Brach, Khaled Trabelsi, Achraf Ammar, 2021

Povzetek: Although recognised as effective measures to curb the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing and self-isolation have been suggested to generate a burden throughout the population. To provide scientific data to help identify risk factors for the psychosocial strain during the COVID-19 outbreak, an international cross-disciplinary online survey was circulated in April 2020. This report outlines the mental, emotional and behavioural consequences of COVID-19 home confinement. The ECLB-COVID19 electronic survey was designed by a steering group of multidisciplinary scientists, following a structured review of the literature. The survey was uploaded and shared on the Google online survey platform and was promoted by thirty-five research organizations from Europe, North Africa, Western Asia and the Americas. Questions were presented in a differential format with questions related to responses %before% and %during% the confinement period. 1047 replies (54% women) from Western Asia (36%), North Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other continents (3%) were analysed. The COVID-19 home confinement evoked a negative effect on mental wellbeing and emotional status (P < 0.001; 0.43 % d % 0.65) with a greater proportion of individuals experiencing psychosocial and emotional disorders (+10% to +16.5%). These psychosocial tolls were associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours with a greater proportion of individuals experiencing (i) physical (+15.2%) and social (+71.2%) inactivity, (ii) poor sleep quality (+12.8%), (iii) unhealthy diet behaviours (+10%), and (iv) unemployment (6%). Conversely, participants demonstrated a greater use (+15%) of technology during the confinement period. These findings elucidate the risk of psychosocial strain during the COVID-19 home confinement period and provide a clear remit for the urgent implementation of technology-based intervention to foster an Active and Healthy Confinement Lifestyle AHCL).
Ključne besede: coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, public health, restrictions, isolation, home confinement, psychosocial health, mental wellbeing, depression, satisfaction, lifestyle, behaviours
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.12.2020; Ogledov: 287; Prenosov: 154
.pdf Celotno besedilo (732,17 KB)

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A cross-country examination on the fear of COVID-19 and the sense of loneliness during the first wave of COVID-19 outbreak
Patrik Drid, Saša Pišot, Gianluca Lo Coco, Ambra Gentile, Ksenja Bosnar, Ivana Milovanović, Antonino Bianco, 2021

Povzetek: The aim of the current study is to examine gender, age. and cross-country differences in fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness during the lockdown, by comparing people from those countries with a high rate of infections and deaths (e.g., Spain and Italy) and from countries with a mild spread of infection (e.g., Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). A total of 3876 participants (63% female) completed an online survey on %Everyday life practices in COVID-19 time% in April 2020, including measures of fear of COVID-19 and loneliness. Males and females of all age groups in countries suffering from the powerful impact of the COVID-19 pandemic reported greater fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness. In less endangered countries, females and the elderly reported more symptoms than males and the young; in Spanish and Italian samples, the pattern of differences is considerably more complex. Future research should thoroughly examine different age and gender groups. The analysis of emotional well-being in groups at risk of mental health issues may help to lessen the long term social and economic costs due to the COVID-19 outbreak.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, public health, restrictions, isolation, loneliness, fear, psychosocial distress
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 15.03.2021; Ogledov: 83; Prenosov: 57
.pdf Celotno besedilo (606,81 KB)

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Globally altered sleep patterns and physical activity levels by confinement in 5056 individuals : ECLB COVID-19 international online survey
Khaled Trabelsi, Achraf Ammar, Liwa Masmoudi, Omar Boukhris, Hamdi Chtourou, Bassem Bouaziz, Michael Brach, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Saša Pišot, 2021

Povzetek: Symptoms of psychological distress and disorder have been widely reported in people under quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic; in addition to severe disruption of peoples% daily activity and sleep patterns. This study investigates the association between physical-activity levels and sleep patterns in quarantined individuals. An international Google online survey was launched in April 6th, 2020 for 12-weeks. Forty-one research organizations from Europe, North-Africa, Western-Asia, and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, which was made available in 14 languages. The survey was presented in a differential format with questions related to responses %before% and %during% the confinement period. Participants responded to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. 5056 replies (59.4% female), from Europe (46.4%), Western-Asia (25.4%), America (14.8%) and North-Africa (13.3%) were analysed. The COVID-19 home confinement led to impaired sleep quality, as evidenced by the increase in the global PSQI score (4.37 % 2.71 before home confinement vs. 5.32 % 3.23 during home confinement) (p < 0.001). The frequency of individuals experiencing a good sleep decreased from 61% (n = 3063) before home confinement to 48% (n = 2405) during home confinement with highly active individuals experienced better sleep quality (p < 0.001) in both conditions. Time spent engaged in all physical-activity and the metabolic equivalent of task in each physical-activity category (i.e., vigorous, moderate, walking) decreased significantly during COVID-19 home confinement (p < 0.001). The number of hours of daily-sitting increased by ~2 hours/days during home confinement (p < 0.001). COVID-19 home confinement resulted in significantly negative alterations in sleep patterns and physical-activity levels. To maintain health during home confinement, physical-activity promotion and sleep hygiene education and support are strongly warranted.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, public health, restrictions, isolation, home confinement, psychosocial health, sleep, sedentary lifestyle, physical activities, lifestyle, behaviours
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.03.2021; Ogledov: 1016; Prenosov: 57
.pdf Celotno besedilo (408,87 KB)

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