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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (kinetics) .

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Evolution of surface functional groups and aromatic ring degradation upon treatment of polystyrene with hydroxyl radicals
Alenka Vesel, Rok Zaplotnik, Gregor Primc, Miran Mozetič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The surface properties of hydrocarbon polymers are inadequate for numerous applications. Hence, they require alteration via functionalisation with desired functional groups. Hydroxyl groups are often preferred, since they enable appropriate polarity for the irreversible grafting of desired molecules. In this study, the surface kinetics resulting from the treatment of polystyrene with hydroxyl (OH) radicals from the gas phase was fundamentally investigated through a precisely-designed experiment. Polystyrene samples were exposed to various known fluences of OH radicals, and the evolution of surface functional groups versus the OH fluence was monitored using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fluences of OH radicals varied between 1 × 1018 and 4 × 1023 m−2 in the process of finding a threshold fluence for the formation of specific groups. The surface concentration of carbonyl (C=O) groups could be measured using XPS at a fluence of approximately 5 × 1020 m−2. The C=O groups became measurable at a fluence of approximately 1.5 × 1021 m−2, and carboxyl (COOH)/ester groups at approximately 4 × 1021 m−2. As deduced from the XPS, a concentration of C=O groups at approximately 5 % occurred before the degradation of the aromatic ring. The formation of other oxygen-functional groups required opening of the aromatic ring. The results have been explained using a two-step process, considering available theories vis-a-vis initial stages in the functionalisation of PS with polar functional groups.
Ključne besede: polistiren, kinetika površinske funkcionalizacije, OH radikali, vpliv doze radikalov, časovni razvoj, polystyrene, surface functionalisation kinetics, OH radicals
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.11.2023; Ogledov: 73; Prenosov: 25
URL Povezava na datoteko

Independent infuence of age on heart rate recovery after flywheel exercise in trained men and women
Damir Zubac, Nandu Goswami, Vladimir Ivančev, Zoran Valić, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The present study examined whether differences in the heart rate recovery following flywheel exercise cessation were associated with differences in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max.), age and sex in trained adults. Eleven men (age range 22-49 years, VO2 max.=43.6 +/- 7.6 mL kg min -1) and ten women (age range 20-53 years, VO2 max.=38.0 +/- 5.7 mL kg min%1) were randomly assigned to complete a squat-exercise on the flywheel ergometer set at three different moments of inertia, while their cardiovascular responses were continuously monitored. During the flywheel exercise the mean arterial pressure rose by ~35 to 40% (p=.001), and the increment was more robust in men than women. The cardiac index was two-fold greater across both sexes compared to the baseline (p=.001), while the rise in heart rate (~144 bpm) was more pronounced in women to compensate for their load-dependent stroke index decline (p=.001). The load-independent time-course changes in heart rate recovery markers were comparable between the sexes. When these indicators were pooled, a stepwise regression revealed age as the only relevant predictor of both fast and slow components of the heart rate recovery (~30 of the shared variance explained, p=.014). The present data suggest that the heart rate recovery declines with age, irrespective of sex, or well-preserved cardiorespiratory fitness in moderately-trained adults.
Ključne besede: training, exercise, Yo-Yo exercise, flywheel, heart rate variability, total peripheral conductance, oxygen uptake kinetics
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 11.06.2021; Ogledov: 868; Prenosov: 778
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,64 MB)
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