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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (invasive species) .

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Consistency of impact assessment protocols for non-native species
Pablo González-Moreno, Lorenzo Lazzaro, Montserrat Vila, Cristina Preda, Tim Adriaens, Sven Bacher, Giuseppe Brundu, Gordon H. Copp, Franz Essl, Nikica Ogris, 2019

Povzetek: Standardized tools are needed to identify and prioritize the most harmful non-native species (NNS). A plethora of assessment protocols have been developed to evaluate the current and potential impacts of non-native species, but consistency among them has received limited attention. To estimate the consistency across impact assessment protocols, 89 specialists in biological invasions used 11 protocols to screen 57 NNS (2614 assessments). We tested if the consistency in the impact scoring across assessors, quantified as the coefficient of variation (CV), was dependent on the characteristics of the protocol, the taxonomic group and the expertise of the assessor. Mean CV across assessors was 40%, with a maximum of 223%. CV was lower for protocols with a low number of score levels, which demanded high levels of expertise, and when the assessors had greater expertise on the assessed species. The similarity among protocols with respect to the final scores was higher when the protocols considered the same impact types. We conclude that all protocols led to considerable inconsistency among assessors. In order to improve consistency, we highlight the importance of selecting assessors with high expertise, providing clear guidelines and adequate training but also deriving final decisions collaboratively by consensus.
Ključne besede: environmental impact, expert judgement, invasive alien species policy, management prioritization, risk assessment, socio-economic impact
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.04.2019; Ogledov: 1633; Prenosov: 578
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

Eutypella parasitica and other frequently isolated fungi in wood of dead branches of young Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) in Slovenia
Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, Nikica Ogris, 2020

Povzetek: Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz is the causative agent of Eutypella canker of maple, a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The fungus E. parasitica infects the trunk through a branch stub or bark wound. Because the fungal community may have an impact on infection and colonization by E. parasitica, the composition of fungi colonizing wood of dead branches of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) was investigated in five sampling sites in Slovenia. Forty samples from each sampling site were collected between the November 2017 and March 2018 period. Isolations were made from the wood in the outer part of dead branches and from discoloured wood in the trunk that originated from a dead branch. Pure cultures were divided into morphotypes, and one representative culture per morphotype was selected for further molecular identification. From a total of 2700 cultured subsamples, 1744 fungal cultures were obtained, which were grouped into 212 morphotypes. The investigated samples were colonized by a broad spectrum of fungi. The most frequently isolated species were Eutypa maura (Fr.) Sacc., Eutypa sp. Tul. and C. Tul., Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc., Neocucurbitaria acerina Wanas., Camporesi, E.B.G. Jones and K.D. Hyde and E. parasitica. In this study, we distinguished species diversity and the fungal community. There were no significant differences in the diversity of fungal species between the five sampling sites, and branch thickness did not prove to be a statistically significant factor in fungal species diversity. Nevertheless, relatively low Jaccard similarity index values suggested possible differences in the fungal communities from different sampling sites. This was confirmed by an analysis of similarities, which showed that the isolated fungal community distinctly differed between the five sampling sites and between the different isolation sources. Eutypella parasitica was isolated from all five investigated sampling sites, although Eutypella cankers were observed in only three sampling sites, indicating the possibility of asymptomatic infection.
Ključne besede: fungal composition, invasive species, diversity, fungal communities, molecular identification, frequencies, Jaccard similarity index, Eutypella parasitica, analysis of similarities, colonization
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.05.2020; Ogledov: 1170; Prenosov: 735
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Using citizen science to monitor the spread of tree pests and diseases : outcomes of two projects in Slovenia and the UK
Peter Crow, Ana Pérez-Sierra, Andreja Kavčič, Kate Lewthwaite, Marija Kolšek, Nikica Ogris, Barbara Piškur, Jana Kus Veenvliet, Simon Zidar, Suzanne Sancisi-Frey, Maarten De Groot, 2020

Povzetek: The trees and forests of Europe are increasingly under threat from new pests and diseases that have originated in other parts of the world. Early detection of alien species when they first appear in European countries allows rapid response and offers the best chance to mitigate against their establishment and spread. Citizen science initiatives such as LIFE ARTEMIS in Slovenia, and Observatree in the UK, provide members of the public with the necessary training and educational resource to identify these tree pests and diseases and report them to the appropriate authorities, thereby increasing the level of surveillance and the capacity of the early warning system. This paper summarises some of the outcomes of these two projects and how they have both become integral parts of the official forest and tree health monitoring systems within their respective countries of Slovenia and the United Kingdom.
Ključne besede: invasive alien species, plant health, tree health, forest health, early warning, rapid response
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.11.2020; Ogledov: 773; Prenosov: 432
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in its invasive range in Europe : perception, knowledge and willingness to act in foresters and citizens
Flavius Balacenoiu, György Csóka, Bastien Castagneyrol, Iris Bernardinelli, Anže Japelj, Milka Glavendekić, Gernot Hoch, Boris Hrašovec, Silvija Krajter Ostoić, Márton Paulin, David Williams, Johan Witters, Maarten De Groot, 2021

Povzetek: The oak lace bug (OLB) Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) is an invasive alien species (IAS) that potentially could have many negative impacts on European oak health. Certain measures can be applied to counteract these effects. However, these measures may not be acceptable for forest managers or other stakeholder groups, such as private forest owners, environmental NGOs or the general public. Thereby, we set out to study the perception and knowledge of foresters and other stakeholders on the health status of European oak forests affected by oak lace bug and to investigate what forest health management measures would be acceptable to these target groups. An online survey questionnaire was designed and distributed via social networks, as well as professional networks via e-mails. The survey questionnaire was completed by 2084 respondents from nine European countries: Austria, Croatia, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. Even though only a little over 60% of respondents reported they had noticed the discolouration of oak leaves caused by OLB, almost all (93%) considered it to be a problem. As respondents come from a country where C. arcuata is widespread and established, people%s general knowledge and awareness of OLB began to increase. The survey revealed that foresters thought that the insect affected photosynthesis, acorn crop and the aesthetics of the trees, but cannot cause death of trees. However, they assume that the value of the wood would decrease (this fact is also supported by the respondents who are connected to an environmental NGO), but that OLB does not affect property value. However, forest owners claim that the value of the property can be affected and that people would avoid entering the forest. In terms of potential control methods, respondents preferred biological or mechanical measures over chemical ones. We consider this study to be a good basis for further research on the topic of perception, knowledge and attitudes related to OLB since we can expect that the IAS, such as OLB, will certainly spread to European countries that were not included in this survey.
Ključne besede: attitude, citizen knowledge, Europe, forest health, IAS control measures, invasive alien species, survey
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.10.2021; Ogledov: 289; Prenosov: 172
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,36 MB)

Agricultural landscape affects sex-specific differences in the abundance of Drosophila suzukii in raspberry orchards
Maarten De Groot, Magda Rak Cizej, Andreja Kavčič, Špela Modic, Franček Poličnik, Nina Šramel, Primož Žigon, Jaka Razinger, 2022

Povzetek: In recent decades, the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) (Drosophila suzukii), an invasive pest, has caused a great deal of damage to fruit crops. There is therefore an urgent need to develop strategies to control the populations of this species. It has been found that the landscape context can buffer or increase the severity of pest outbreaks in agriculture, and it is important to understand how this process works in SWD for all crops. Given this background, we investigated the influence of forest on SWD populations in raspberry orchards and surrounding agricultural land. We selected 10 locations in the central part of Slovenia, five of which were closer than 200 m from the forest edge and five of which were more than 200 m from the forest edge. We collected SWD adults in three habitat types per location from the end of June until the end of October 2020. The results showed that forest harboured a larger SWD population than orchards and agricultural land. Over the season, the number of individuals increased exponentially over time, and the difference between forest and other habitat types increased. The distance from the forest had a negative effect on the abundance of SWD. There was a difference in abundance observed between males and females, with males being less abundant farther away from the forest than females. However, the distance from the forest only had a negative effect on the abundance of females in September. Based on the results, we propose potential measures for the control of SWD in raspberry orchards.
Ključne besede: agricultural ecosystem, integrated pest management, invasive species, raspberry, spotted wing drosophila
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 15.11.2021; Ogledov: 233; Prenosov: 188
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,30 MB)
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Comparing environmental impacts of alien plants, insects and pathogens in protected riparian forests
Katharina Lapin, Sven Bacher, Thomas L. Cech, Rok Damjanić, Franz Essl, Freya-Isabel Georges, Gernot Hoch, Andreja Kavčič, András Koltay, Saša Kostić, Ivan Lukić, Aleksander Marinšek, Laszlo Nagy, Sonja Novak Agbaba, Janine Oettel, Saša Orlović, Leopold Poljaković-Pajnik, Marcus Sallmannshofer, Martin Steinkellner, Srdjan Stojnić, Marjana Westergren, Milica Zlatković, Anita Zolles, Maarten De Groot, 2021

Povzetek: The prioritization of alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts has become increasingly important for the management of invasive alien species. In this study, we applied the Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT) to classify alien taxa from three different taxonomic groups to facilitate the prioritisation of management actions for the threatened riparian forests of the Mura-Drava-Danube Biosphere Reserve, South East Europe. With local experts we collated a list of 198 alien species (115 plants, 45 insects, and 38 fungi) with populations reported in southeast European forest ecosystems and included them in the EICAT. We found impact reports for 114 species. Eleven of these species caused local extinctions of a native species, 35 led to a population decrease, 51 to a reduction in performance in at least one native species and for 17 alien species no effects on individual fitness of native species were detected. Fungi had significantly highest impact and were more likely to have information on their impacts reported. Competition and parasitism were the most important impact mechanisms of alien species. This study is, to our knowledge, the first application of EICAT to all known alien species of several taxonomic groups in a protected area. The impact rankings enabled to identify taxa that generally cause high impacts and to prioritize species for the management in protected areas according to their impact magnitudes. By following a standardized impact protocol, we identified several alien species causing high impacts that do not appear on any expert-based risk list, which are relevant for policymakers. Thus, we recommend that alien species be systematically screened to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize their management with respect to spatio-temporal trends in impact magnitudes.
Ključne besede: alien species, biological invasions, EICAT, invasive species management, protected areas, species prioritization
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 29.10.2021; Ogledov: 250; Prenosov: 167
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,13 MB)

First report of Diplodia fraxini and Diplodia subglobosa causing canker and dieback of Fraxinus excelsior in Slovenia
Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Carlo Bregant, Lucio Montecchio, Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, Nikica Ogris, 2022

Povzetek: Over the last decades the vitality and productivity of European ash trees in Slovenia has been seriously impacted by the onset of canker and dieback disease symptoms on young and old trees, primarily identified as ash dieback caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Given the limited information available about the aetiology of this emerging disease, a study was carried out to isolate, identify and characterize the fungal species involved in the observed ash symptoms. Field surveys were conducted in five forest sites where 50 symptomatic branch samples were collected. All samples were inspected and used for fungal isolation. Based on morphology, colony appearance and DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), 125 fungal colonies belonging to five species were isolated and identified. Only a few symptomatic ash samples yielded colonies of H. fraxineus, whereas Botryosphaeriaceae species were isolated with a high frequency, with Diplodia fraxini as the dominant species. A pathogenicity test proved that all isolated species were pathogenic on European ash, causing bark lesions and wood discoloration. All Botryosphaeriaceae species isolated in this study are reported for the first time on European ash in Slovenia.
Ključne besede: emerging disease, invasive species, Botryosphaeriaceae, pathogenicity
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 01.03.2022; Ogledov: 112; Prenosov: 85
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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