Contrasting responses of alien and ancient forest indicator plant species to fragmentation process in the temperate lowland forestsMirjana Šipek
, Lado Kutnar
, Aleksander Marinšek
, Nina Šajna
, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek
Povzetek: Fragmentation is one of the major threats to biodiversity. In a fragmented landscape, forest specialists are losing suitable forest habitats with specific site and microclimate conditions, which results in their local extinction. Conversely, the invasion of alien species is facilitated by open forest areas and increased boundaries between forest fragments and adjacent land. We studied the effect of fragmentation in terms of fragment size impact on overall plant species richness and on selected ecologically important groups' richness, composition, and diversity. We surveyed vegetation in the interior of 47 fragments of various sizes and one unfragmented reference forest. Our results reveal that the effect of fragmentation is complex and differs for studied plant groups. Decreasing fragment size negatively affects the overall plant richness and richness of native and ancient forest indicator plants as well as their diversity, while the effect is positive for alien plants. The highest proportion of ancient forest indicator plant species and the lowest proportion of alien plants in the unfragmented forest underline the great conservation value of forest fragments. At the same time, our results reveal that large and diverse forest ecosystems are susceptible to biological invasions as well.
Ključne besede: forest fragment, indicator plants, invasion, diversity, habitat modification, habitat conservation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.05.2023; Ogledov: 113; Prenosov: 62
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Global guidelines for the sustainable use of non-native trees to prevent tree invasions and mitigate their negative impactsGiuseppe Brundu
, Aníbal Pauchard
, Petr Pyšek
, Jan Pergl
, Anja M. Bindewald
, Antonio Brunori
, Susan Canavan
, Thomas Campagnaro
, Laura Celesti-Grapow
, Michele de Sá Dechoum
, Marjana Westergren
, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek
Povzetek: Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits of non-native trees, while minimising negative impacts and preserving future benefits and options. A workshop was held in 2019 to develop global guidelines for the sustainable use of non-native trees, using the Council of Europe % Bern Convention Code of Conduct on Invasive Alien Trees as a starting point. The global guidelines consist of eight recommendations: 1) Use native trees, or non-invasive non-native trees, in preference to invasive non-native trees; 2) Be aware of and comply with international, national, and regional regulations concerning non-native trees; 3) Be aware of the risk of invasion and consider global change trends; 4) Design and adopt tailored practices for plantation site selection and silvicultural management; 5) Promote and implement early detection and rapid response programmes; 6) Design and adopt tailored practices for invasive non-native tree control, habitat restoration, and for dealing with highly modified ecosystems; 7) Engage with stakeholders on the risks posed by invasive non-native trees, the impacts caused, and the options for management; and 8) Develop and support global networks, collaborative research, and information sharing on native and non-native trees. The global guidelines are a first step towards building global consensus on the precautions that should be taken when introducing and planting non-native trees. They are voluntary and are intended to complement statutory requirements under international and national legislation. The application of the global guidelines and the achievement of their goals will help to conserve forest biodiversity, ensure sustainable forestry, and contribute to the achievement of several Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations linked with forest biodiversity.
Ključne besede: biological invasions, code of conduct, environmental policy and legislation, invasion science, stakeholder engagement, stakeholder participation, sustainable forestry
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.01.2021; Ogledov: 1038; Prenosov: 684
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Proteases and cytokines as mediators of interactions between cancer and stromal cells in tumoursBarbara Breznik
, Helena Motaln
, Tamara Lah Turnšek
, pregledni znanstveni članek
Povzetek: Proteolytic enzymes are highly relevant in different processes of cancer progression. Their interplay with other signalling molecules such as cytokines represents important regulation of multicellular cross-talk. In this review, we discuss protease regulation mechanisms of cytokine signalling in various types of cancer. Additionally, we highlight the reverse whereby cytokines have an impact on protease expression in an autocrine and paracrine manner, representing complex feedback mechanisms among multiple members of these two protein families. The relevance of the protease-cytokine axis is illustrated in glioblastoma, where interactions between normal mesenchymal stem cells and cancer cells play an important role in this very malignant form of brain cancer.
Ključne besede: cellular cross-talk, glioblastoma, invasion, mesenchymal stem cells, protease-cytokine signalling
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.09.2017; Ogledov: 3620; Prenosov: 1249
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