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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (immunotherapy) .

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Adverse events during immunotherapy in Slovenian patients with metastatic melanoma reveal a positive correlation with better treatment outcomes
Tanja Mesti, Vid Čeplak Mencin, Biljana Mileva Boshkoska, Janja Ocvirk, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. Immunotherapy with CTLA-4 inhibitors and PD1 checkpoint inhibitors has initiated a breakthrough in the treatment and prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma. The survival of these patients has increased from the expected survival time of less than 12 months to at least forty months. However, immunotherapy with either anti-CTLA-4 antibodies or PD1 inhibitors alone or in combination has a broad palette of significant immune-related adverse events. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of immune-related adverse events with treatment outcomes defined as significant differences in the overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients, who developed immune-related adverse events during immunotherapy.Patients and methods. A retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with immuno-therapy in 2020 at the Oncology Institute of Ljubljana was performed. Only patients with radiological evaluation of the immunotherapy response were included. The patients were divided into two cohorts: a cohort of patients with immune-related adverse events (irAE group) and a cohort of patients with no immune-related adverse events (NirAE group). Significantly better overall response and progression-free survival in the irAE cohort defined the primary aim of our study. To investigate the differences in progression-free survival between the irAE cohort and NirAE cohort, we used survival analysis. In particular, a Cox proportional hazards model with covariates of time to progression and adverse events was used for survival analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis H-test was applied, and a p-value of p <= 0.05 was considered the cut-off point for a statistically significant difference between the groups.Results. Among the 120 patients treated with immunotherapy, radiological response evaluation was performed for 99 patients: 38 patients in the irAE cohort and 61 patients in the NirAE cohort. The ORRs for the irAE and NirAE cohorts were 57% and 37%, respectively. The PFS was significantly better for the irAE cohort (301.6 days) than for the NirAE co-hort (247.29 days). The results of the survival regression analysis showed a significant increase in the survival probability from less than 60% for the NirAE cohort to almost 80% for the irAE cohort.Conclusions. Patients with metastatic melanoma treated with immunotherapy who developed immune-related adverse events showed better treatment outcomes with longer times to disease progression and better overall re-sponse rates than patients treated with immunotherapy who did not develop immune-related adverse events, with a significant increase in the survival probability from less than 60% for the NirAE cohort to almost 80% for the irAE cohort.
Ključne besede: immune related adverse events, immunotherapy, metastases, melanoma
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.07.2024; Ogledov: 22; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (991,72 KB)
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Combining radiotherapy and immunotherapy in definitive treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma : review of current clinical trials
Gaber Plavc, Primož Strojan, 2020, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) presents as locally advanced disease in a majority of patients and is prone to relapse despite aggressive treatment. Since immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have shown clinically significant efficacy in patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC (R/M HNSCC), a plethora of trials are investigating their role in earlier stages of disease. At the same time, preclinical data showed the synergistic role of concurrently administered radiotherapy and ICIs (immunoradiotherapy) and explained several mechanisms behind it. Therefore, this approach is prospectively tested in a neoadjuvant, definitive, or adjuvant setting in non-R/M HNSCC patients. Due to the intricate relationship between host, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, each of these approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. In this narrative review we present the biological background of immunoradiotherapy, as well as a rationale for, and possible flaws of, each treatment approach, and provide readers with a critical summary of completed and ongoing trials. Conclusions. While immunotherapy with ICIs has already become a standard part of treatment in patients with R/M HNSCC, its efficacy in a non-R/M HNSCC setting is still the subject of extensive clinical testing. Irradiation can overcome some of the cancer%s immune evasive manoeuvres and can lead to a synergistic effect with ICIs, with possible additional benefits of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of this combination is not robust and details in trial design and treatment delivery seem to be of unprecedented importance.
Ključne besede: head and neck neoplasms, immunoradiotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.07.2024; Ogledov: 54; Prenosov: 16
.pdf Celotno besedilo (348,95 KB)

Consolidation radiotherapy for patients with extended disease small cell lung cancer in a single tertiary institution : impact of dose and perspectives in the era of immunotherapy
Karmen Stanič, Martina Vrankar, Jasna But-Hadžić, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Consolidation radiotherapy (cRT) in extended disease small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC) showed improved 2-year overall survival in patients who responded to chemotherapy (ChT) in CREST trial, however results of two meta - analysis were contradictive. Recently, immunotherapy was introduced to the treatment of ED-SCLC, making the role of cRT even more unclear. The aim of our study was to access if consolidation thoracic irradiation improves survival of ED-SCLC patients treated in a routine clinical practice and to study the impact of cRT dose on survival. We also discuss the future role of cRT in the era of immunotherapy. Patients and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 704 consecutive medical records of patients with small cell lung cancer treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana from January 2010 to December 2014 with median follow up of 65 months. We analyzed median overall survival (mOS) of patients with ED-SCLC treated with ChT only and those treated with ChT and cRT. We also compared mOS of patients treated with different consolidation doses and performed univariate and multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Results. Out of 412 patients with ED-SCLC, ChT with cRT was delivered to 74 patients and ChT only to 113 patients. Patients with cRT had significantly longer mOS compared to patients with ChT only, 11.1 months (CI 10.1%12.0) vs. 7.6 months (CI 6.9%8.5, p < 0.001) and longer 1-year OS (44% vs. 23%, p = 0.0025), while the difference in 2-year OS was not significantly different (10% vs. 5%, p = 0.19). The cRT dose was not uniform. Higher dose with 45 Gy (in 18 fractions) resulted in better mOS compared to lower doses 30%36 Gy (in 10%12 fractions), 17.2 months vs. 10.3 months (p = 0.03) and statistically significant difference was also seen for 1-year OS (68% vs. 30%, p = 0.01) but non significant for 2-year OS (18% vs. 5%, p = 0.11). Conclusions. Consolidation RT improved mOS and 1-year OS in ED-SCLC as compared to ChT alone. Higher dose of cRT resulted in better mOS and 1-year OS compared to lower dose. Consolidation RT, higher number of ChT cycles and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) were independent prognostic factors for better survival in our analysis. For patients who received cRT, only higher doses and PCI had impact on survival regardless of number of ChT cycles received. Role of cRT in the era of immunotherapy is unknown and should be exploited in further trials.
Ključne besede: radiotherapy, small lung cancer, clinical cases, immunotherapy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.07.2024; Ogledov: 70; Prenosov: 22
.pdf Celotno besedilo (458,53 KB)

Retrospective analysis of treatment-naive Slovenian patients with metastatic melanoma treated with pembrolizumab : real-world experience
Nežka Hribernik, Marko Boc, Janja Ocvirk, Jasna Knez Arbeiter, Tanja Mesti, Marija Ignjatović, Martina Reberšek, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Based on recent data from clinical trials, the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab prolongs survival and has a good toxicity profile in patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma. However, the question remains whether these results are transmitted into daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of pembrolizumab in treatment-naive patients with metastatic melanoma in everyday clinical practice in Slovenia and compare it to the results from clinical trials. Patients and methods. This observational retrospective cohort study included 138 consecutive metastatic treatment-naive melanoma patients treated with pembrolizumab at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in Slovenia, from January 2016 to December 2018. Patient and treatment characteristics were retrospectively collected from hospital data base. Statistical data was obtained using the SPSS software version 22. Survival rate was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Observation period took place between January 2016 and the end of June 2019. Results. The estimated median overall survival (OS) was 25.1 months (95% CI, 14.6%35.6) and the median progressionfree survival (PFS) was 10.7 months (95% CI, 5.9%15.4). Among all patients, 29 (21.0%) achieved complete response, 31 (22.5%) partial response and 23 (16.7%) reached stable disease. The number of organs with metastatic involvement and the level of baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration had significant influence on survival rates. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) were reported in 88 (63%) patients, while grade 3%4 irAE occurred in 12 (8.7%). Due to toxicity, 16 (11.6%) patients discontinued the treatment. Conclusions. Our real-world data from single centre retrospective analysis of treatment-naive metastatic melanoma patients treated with pembrolizumab showed inferior median OS and similar median PFS, compared to the results from clinical trials. However, patients with normal serum levels of LDH and a small number of organs with metastatic involvement had comparable survival outcomes. Toxicity rates of pembrolizumab were quite similar. These results further support the use of pembrolizumab for metastatic treatment-naive melanoma patients.
Ključne besede: immunotherapy, pembrolizumab, metastatic melanoma, treatment-naive
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 11.07.2024; Ogledov: 73; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (696,58 KB)

High burden of clonal mast cell disorders and hereditary ▫$α-tryptasemia$▫ in patients who need Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy
Peter Korošec, Gunter Sturm, Jonathan J. Lyons, Tinkara Pirc Marolt, Manca Svetina, Mitja Košnik, Mihaela Zidarn, Mark Kačar, Nina Frelih, Nika Lalek, Ajda Demšar Luzar, Samo Zver, Matevž Škerget, Ewa Czarnobilska, Wojciech Dyga, Sanja Popović-Grle, Miroslav Samaržija, Lisa Arzt-Gradwohl, Urban Čerpes, Grzegorz Porebski, Branko Pevec, Eva Schadelbauer, Peter Kopač, Julij Šelb, Matija Rijavec, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background In patients who require venom immunotherapy (VIT), there is a need to identify underlying mast cell (MC) disorders since these may affect the risk and severity of future sting reactions and the long-term effectiveness of VIT. Methods 1319 individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) who needed VIT from referral centers in Slovenia, Austria, Croatia, and Poland underwent examination for KIT p.D816V in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) using a highly sensitive PCR test and tryptase genotyping by digital droplet PCR. We also included 183 control individuals with large local reactions (LLRs) to Hymenoptera stings and with asymptomatic sensitization to Hymenoptera venoms. Results 285 of 1319 individuals recommended for VIT (21.6%) were positive for KIT p.D816V in PBL, preferably those who present with severe reaction (33.9% [n = 207 of 610] with Ring-Messmer grade 3–4 vs. 11% [n = 78 of 709] with Grade 1–2; p < .0001), whereas only 1.3% (n = 2 of 152) of controls with LLR and none with asymptomatic sensitization (n = 31) had KIT p.D816V. KIT p.D816V allelic burden was higher in those with severe reaction (median 0.018% [n = 207] in Grade 3–4 vs. 0.001% [n = 78] in Grade 1–2; p < .0001), and the majority had normal baseline serum tryptase levels (69% [n = 196 of 285]). All KIT p.D816V-positive individuals (n = 41) who underwent bone marrow (BM) biopsy were found to have underlying clonal diseases, principally BM mastocytosis. HαT was also associated with severe HVA and symptoms (p < .01), and remarkably, 31.0% (n = 31 of 100) were found to have concomitant KIT p.D816V. Concomitant HαT and KIT p.D816V showed an additive effect, and having both was associated with the highest risk for severe HVA, even higher than having either HαT or KIT p.D816V alone (OR = 3.8; p < .01). Conclusions By employing prospective universal tryptase genotyping and examination for KIT p.D816V in PBL in large HVA populations, we have demonstrated a high burden of clonal MC disorders and HαT in patients who require VIT.
Ključne besede: anaphylaxis, hereditary α-tryptasemia, hypersensitivity, immunotherapy, mast cell, mastocytosis, venom
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.06.2024; Ogledov: 150; Prenosov: 82
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,80 MB)
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Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolic fingerprint of bevacizumab in mutant IDH1 glioma cells
Tanja Mesti, Nadia Bouchemal, Claire Banissi, Mohamed N. Triba, Carole Marbeuf-Gueye, Maja Čemažar, Laurence Le Moyec, Antoine F. Carpentier, Philippe Savarin, Janja Ocvirk, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Malignant gliomas are rapidly growing tumours that extensively invade the brain and have bad prognosis. Our study was performed to assess the metabolic effects of bevacizumab on the glioma cells carrying the IDH1 mutation, a mutation, associated with better prognosis and treatment outcome. Bevacizumab is known to inhibit tumour growth by neutralizing the biological activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the direct effects of bevacizumab on tumour cells metabolism remain poorly known. Materials and methods The immunoassay and MTT assay were used to assess the concentration of secreted VEGF and cell viability after bevacizumab exposure. Metabolomic studies on cells were performed using high resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy (HRMAS). Results mIDH1-U87 cells secreted VEGF (13 ng/mL). Regardless, bevacizumab had no cytotoxic effect, even after a 72h exposure and with doses as high as 1 mg/mL. Yet, HRMAS analysis showed a significant effect of bevacizumab (0.1 mg/mL) on the metabolic phenotype of mIDH1-U87 cells with elevation of 2-hydroxyglutarate and changes in glutamine group metabolites (alanine, glutamate, glycine) and lipids (polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA], glycerophosphocholine, and phosphocholine). Conclusions In mIDH1-U87 cells, changes in glutamine group metabolites and lipids were identified as metabolic markers of bevacizumab treatment. These data support the possibility of a functional tricarboxylic acid cycle that runs in reductive manner, as a probable mechanism of action of bevacizumab in IDH1 mutated gliomas and propose a new target pathway for effective treatment of malignant gliomas.
Ključne besede: symptomatic pseudoprogression, atypical response, immunotherapy, lung cancer, idh1 mutation, malignant glioma, bevacizumab, metabolic fingerprint
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 11.06.2024; Ogledov: 89; Prenosov: 37
.pdf Celotno besedilo (511,70 KB)

Immune RECIST criteria and symptomatic pseudoprogression in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with immunotherapy
Martina Vrankar, Mojca Unk, 2018, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Uncommon responses during immunotherapy is a new challenging issue in oncology practice. Recently, new criteria for evaluation of response to immunotherapy immune response evaluation criteria solid tumors (iRECIST) were accepted. According to iRECIST, worsening of performance status (PS) accompanied to pseudoprogression reflects most probably the true progression of the malignant disease. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was made by using several electronic database with the following search criteria: symptomatic pseudoprogression, atypical response, immunotherapy and lung cancer. Results. In the literature, we identified five reports of seven patients treated with immunotherapy that met the inclusion criteria. We also report our experience of patient with pseudoprogression and almost complete response after one dose of immunotherapy. Conclusions. As seen from our review, iRECIST criteria might be insufficient in distinguishing true progression from pseudoprogression in some patients with advanced NSCLC treated with immunotherapy. More precise assessment methods are urgently needed.
Ključne besede: symptomatic pseudoprogression, atypical response, immunotherapy, lung cancer
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 11.06.2024; Ogledov: 101; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (426,11 KB)

Long-term survival of locally advanced stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and perspectives for the treatment with immunotherapy
Martina Vrankar, Karmen Stanič, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Standard treatment for patients with inoperable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Five-year overall survival rates range between 15 and 25%, while long term survival data are rarely reported. Patients and methods A total of 102 patients with stage III NSCLC treated between September 2005 and November 2010 with induction chemotherapy and CCRT were included in this long term survival analysis. All patients were tested for PD-L1 status and expression of PD-L1 was correlated with overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and toxicities. Results The median OS of all patients was 24.8 months (95% CI 18.7 to 31.0) with 10 year-survival rate of 11.2%. The median OS of patients with PD-L1 expression was 12.1 months (95% CI 0.1 to 26.2), while in patients with negative or unknown PD-L1 status was significantly longer, 25.2 months (95% CI 18.9 to 31.6), p = 0.005. The median PFS of all patients was 16.4 months (95% CI 13.0 to 19.9). PFS of patients with PD-L1 expression was 10.1 months (95% CI 0.1 to 20.4) and in patients with negative or unknown PD-L1 status was 17.9 months (95% CI 14.2 to 21.7), p = 0.003. Conclusions 10-year overall survival of stage III NSCLC patients after CCRT is 11.2%. PFS and OS differ with regard to PD-L1 status and are significantly shorter for patients with PD-L1 expression. New treatment with check-point inhibitors combined with RT therefore seems reasonable strategy to improve these results.
Ključne besede: NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer, locally advanced, immunotherapy, chemoradiotherapy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 10.06.2024; Ogledov: 100; Prenosov: 60
.pdf Celotno besedilo (500,20 KB)
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Safety and efficacy of IL-12 plasmid DNA transfection into pig skin : supportive data for human clinical trials on gene therapy and vaccination
Urša Lampreht Tratar, Tanja Jesenko, Maša Omerzel, Alenka Seliškar, Urban Stupan, Mihajlo Djokić, Jerneja Sredenšek, Blaž Trotovšek, Gregor Serša, Maja Čemažar, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Gene electrotransfer (GET) of plasmids encoding interleukin 12 (IL-12) has already been used for the treatment of various types of tumors in human oncology and as an adjuvant in DNA vaccines. In recent years, we have developed a plasmid encoding human IL-12 (phIL12) that is currently in a phase I clinical study. The aim was to confirm the results of a non-clinical study in mice on pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety in a porcine model that better resembled human skin. The GET of phIL12 in the skin was performed on nine pigs using different concentrations of plasmid phIL12 and invasive (needle) or noninvasive (plate) types of electrodes. The results of our study demonstrate that the GET of phIL-12 with needle electrodes induced the highest expression of IL-12 at the protein level on day 7 after the procedure. The plasmid was distributed to all tested organs; however, its amount decreased over time and was at a minimum 28 days after GET. Based on plasmid copy number and expression results, together with blood analysis, we showed that IL-12 GET is safe in a porcine animal model. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pigs are a valuable model for human gene therapy safety studies.
Ključne besede: interleukin 12, gene electrotransfer, immunotherapy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.04.2024; Ogledov: 271; Prenosov: 113
.pdf Celotno besedilo (16,83 MB)
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Adjuvant TNF-a therapy to electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin in murine sarcoma exerts synergistic antitumor effectiveness
Maja Čemažar, Vesna Todorović, Janez Ščančar, Urša Lampreht Tratar, Monika Savarin, Urška Kamenšek, Simona Kranjc Brezar, Andrej Cör, Gregor Serša, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. Electrochemotherapy is a tumour ablation modality, based on electroporation of the cell membrane, allowing non-permeant anticancer drugs to enter the cell, thus augmenting their cytotoxicity by orders of magnitude. In preclinical studies, bleomycin and cisplatin proved to be the most suitable for clinical use. Intravenous administration of cisplatin for electrochemotherapy is still not widely accepted in the clinics, presumably due to its lower antitumor effectiveness, but adjuvant therapy by immunomodulatory or vascular-targeting agents could provide a way for its potentiation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of adjuvant tumour necrosis factor % (TNF-%) therapy to potentiate antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin administration in murine sarcoma. Materials and methods. In vivo study was designed to evaluate the effect of TNF-% applied before or after the electrochemotherapy and to evaluate the effect of adjuvant TNF-% on electrochemotherapy with different cisplatin doses. Results. A synergistic interaction between TNF-% and electrochemotherapy was observed. Administration of TNF-% before the electrochemotherapy resulted in longer tumour growth delay and increased tumour curability, and was significantly more effective than TNF-% administration after the electrochemotherapy. Tumour analysis revealed increased platinum content in tumours, TNF-% induced blood vessel damage and increased tumour necrosis after combination of TNF-% and electrochemotherapy, indicating an anti-vascular action of TNF-%. In addition, immunomodulatory effect might have contributed to curability rate of the tumours. Conclusion. Adjuvant intratumoural TNF-% therapy synergistically contributes to electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin administration. Due to its potentiation at all doses of cisplatin, the combined treatment is predicted to be effective also in tumours, where the drug concentration is suboptimal or in bigger tumours, where electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin is not expected to be sufficiently effective.
Ključne besede: electrochemotherapy, TNF, adjuvant immunotherapy, cisplatin
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.04.2024; Ogledov: 330; Prenosov: 88
.pdf Celotno besedilo (978,26 KB)

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