The perception of minorities toward the Turkish state : ǂthe ǂcase of ethno-religious communitiesAnna Maria Beylunioğlu
, Özgür Kaymak
Povzetek: The relationship between state and non-Muslim communities has been a de-licate issue since the founding of the Turkish Republic despite the principle of secularism stated in its constitution. Against this background, the association of national identity with Sunni-Islam has been the main marker of inclusion/exclusi-on for national identity. Especially since 2002 when the Justice and Development Party (JDP) came to power, the debate with regard to freedom of religion and the rights of religious minorities came to the fore. Over the course of decades there have been numerous studies approaching the state’s perspective towards religious minorities. However, there is a paucity of academic studies that focuses on citizen-ship experiences of the members of these communities through the course of their daily and social lives. In this article, we first provide a historical perspective of the state towards religious minorities from the establishment of the Republic until to-day, including the JDP period. In the second part of this study we aim to explore recasting perspectives of the non-Muslim minorities over the previous decade by taking the standpoint of the members of Greek Orthodox, Jews and Armenian communities. To this end, we conduct in-depth interviews with the members of these communities who reside in Istanbul. Finally, new negotiation fields which have been flourishing among these communities will be addressed.
Ključne besede: national identity, non-Muslim minorities, ethno-religious identity, religion-state relations, freedom of religion, civil society
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.03.2022; Ogledov: 149; Prenosov: 88
Celotno besedilo (238,39 KB)
Caught between the notions of ethnicity, citizenship and diaspora : ǂthe ǂcase of the Bosniaks in TurkeyMelih Çoban
Povzetek: Along with many others, Bosniaks are an ethnic group within the contempora-ry Turkish nation with immigrant roots dating back to the last quarter of the 19th century. Constituting a significant ethno-demographic part of the Ottoman legacy within the modern Turkish nation, Bosniaks in Turkey have long refrained from identifying themselves with a separate ethnic or cultural identity when confronted with the assimilationist cultural policies of the new nation state. But, while adapting themselves to Turkish culture and identity, Bosniaks have also preserved a collective identity of Bosniakness, mostly owing to the fact that their population in Turkey has been fed by continuous migration waves in different periods. The aim of this study is to analyze the problematic development of a Bosniak identity in Turkey with regards to the cultural assimilation processes and continuous migration waves and other factors on both foreign and domestic scales. Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that Bosniaks in Turkey do not yet constitute a Bosniak diaspora, but rather they can be regarded as a diaspora in the making.
Ključne besede: Bosniaks, Turkey, identity, diaspora, citizenship, ethnicity
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.03.2022; Ogledov: 89; Prenosov: 57
Celotno besedilo (311,77 KB)
The remaking and unmaking of multi-ethnic spaces : Diyarbakir and Southeast Anatolia in the 21st centuryWilliam Gourlay
Povzetek: Focusing on 21st century developments in southeast Anatolia, this article exa-mines the circumstances of minority communities within the contexts of the shifting dynamics of Turkey’s national project. Until the early 20th century southe-ast Anatolia was an ethnic patchwork. The early republican era saw efforts to “Turkify” through the promulgation of a national identity project asserting eth-nic unity. From the 1980s, conflict with the PKK gave urgency to the notion that uniformity was paramount for national cohesion. In this milieu, ethnic diversity was suspect. Circumstances changed with the AKP government’s 2002 ascendance and the earlier emergence of Kurdish municipal politicians. This article documents how thereafter the re-imagining of the national project away from an exclusive eth-nic categorisation allowed acknowledgement and accommodation of ethnic and religious diversity across southeast Anatolia. The chapter analyses these events in light of a backlash by nationalist politicians, the 2015 re-ignition of the PKK con-flict and the subsequent resurgence of nationalist rhetoric in the political arena. It appears a narrow, exclusive national identity is re-asserting itself. The article thus examines the extent to which the experience of south-eastern Anatolia represents the re-imagining of Turkey’s national project and the embrace of a previously de-nied multi-ethnic socio-political fabric.
Ključne besede: Turkey, southeast Anatolia, ethnic identity, minorities, national identity, Justice and Development Party, nationalism
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.03.2022; Ogledov: 111; Prenosov: 52
Celotno besedilo (272,92 KB)
"So what if I am Laz?" : irony, mokery and humor in ethnic integration and insubordinationAyşe Serdar
Povzetek: This study argues that the ethnic Laz in Turkey resort to irony, humor and mockery to cope with and negotiate the stereotypes, ethnic humor and mockery they encounter in their interactions with outsiders. The trope of irony, humor and mockery have enabled the Laz to navigate the national and regional hierarchies and reproduce their symbolic boundaries regardless of the common and ardent appropriation of Turkishness. In so doing, the Laz can more subtly challenge the official ideology of uniformity. While the public use of Lazuri is still considered a threat to the negotiated boundaries of Lazness, new instruments present creative displays of their ethnic capital which do not contradict present day principles of Turkish nationalism, and offer a legitimate sharing of intimacy without embar-rassment. The Laz, like other non-Turkish Muslim peoples of the Black Sea region, abandoned their politically threatening ethnic distinctions, appropriated the capital of Turkishness through their performances, and coped with mockery and stigma by ironizing differences and negotiating, trivializing or selectively appropriating the stereotypes imposed upon them. Ironically, they have “out-performed” ethnic Turks in certain ways, in their search for acceptance as Turks, achieving upward mobility and avoiding forms of stigmatization.
Ključne besede: Turkey, Laz, ethnicity, ethnic identity, irony, humor, mockery
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.03.2022; Ogledov: 101; Prenosov: 55
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Consuming Eid Al-Adha : constructing and expressing the Muslim identityAmar Ahmed
Povzetek: There is a lacuna in ethnographic research with regards to Muslims’ identity construction and expression from an internal perspective. Eid Al-Adha is an Islam-ic holiday which is rich in symbolism, collective rituals, and spiritual and material abundance. The article will interpret the meanings and values that consumers of Eid Al-Adha construct as parts of their identity, mainly being the religious one. It will discuss how the holiday expresses significant Muslim values like collectiv-ism, submission to God, sacrifice, charity, patience, and sacredness. Moreover, it will explain possible differences in consumption reflecting particularism due to national and/or cultural identities. The paper furthers our understanding of what Muslims do and say during their consumption of the Day rather than referring to scriptures or scholars. It contributes to the body of knowledge of Muslim holidays, the meanings associated with them, and how celebrators utilize the symbolism within them to construct their identities.
Ključne besede: Muslims, identity, Eid Al-Adha, consumer culture theory, Islamic culture, cultural consumption, identity construction, identity expression
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.05.2022; Ogledov: 60; Prenosov: 55
Celotno besedilo (179,12 KB)