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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (genetics) .

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Multicenter evaluation of the fully automated PCR-based Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded Q1 tissue of human lung cancer
Solène M. Evrard, Estelle T. Clermont, Isabelle Rouquette, Samuel Murray, Sebastian Dintner, Yun-Chung Nam-Apostolopoulos, Beatriz Bellosillo, Mar V. Rodriguez, Ernest Nadal, Klaus H. Wiedorn, Mitja Rot, Izidor Kern, 2019

Povzetek: Before initiating treatment of advanced nonesmall-cell lung cancer with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, erlotinib, gefitinib, osimertinib, and afatinib), which inhibit the catalytic activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), clinical guidelines require determining the EGFR mutational status for activating (EGFR exons 18, 19, 20, or 21) and resistance (EGFR exon 20) mutations. The EGFR resistance mutation T790M should be monitored at cancer progression. The Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay, performed on the Idylla molecular diagnostics platform, is a fully automated (<2.5 hours turnaround time) sample-to-result molecular test to qualitatively detect 51 EGFR oncogene point mutations, deletions, or insertions. In a 15- center evaluation, Idylla results on 449 archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, originating from nonesmall-cell lung cancer biopsies and resection specimens, were compared with data obtained earlier with routine reference methods, including next-generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, mass spectrometry, and PCR-based assays. When results were discordant, a third method of analysis was performed, when possible, to confirm test results. After confirmation testing and excluding invalids/errors and discordant results by design, a concordance of 97.6% was obtained between Idylla and routine test results. Even with <10 mm2 of tissue area, a valid Idylla result was obtained in 98.9% of the cases. The Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay enables sensitive detection of most relevant EGFR mutations in concordance with current guidelines, with minimal molecular expertise or infrastructure.
Ključne besede: non-small cell lung carconima -- diagnosis -- genetics, ErbB receptors, sequence analysis, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 07.10.2020; Ogledov: 808; Prenosov: 474
.pdf Celotno besedilo (714,24 KB)

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Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency in Macedonia : clinical characteristics, novel SERPING1 mutations, and genetic factors modifying the clinical phenotype
Vesna Grivčeva-Panovska, Mitja Košnik, Peter Korošec, Slađana Andrejević, Ljerka Karadža-Lapić, Matija Rijavec, 2018

Povzetek: Objective: Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease, characterized by swellings. We aimed to characterize on a clinical and molecular basis C1-INH-HAE patients in the Republic of Macedonia. Results: All 15 patients from six unrelated families were diagnosed with C1-INHHAE type I, with a mean age of symptom onset of 11 years and an average delay of diagnosis of 7 years. Patients reported on average 31 angioedema attacks/year, with a median clinical severity score (CSS) of 7. We identified three known mutations, and two mutations (c.813_818delCAACAA and c.1488T>G) were reported for the first time. To address the genotype-phenotype association, a pooled analysis including 78 C1-INH-HAE south-eastern European patients was performed, with additional analysis of F12-46C/T and KLKB1- 428G/A polymorphisms. We demonstrated that patients with nonsense and frameshift mutations, large deletions/insertions, splicing defects, and mutations at Arg444 exhibited an increased CSS compared with missense mutations, excluding mutations at Arg444. In addition, the CC F12-46C/T polymorphism was suggestive of earlier disease onset. Discussion: Genetic analysis helped identify the molecular basis of C1-INH-HAE given that causative mutations in SERPING1 were detected in all patients, including an infant before the appearance of clinical symptoms. We identified two novel mutations and further corroborated the genotype-phenotype relationship, wherein mutations with a clear effect on C1-INH function predispose patients to a more severe disease phenotype and CC F12-46C/T predisposes patients to earlier disease onset.
Ključne besede: hereditary angioedemas -- genetics -- Macedonia, C1 inhibitor, SERPING1 gene, C1 inhibitor, SERPING1 gene
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 30.11.2020; Ogledov: 732; Prenosov: 139

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Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency in pediatric patients in Croatia : first national study, diagnostic and prophylactic challenges
Ljerka Karadža-Lapić, Marko Barešić, Renata Vrsalović, Irena Ivković-Jureković, Saša Sršen, Ingrid Prkačin, Matija Rijavec, Draško Cikojević, 2019

Povzetek: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease with deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of C1 inhibitor, caused by mutations in the C1-INH gene, characterized by recurrent submucosal or subcutaneous edemas including skin swelling, abdominal pain and life-threatening episodes of upper airway obstruction. The aim of this study was to investigate healthcare experiences in children with HAE due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) in Croatia in order to estimate the number of affected children and to recommend management protocols for diagnosis, short-term prophylaxis and acute treatment. Patients were recruited during a 4-year period at five hospitals in Croatia. Complement testing was performed in patients with a positive family history. This pilot study revealed nine pediatric patients positive for C1-INH- HAE type I, aged 1-16 years, four of them asymptomatic. Before the age of one year, C1-INH levels may be lower than in adults; it is advisable to confirm C1-INH-HAE after the age of one year. Plasma-derived C1- INH is recommended as acute and short-term prophylactic treatment. Recombinant C1-INH and icatibant are licensed for the acute treatment of pediatric patients. In Croatia, HAE is still underdiagnosed in pediatric population.
Ključne besede: hereditary angioedemas -- genetics -- Croatia, inborn genetic diseases -- Croatia, pediatrics -- Croatia, C1 inhibitor, SERPING1 gene, children
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.12.2020; Ogledov: 726; Prenosov: 514
.pdf Celotno besedilo (477,81 KB)

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Somatic mutations and the risk of undifferentiated autoinflammatory disease in MDS : an under-recognized but prognostically important complication
Abdulla Watad, Mark Kačar, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Qiao Zhou, Miriam Jassam, Jan Taylor, Eve Roman, Alexandra Smith, Richard A. Jones, Howard Amital, 2021

Povzetek: Objectives: We theorized that myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with somatic mutations and karyotype abnormalities are associated with autoinflammation, and that the presence of autoinflammatory disease affected prognosis in MDS. Methods: One hundred thirty-four MDS patients were assessed for the prevalence of autoinflammatory complications and its link with karyotypes and somaticmutation status. Autoinflammatory complications were described either as well-defined autoinflammatory diseases (AD) or undifferentiated "autoinflammatory disease" (UAD) (defined as CRP over 10.0 mg/L on five consecutive occasions, taken at separate times and not explained by infection). Several patient characteristics including demographic, clinical, laboratory, cytogenetics charts, and outcomes, were compared between different groups. Results: Sixty-two (46.3%) patients had an autoinflammatory complication manifesting as arthralgia (43.5% vs. 23.6%, p = 0.0146), arthritis (30.6% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.0340), skin rash (27.4% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.0301), pleuritis (14.5% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.0371) and unexplained fever (27.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.0001). AD were found in 7.4% of MDS patients (with polymyalgia rheumatic being the most frequently one). Classical autoimmune diseases were found only in 4 MDS patients (3.0%). Transcription factor pathway mutations (RUNX1, BCOR, WTI, TP53) (OR 2.20 [95%CI 1.02-4.75], p = 0.0451) and abnormal karyotypes (OR 2.76 [95%CI 1.22-6.26], p = 0.0153) were associated with autoinflammatory complications. Acute leukaemic transformation was more frequent in MDS patients with autoinflammatory features than those without (27.4% vs. 9.7%, p = 0.0080). Conclusions: Autoinflammatory complications are common inMDS. Somatic mutations of transcription factor pathways and abnormal karyotypes are associated with greater risk of autoinflammatory complications, which are themselves linked to malignant transformation and a worse prognosis.
Ključne besede: myelodysplastic syndromes - genetics, autoinflammation, undifferentiated autoinflammatory disease, molecular characterization, somatic mutations
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 31.03.2021; Ogledov: 609; Prenosov: 375
.pdf Celotno besedilo (684,58 KB)

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SERPING1 variants and C1-INH biological function : a close relationship with C1-INH-HAE
Christian Drouet, Alberto López Lera, Arije Ghannam, Margarita López-Trascasa, Sven Cichon, Denise Ponard, Faidra Parsopoulou, Hana Grombirikova, Tomas Freiberger, Matija Rijavec, Camila Lopes Veronez, João Bosco Pesquero, Anastasios E. Germenis, 2022

Povzetek: Hereditary angioedema with C1 Inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is caused by a constellation of variants of the SERPING1 gene (n = 809; 1,494 pedigrees), accounting for 86.8% of HAE families, showing a pronounced mutagenic liability of SERPING1 and pertaining to 5.6% de novo variants. C1-INH is the major control serpin of the kallikrein–kinin system (KKS). In addition, C1-INH controls complement C1 and plasminogen activation, both systems contributing to inflammation. Recognizing the failed control of C1s protease or KKS provides the diagnosis of C1-INH-HAE. SERPING1 variants usually behave in an autosomal-dominant character with an incomplete penetrance and a low prevalence. A great majority of variants (809/893; 90.5%) that were introduced into online database have been considered as pathogenic/likely pathogenic. Haploinsufficiency is a common feature in C1-INH-HAE where a dominant-negative variant product impacts the wild-type allele and renders it inactive. Small (36.2%) and large (8.3%) deletions/duplications are common, with exon 4 as the most affected one. Point substitutions with missense variants (32.2%) are of interest for the serpin structure–function relationship. Canonical splice sites can be affected by variants within introns and exons also (14.3%). For noncanonical sequences, exon skipping has been confirmed by splicing analyses of patients' blood-derived RNAs (n = 25). Exonic variants (n = 6) can affect exon splicing. Rare deep-intron variants (n = 6), putatively acting as pseudo-exon activating mutations, have been characterized as pathogenic. Some variants have been characterized as benign/likely benign/of uncertain significance (n = 74). This category includes some homozygous (n = 10) or compound heterozygous variants (n = 11). They are presenting with minor allele frequency (MAF) below 0.00002 (i.e., lower than C1-INH-HAE frequency), and may be quantitatively unable to cause haploinsufficiency. Rare benign variants could contribute as disease modifiers. Gonadal mosaicism in C1-INH-HAE is rare and must be distinguished from a de novo variant. Situations with paternal or maternal disomy have been recorded (n = 3). Genotypes must be interpreted with biological investigation fitting with C1-INH expression and typing. Any SERPING1 variant reminiscent of the dysfunctional phenotype of serpin with multimerization or latency should be identified as serpinopathy.
Ključne besede: Hereditary angioedemas -- genetics -- diagnosis, genetic variation, serpins, SERPING1 gene, C1-INH, C1-INH-HAE, C1 inhibitor, serpinopathy
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 06.04.2022; Ogledov: 124; Prenosov: 92
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,51 MB)
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Manual for forest genetic monitoring
2020

Ključne besede: forests, forest genetics, genetic monitoring
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.04.2021; Ogledov: 2633; Prenosov: 2394
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,01 MB)
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Selpercatinib in RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (SIREN) : a retrospective analysis of patients treated through an access program
Oliver Illini, Maximilian J Hochmair, Hannah Fabikan, Christoph Weinlinger, Amanda Tufman, Aurélie Swalduz, Kristina Lamberg, Sayed M. S. Hashemi, Florian Huemer, Anders Vikström, Katja Mohorčič, 2021

Povzetek: Introduction: Rearranged during transfection (RET) gene fusions are rare genetic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Selective RET-inhibitors such as selpercatinib have shown therapeutic activity in early clinical trials; however, their efficacy in the real-world setting is unknown. Methods: A retrospective efficacy and safety analysis was performed on data from RET fusio-%positive NSCLC patients who participated in a selpercatinib access program (named patient protocol) between August 2019 and January 2021. Results: Data from 50 patients with RET fusion-positive advanced NSCLC treated with selpercatinib at 27 centers in 12 countries was analyzed. Most patients were Non-Asian (90%), female (60%), never-smokers (74%), with a median age of 65 years (range, 38-89). 32% of the patients had known brain metastasis at the time of selpercatinib treatment. Overall, 13 patients were treatment-naïve, while 37 were pretreated with a median of three lines of therapy (range, 1-8). The objective response rate (ORR) was 68% [95% confidence interval (CI), 53-81] in the overall population. The disease control rate was 92%. The median progression-free survival was 15.6 months (95% CI, 8.8-22.4) after a median follow-up of 9 months. In patients with measurable brain metastases (n=8) intracranial ORR reached 100%. In total, 88% of patients experienced treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), a large majority of them being grade 1 or 2. The most common grade >/=3 TRAEs were increased liver enzyme levels (in 10% of patients), prolonged QTc time (4%), abdominal pain (4%), hypertension (4%), and fatigue/asthenia (4%). None of patients discontinued selpercatinib treatment for safety reasons. No new safety concerns were observed, nor where there any treatment-related death. Conclusions: In this real-world setting, the selective RET-inhibitor selpercatinib demonstrated durable systemic and intracranial antitumor activity in RET fusion-positive NSCLC and was well tolerated.
Ključne besede: non-small cell lung carcinoma -- drug therapy -- genetics, molecular targeted therapy, real-world data, selpercatinib, targeted therapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitor
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.06.2021; Ogledov: 677; Prenosov: 301
.pdf Celotno besedilo (777,25 KB)

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