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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (fungi) .

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1.
Effects of desiccation and freezing on microbial ionizing radiation survivability : considerations for Mars sample return
William H. Horne, Tine Grebenc, Rok Tkavc, Cene Gostinčar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Increasingly, national space agencies are expanding their goals to include Mars exploration with sample return. To better protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination, as set forth in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, international efforts to develop planetary protection measures strive to understand the danger of cross-contamination processes in Mars sample return missions. We aim to better understand the impact of the martian surface on microbial dormancy and survivability. Radiation resistance of microbes is a key parameter in considering survivability of microbes over geologic times on the frigid, arid surface of Mars that is bombarded by solar and galactic cosmic radiation. We tested the influence of desiccation and freezing on the ionizing radiation survival of six model microorganisms: vegetative cells of two bacteria (Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli) and a strain of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); and vegetative cells and endospores of three Bacillus bacteria (B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis). Desiccation and freezing greatly increased radiation survival of vegetative polyploid microorganisms when applied separately, and when combined, desiccation and freezing increased radiation survival even more so. Thus, the radiation survival threshold of polyploid D. radiodurans cells can be extended from the already high value of 25 kGy in liquid culture to an astonishing 140 kGy when the cells are both desiccated and frozen. However, such synergistic radioprotective effects of desiccation and freezing were not observed in monogenomic or digenomic Bacillus cells and endospores, which are generally sterilized by 12 kGy. This difference is associated with a critical requirement for survivability under radiation, that is, repair of genome damage caused by radiation. Deinococcus radiodurans and S. cerevisiae accumulate similarly high levels of the Mn antioxidants that are required for extreme radiation resistance, as do endospores, though they greatly exceed spores in radioresistance because they contain multiple identical genome copies, which in D. radiodurans are joined by persistent Holliday junctions. We estimate ionizing radiation survival limits of polyploid DNA-based life-forms to be hundreds of millions of years of background radiation while buried in the martian subsurface. Our findings imply that forward contamination of Mars will essentially be permanent, and backward contamination is a possibility if life ever existed on Mars.
Ključne besede: ionizing radiation, life on Mars, astrobiology, radiation, fungi, bacteria, radiotolerance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.11.2022; Ogledov: 183; Prenosov: 61
.pdf Celotno besedilo (922,44 KB)
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Worldwide diversity of endophytic fungi and insects associated with dormant tree twigs
Iva Franić, Simone Prospero, Kalev Adamson, Eric Allan, Fabio Attorre, Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg, Sylvie Augustin, Dimitrios N. Avtzis, Wim Baert, Marek Barta, Maarten De Groot, Barbara Piškur, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: International trade in plants and climate change are two of the main factors causing damaging tree pests (i.e. fungi and insects) to spread into new areas. To mitigate these risks, a large-scale assessment of tree-associated fungi and insects is needed. We present records of endophytic fungi and insects in twigs of 17 angiosperm and gymnosperm genera, from 51 locations in 32 countries worldwide. Endophytic fungi were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of 352 samples from 145 tree species in 28 countries. Insects were reared from 227 samples of 109 tree species in 18 countries and sorted into taxonomic orders and feeding guilds. Herbivorous insects were grouped into morphospecies and were identified using molecular and morphological approaches. This dataset reveals the diversity of tree-associated taxa, as it contains 12,721 fungal Amplicon Sequence Variants and 208 herbivorous insect morphospecies, sampled across broad geographic and climatic gradients and for many tree species. This dataset will facilitate applied and fundamental studies on the distribution of fungal endophytes and insects in trees.
Ključne besede: diversity, endophytic fungi, endophytic insects, tree twigs
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.03.2022; Ogledov: 378; Prenosov: 301
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,32 MB)
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4.
Genomics and adaptation in forest ecosystems
Charalambos Neophytou, Katrin Heer, Pascal Miles, Martina Peter, Tanja Pyhäjärvi, Marjana Westergren, Christian Rellstab, Felix Gugerli, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Rapid human-induced environmental changes like climate warming represent a challenge for forest ecosystems. Due to their biological complexity and the long generation time of their keystone tree species, genetic adaptation in these ecosystems might not be fast enough to keep track with conditions changing at such a fast pace. The study of adaptation to environmental change and its genetic mechanisms is therefore key for ensuring a sustainable support and management of forests. The 4-day conference of the European Research Group EvolTree (https://www.evoltree.eu) on the topic of “Genomics and Adaptation in Forest Ecosystems” brought together over 130 scientists to present and discuss the latest developments and findings in forest evolutionary research. Genomic studies in forest trees have long been hampered by the lack of high-quality genomics resources and affordable genotyping methods. This has dramatically changed in the last few years; the conference impressively showed how such tools are now being applied to study past demography, adaptation and interactions with associated organisms. Moreover, genomic studies are now finally also entering the world of conservation and forest management, for example by measuring the value or cost of interspecific hybridization and introgression, assessing the vulnerability of species and populations to future change, or accurately delineating evolutionary significant units. The newly launched conference series of EvolTree will hopefully play a key role in the exchange and synthesis of such important investigations.
Ključne besede: gene conservation, genetic diversity, local adaptation, pathogens, selection, mycorrhizal fungi
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.02.2022; Ogledov: 318; Prenosov: 275
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,04 MB)
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5.
Buckwheat milling waste effects on root morphology and mycorrhization of Silver fir seedlings inoculated with Black Summer Truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.)
Tina Unuk, Tine Grebenc, Daniel Žlindra, Tanja Mrak, Matevž Likar, Hojka Kraigher, Zlata Luthar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Large amounts of buckwheat waste are generated annually by the industry and are used in several different ways. To date, there has been little research regarding its suitability as a medium for growing seedlings in nurseries. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the suitability of common and Tartary buckwheat wastes (brans and husks) as media used for raising seedlings. A pot experiment with five different treatments was carried out, in which silver fir root parameters were analyzed and compared 6 and 12 months after summer truffle-spore inoculation. A significantly higher concentration of the antioxidant rutin was confirmed in Tartary buckwheat bran compared to other buckwheat waste used. We also confirmed a significantly positive effect of added Tartary buckwheat husks on specific root length, root tip density, and specific root tip density compared to added common buckwheat husks or Tartary buckwheat bran, for which a significantly negative effect on branching density was confirmed. A significantly negative effect of added buckwheat husks and Tartary buckwheat bran was confirmed for summer truffle mycorrhization level.
Ključne besede: buckwheat waste, root growth, summer truffle, forest nursery, silver fir, inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.02.2022; Ogledov: 427; Prenosov: 384
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,37 MB)
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6.
A meta-analysis of global fungal distribution reveals climate-driven patterns
Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecky, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Mészárosová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes, in contrast with the opposite pattern previously shown for plants and other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi appear to have narrower climatic tolerances than pathogenic fungi. We speculate that climate change could affect ecosystem functioning because of the narrow climatic tolerances of key fungal taxa.
Ključne besede: fungi, global distribution, climate
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 382; Prenosov: 347
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,59 MB)
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7.
GlobalFungi, a global database of fungal occurrences from high-throughput-sequencing metabarcoding studies
Tomáš Větrovský, Daniel Morais, Petr Kohout, Clémentine Lepinay, Camelia Algora, Sandra Awokunle Hollá, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Květa Bílohnědá, Vendula Brabcová, Federica DʹAlò, Tijana Martinović, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fungi are key players in vital ecosystem services, spanning carbon cycling, decomposition, symbiotic associations with cultivated and wild plants and pathogenicity. The high importance of fungi in ecosystem processes contrasts with the incompleteness of our understanding of the patterns of fungal biogeography and the environmental factors that drive those patterns. To reduce this gap of knowledge, we collected and validated data published on the composition of soil fungal communities in terrestrial environments including soil and plant-associated habitats and made them publicly accessible through a user interface at https://globalfungi.com. The GlobalFungi database contains over 600 million observations of fungal sequences across >17 000 samples with geographical locations and additional metadata contained in 178 original studies with millions of unique nucleotide sequences (sequence variants) of the fungal internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 representing fungal species and genera. The study represents the most comprehensive atlas of global fungal distribution, and it is framed in such a way that third-party data addition is possible.
Ključne besede: fungi, database, metabarcoading
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 369; Prenosov: 369
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,17 MB)
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9.
The lichens of the Ždrocle forest reserve
Johannes Prügger, Boštjan Surina, Helmut Mayrhofer, 2000, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: 88 lichenized and 2 lichenicolous fungi are reported from the @drocle Forest Reserve. The association Ranunculo platanifolii-Fagetum var. geogr. Calaminthagrandiflora hosts the greatest biodiversity of lichens. One species (Biatora flavopunctata) is new for the flora of Slovenia, two species (Collemafurfuraceum and Lecanora subintricata) and one variety (Cladonia macilenta ssp. floerkeana) are new for the dinaric phytogeographical region.
Ključne besede: flora, lichens, lichenicolus fungi, distribution, biodiversity, forest reserve
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.11.2020; Ogledov: 876; Prenosov: 291
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,14 MB)

10.
The effect of Eutypella parasitica on the wood decay of three maple species
Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, Miha Humar, Jožica Gričar, Nikica Ogris, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson & R.C. Lorenz is the causative agent of Eutypella canker of maple, a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The fungus E. parasitica is known to cause wood stain and decay. However, it is not known how effectively it decomposes the wood of the most widespread maple species in Europe. Wood samples of Acer pseudoplatanus L., A. platanoides L., and A. campestre L. were exposed to four isolates of E. parasitica and nine other fungal species for comparison, according to the modified EN 113 standard. After 15 weeks of incubation, mass loss and microscopical analysis of samples showed evidence of colonization and different wood decay potentials among fungal species. A highly significant positive correlation was found between mass loss and moisture content for all fungal species. Similarly, the measured cell wall thickness correlated well with the calculated mass loss of the samples. On average, the fungal species caused the lowest mass loss in A. pseudoplatanus (10.0%) and the highest in A. campestre (12.6%) samples. Among the samples exposed to E. parasitica isolates, the highest mass loss was recorded in A. pseudoplatanus (6.6%). Statistical analysis showed significant differences in mass loss and moisture content between different E. parasitica isolates. Based on the results of staining, we discuss the type of decay caused by E. parasitica. Although E. parasitica isolates caused smaller mass loss of samples compared to other more effective decay species, we should not disregard its capability of degrading maple wood. Because E. parasitica usually infects the lower portion of the trunk, which is the largest and most valuable part of the tree, any damage can cause significant economic and resource loss.
Ključne besede: wood decay, mass loss, moisture content, mini-block test, decay test, Acer spp., Eutypella parasitica, fungi, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.07.2020; Ogledov: 1314; Prenosov: 923
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,28 MB)
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