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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (forest) .

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41.
Short-term impacts of harvesting intensity on the upper soil layers in high karst Dinaric fir-beech forests
Emira Hukić, Matjaž Čater, Aleksander Marinšek, Mitja Ferlan, Milan Kobal, Daniel Žlindra, Hamid Čustović, Primož Simončič, 2021

Povzetek: The present study addresses the short-term effects of different harvest intensities under close-to-nature selective management on the upper soil layers in Slovenian and Bosnian Dinaric karst fir-beech forests. The different harvest intensities coincided with the single-tree and irregular shelterwood management, common in the region. The effect of harvesting intensity on the upper soil layers (Ol, Of, Ol and 0%10 cm mineral soil) was investigated by a repeated measurements experiment in Slovenia on 27 research plots in close-to nature managed forests. The properties of the upper layers (concentration of SOC and TN, C/N ratio, weights, BD and SOC stocks) were analyzed twice, before (2011) and after (2014) treatment of 50% and 100% harvest intensity in relation to the total standing growing stock of trees. As a control, we used no-treatment <20% harvesting intensity plots. To extend this experiment, we added three comparable plots from the Bosnian site: one in an old-growth forest with 0% harvest intensity and two in the managed forest with <20% harvest intensity. The results of the assessment of mean differences indicated a significant influence of harvesting intensity on the decrease in SOC, TN concentrations, weights and SOC stocks in the organic layers and the increase in BD and SOC stocks in the 0%10 cm mineral soil. The highest relative decreases in Ol, Of and Oh SOC stocks occurred in 50% (%10 and %38%) and 100% (%16 and %49%) harvest intensities. Negligible relative differences in both organic and 0%10 cm mineral layers were found for the <20% harvest intensity in the region. The change in forest light conditions resulting from differences in canopy openness as a function of applied harvest intensity explained the significant difference in the properties of the upper soil layers. The impact of the short-term losses in SOC stocks, in terms of overall soil productivity, may depend on the regeneration dynamics and melioration methods.
Ključne besede: close-to-nature forest management, harvest intensity, Calcic Cambisol, forest soil, soil organic carbon
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.05.2021; Ogledov: 511; Prenosov: 298
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,42 MB)

42.
Green space area and type affect bird communities in a South-eastern European city
Maarten De Groot, Katarina Flajšman, Tomaž Mihelič, Urša Vilhar, Primož Simončič, Andrej Verlič, 2021

Povzetek: Urbanization decreases the species richness and results in the homogenization of bird communities. Bird species are important indicator species for biodiversity and reflect the habitat quality of urban forests and other green spaces. In this study we investigated the key drivers that influence bird communities in urban forests and green spaces in the Southeastern European city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. We were interested in how the number of species, species dissimilarity and indicator species are affected by the type of green space (urban forest vs park), area of green space and type of urbanization (urban vs peri-urban areas). We sampled birds twice in 2012 in 39 standardized point counts across Ljubljana. We found that the abundance was influenced by the area of the green space. Species dissimilarity and species turnover are affected by the area and type of green space. Interestingly, the analysis showed that the species composition of peri-urban areas was similar to that of urban areas. Indicator species were found for all environmental variables. On the basis of the results, we suggest the strategy that would increase the diversity of birds and increase the stability of their populations in urban areas. Urban planners should encourage 1) both forests and parks since they harbour different species of birds, 2) larger green spaces since larger areas have species that are more typical of larger areas and 3) a mosaic of a larger number of smaller forest remnants combined with larger forest complex serving as source areas.
Ključne besede: urban forest, bird species composition, forest remnant, urbanization, peri-urban forest, bird monitoring, species richness
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.06.2021; Ogledov: 448; Prenosov: 259
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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43.
The influence of land use on the spatial distribution and intensity of heat islands in Slovenia
Anica Simčič, Petra Pečan, Mojca Nastran, Milan Kobal, 2021

Povzetek: Heat islands (HI) are a common anthropogenic phenomenon and are defined as artificial surfaces (urban areas) that have a higher average temperature than their surroundings (rural areas). The aim of this work was to determine the influence of land use on the spatial distribution and intensity (HIi ) of HI in Slovenia. The MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) databases were used to perform the analysis. Within the identified HI, two HI levels were determined based on temperature difference. The results revealed a statistically significant negative correlation between HIi and both forest co%ver and forest fragmentation (forest edge density and ratio of mean forest patch size to HI size). Artificial surface was positively correlated with HIi . The results contribute to the understanding of the spatial distribution of HI and HIi and provide informati%on for spatial planning and policy-making to reduce the negative impact of HI.
Ključne besede: heat island, forest cover, artificial surface, forest fragmentation
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.08.2021; Ogledov: 1182; Prenosov: 728
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1011,73 KB)

44.
Genetic aspects linked to production and use of forest reproductive material (FRM) : collecting scientific evidence for developing guidelines and decision support tools for effective FRM management
Dušan Gömöry, Katri Himanen, Mari Mette Tollefsrud, Claes Uggla, Hojka Kraigher, Sandor Bordacs, Paraskevi Alizoti, Stuart A'Hara, Aline Frank, Gunnar Friis Proschowsky, Josef Frýdl, Thomas Geburek, Monique Guibert, Mladen Ivanković, Ana Jurše, Stuart Kennedy, Jan Kowalczyk, Heike Liesebach, Tiit Maaten, Andrej Pilipović, Roberta Proietti, Volker Schneck, Alain Servais, Brynjar Skúlason, Christoph Sperisen, Frank Wolter, Tefide Yüksel, Michele Bozzano, 2021

Povzetek: This report summarises the current state of knowledge in genetic aspects linked to the production and use of forest reproductive material (FRM). The first chapter describes the different categories of FRM, considers the strategic choice between artificial and natural regeneration in the face of climate change, and articulates the need for and purposes of FRM. Chapter 2 outlines the FRM production chain, in terms of: i) FRM approval, management, collection and certification (seed sources, stands, orchards, plus trees and clones others); ii) Testing standards and examples; iii) Effect of seed and seedling material not intended for use as FRM on forest genetic resources; iv) Breeding effects on basic material including conservation strategy; v) Harvesting, processing and storage of seeds; vi) Nursery practices; vii) Certification and Traceability; and viii) FRM Trading and Transport. Chapter 3 examines FRM with regard to: i) Forest regeneration strategies % especially considering climate change, and ii) Assisted migration and available decision support tools. Chapter 4 provides a detailed overview of forest establishment methods, and chapter 5 looks at keeping records of seed origin to improve forest management. The final chapter offers 38 recommendations arising from the review. This work is the result of an international collaboration rooted in EUFORGEN for more than two decades. It is built on the firm belief that the genetic element is decisive for the creation of a resilient forest capable of surviving threats and adapting to changes, thus enabling the evolution of ecosystems and the conservation of the productive landscape.
Ključne besede: forest reproductive material
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 05.11.2021; Ogledov: 355; Prenosov: 180
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,81 MB)

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46.
Growing stock monitoring by European National Forest Inventories : historical origins, current methods and harmonisation
Thomas Gschwantner, Iciar Alberdi, Sébastien Bauwens, Susann Bender, Dragan Borota, Michal Bošela, Olivier Bouriaud, Johannes Breidenbach, Janis Donis, Christoph Fischer, Mitja Skudnik, 2022

Povzetek: Wood resources have been essential for human welfare throughout history. Also nowadays, the volume of growing stock (GS) is considered one of the most important forest attributes monitored by National Forest Inventories (NFIs) to inform policy decisions and forest management planning. The origins of forest inventories closely relate to times of early wood shortage in Europe causing the need to explore and plan the utilisation of GS in the catchment areas of mines, saltworks and settlements. Over time, forest surveys became more detailed and their scope turned to larger areas, although they were still conceived as stand-wise inventories. In the 1920s, the first sample-based NFIs were introduced in the northern European countries. Since the earliest beginnings, GS monitoring approaches have considerably evolved. Current NFI methods differ due to country-specific conditions, inventory traditions, and information needs. Consequently, GS estimates were lacking international comparability and were therefore subject to recent harmonisation efforts to meet the increasing demand for consistent forest resource information at European level. As primary large-area monitoring programmes in most European countries, NFIs assess a multitude of variables, describing various aspects of sustainable forest management, including for example wood supply, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity. Many of these contemporary subject matters involve considerations about GS and its changes, at different geographic levels and time frames from past to future developments according to scenario simulations. Due to its historical, continued and currently increasing importance, we provide an up-to-date review focussing on large-area GS monitoring where we i) describe the origins and historical development of European NFIs, ii) address the terminology and present GS definitions of NFIs, iii) summarise the current methods of 23 European NFIs including sampling methods, tree measurements, volume models, estimators, uncertainty components, and the use of air- and space-borne data sources, iv) present the recent progress in NFI harmonisation in Europe, and v) provide an outlook under changing climate and forest-based bioeconomy objectives.
Ključne besede: forest history, natural resources, sustainability, timber volume, sampling, remote sensing, bioeconomy, climate change
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.12.2021; Ogledov: 209; Prenosov: 121
.pdf Celotno besedilo (17,73 MB)

47.
Climate change and disturbances will shape future temperate forests in the transition zone between Central and SE Europe
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Anže Martin Pintar, 2021

Povzetek: It is expected that climate change as well as abiotic and anthropogenic disturbances will strongly influence temperate forests. Besides changes in the main climate variables, various disturbance factors may significantly worsen conditions for mesic Slovenian forests (SE Europe) dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba). In Slovenia, the climate has warmed in recent decades, with an average annual rate of increase of about 0.4°C per decade or even more than 0.5°C per decade in summer. In addition, disturbances have caused considerable damage to trees in the most extensive forest types in Slovenia, starting with a widespread ice storm in 2014, followed by bark beetle outbreaks, windthrows and salvage logging interventions. After 2014, salvage logging increased from about one third to two thirds of the total annual felling. Over the last two decades, we have observed a decline in Norway spruce growing stock, with the highest rate of decrease in areas below 500 m a.s.l., and an increasing trend for European beech. Overall, the three dominant species (beech, spruce, silver fir), which together account for more than 70% of the total growing stock, have shown a declining trend over the last 20 years. The patterns observed are broadly consistent with earlier predictions developed for different climate change scenarios and with those reported in many other European countries. Adaptive forest management, which implements close-to-nature silviculture, has been traditionally practised in the region under study and has the potential to play an important role in reducing the risks associated with the impacts of climate change and disturbances in the future.
Ključne besede: climate warming, disturbance factors, ice storm, bark beetle outbreaks, spruce decline, salvage logging, tree species composition, temperate forest, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 181; Prenosov: 118
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,55 MB)

48.
Buckwheat milling waste effects on root morphology and mycorrhization of Silver fir seedlings inoculated with Black Summer Truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.)
Tina Unuk, Tine Grebenc, Daniel Žlindra, Tanja Mrak, Matevž Likar, Hojka Kraigher, Zlata Luthar, 2022

Povzetek: Large amounts of buckwheat waste are generated annually by the industry and are used in several different ways. To date, there has been little research regarding its suitability as a medium for growing seedlings in nurseries. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the suitability of common and Tartary buckwheat wastes (brans and husks) as media used for raising seedlings. A pot experiment with five different treatments was carried out, in which silver fir root parameters were analyzed and compared 6 and 12 months after summer truffle-spore inoculation. A significantly higher concentration of the antioxidant rutin was confirmed in Tartary buckwheat bran compared to other buckwheat waste used. We also confirmed a significantly positive effect of added Tartary buckwheat husks on specific root length, root tip density, and specific root tip density compared to added common buckwheat husks or Tartary buckwheat bran, for which a significantly negative effect on branching density was confirmed. A significantly negative effect of added buckwheat husks and Tartary buckwheat bran was confirmed for summer truffle mycorrhization level.
Ključne besede: buckwheat waste, root growth, summer truffle, forest nursery, silver fir, inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 09.02.2022; Ogledov: 177; Prenosov: 136
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,37 MB)
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49.
Combining an occurrence model and a quantitative model for the prediction of the sanitary felling of Norway spruce because of bark beetles
Maarten De Groot, Nikica Ogris, 2022

Povzetek: The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) is an eruptive forest pest that has caused a great deal of damage in the last decades because of increasing climatic extremes. In order to effectively manage outbreaks of this pest, it is important to predict where they will occur in the future. In this study we developed a predictive model of the sanitary felling of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) because of bark beetles. We used a time series of sanitary felling because of bark beetles from 1996 to 2020 in Slovenia. For the explanatory variables, we used soil, site, climate, geographic, and tree damage data from the previous year. The model showed that sanitary felling is negatively correlated with slope, soil depth, soil cation exchange capacity, and Standard Precipitation Index (less sanitary felling in wet years). On the other hand, soil base saturation percentage, temperature, sanitary felling because of bark beetles from the previous year, sanitary felling because of other abiotic factors from the previous year, and the amount of spruce were positively correlated with the sanitary felling of Norway spruce due to bark beetles. The model had an R2 of 0.38. A prediction was performed for 2021 combining an occurrence model and a quantitative model. The model can be used to predict the amount of sanitary felling of Norway spruce due to bark beetles and to refine the risk map for the next year, which can be used for forest management planning and economic loss predictions.
Ključne besede: sanitary felling, prediction, Ips typographus, Picea abies, Slovenia, forecasting, insect outbreak forest pest
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 21.02.2022; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 75
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,24 MB)
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