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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (corrosion) .

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Elucidating nucleation stages of transgranular stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel by in situ electrochemical and optical methods
Sarmiento Klapper Helmuth, Bojan Zajec, Andreas Heyn, Andraž Legat, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The pitting and environmentally assisted cracking resistance of austenitic stainless steels (SS) is challenged in several industrial applications particularly those involving hot chloride-concentrated streams. Directional drilling used in the oil and gas exploration is one of these applications. Indeed, high strength CrMn-SS commonly used in drilling technology have a high tendency to fail by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) preceded by localized corrosion once subjected to highly chloride-concentrated drilling fluids at elevated temperatures. A comprehensive understanding regarding the mechanisms governing the transition from pitting into SCCis not currently available, though. Therefore, mechanistic aspects such as the effect of loading conditions on pit nucleation and repassivation as well as the synergistic effect between pit stabilization and the nucleation of a stress corrosion crack are of great practical significance. To investigate this an electrochemical-, optical- and mechanical- monitored SCC test was conducted on a CrMn-SS in an alkaline brine at elevated temperature. The transition from metastable to stable pitting and subsequently to SCC in this system was documented in-situ for the first time. Results supported H.S. Isaacs postulates regarding the interpretation of electrochemical signals and demonstrated that loading conditions affect pit nucleation and repassivation leading to a higher susceptibility of the material to pitting, which preceded SCC.
Ključne besede: pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, monitoring, elektrochemical noise, austenitic stainless steel
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.11.2023; Ogledov: 20; Prenosov: 18
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,28 MB)
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The corrosion properties of steel in pore solutions obtained from alkali‐activated mortars
Nina Gartner, Tadeja Kosec, Stéphane Poyet, Andraž Legat, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali‐activated materials (AAMs) are considered a promising alternative to materials made from ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Other than considering the durability of the material itself, the use of AAMs for reinforced concrete elements also raises the question of steel corrosion processes in these materials, which are still relatively unknown. Three different alkali‐activated mortars were prepared for this study, based on either fly ash, slag, or metakaolin. Pore solutions were then extracted from each mortar and chemically analyzed. Electrochemical techniques were used to study the corrosion of steel in synthetic pore solutions containing varying concentrations of chlorides. In parallel, the same corrosion tests were performed in a generic pore solution representing OPC mortar. It was shown that the chemical composition differed in each pore solution tested, thus affecting the corrosion properties of the steel. The addition of chloride also had a varying effect on the corrosion properties of the steel in each type of pore solution tested. This study provided a basic overview of the corrosion behavior and mechanisms of the various AAM environments in comparison to that of OPC.
Ključne besede: alkali-aktivated materials, corrosion, electrochemical corrosion techniques, extracted pore solution
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.11.2023; Ogledov: 57; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,73 MB)
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Corrosion properties of aluminized 16Mo3 steel
Blaž Karpe, Klara Prijatelj, Milan Bizjak, Tadeja Kosec, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Chromium-molybdenum steel (16Mo3) is widely used in petroleum, gas, automotive, and construction industries due to its good oxidation resistance and mechanical properties at moderately elevated temperatures. The aim of the research was to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of 16Mo3 steel in hot rolled and aluminized states. Aluminization was performed by diffusion pack aluminization process at 900°C/2h and 730°C/4h, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion testing included measuring open circuit potential (EOCP), linear polarization resistance (LPR), potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in potassium phosphate buffer (KH2PO4, pH = 7). Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used for surface layer microstructure characterization before and after corrosion tests. It was demonstrated that corrosion resistance of aluminized steel increased substantially. Corrosion properties were related to the structure and properties of intermetallic phase (FeAl, FeAl2 and Fe2Al5) that formed on the surface of 16Mo3 steel.
Ključne besede: aluminide coatings, aluminized steel, aluminizing, electrochemical corrosion investigation, 16Mo3 steel
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.11.2023; Ogledov: 55; Prenosov: 27
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,40 MB)
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Monitoring the galvanic corrosion of copper–steel coupling in bentonite slurry during the early oxic phase using coupled multielectrode arrays
Tadeja Kosec, Miha Hren, Klara Prijatelj, Bojan Zajec, Nina Gartner, Andraž Legat, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In the case of a two-part container for spent nuclear fuel, consisting of an iron-based inner structure with a copper coating, the potential perforation of copper through minor damage may result in intensive galvanic corrosion between copper and steel. The present work focuses on the corrosion of steel galvanically coupled to copper and exposed to a slightly saline environment under oxic conditions. The electrochemical processes on individual electrodes were monitored by coupled multielectrode arrays (CMEAs). The CMEAs were either in contact with groundwater saturated with bentonite or immersed in groundwater only. Very high galvanic corrosion currents were detected between carbon steel and pure copper in the early oxic phase. Additionally, the use of CMEAs further made it possible to monitor the distribution of cathodic currents around the steel electrode, which behaved anodically. Various microscopy and spectroscopy techniques were applied to identify the modes of corrosion and the type of corrosion products present at the end of the period of exposure.
Ključne besede: copper, steel, bentonite, Aspö groundwater, coupled multi electrode array, electrochemical properties, Raman analysis, corrosion
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.11.2023; Ogledov: 57; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,66 MB)
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The corrosion resistance of dental Ti6Al4V with differing microstructures in oral environments
Mirjam Bajt Leban, Tadeja Kosec, Matjaž Finšgar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The impact of the microstructural properties of a Ti6Al4V alloy on its electrochemical properties, as well as the effect of the α- and β-phases present within it, is still unclear. With the introduction of new, emerging technologies, such as selective laser melting and post heat treatments, the effect of the microstructure on an alloy's corrosion properties has become increasingly interesting from a scientific perspective. When these alloys are produced through different methods, despite an identical chemical composition they have diverse microstructures, and consequently display varying resistance to corrosion. In the present research study, Ti–6Al–4V alloy specimens produced by three different processes, leading to the formation of three different microstructures were investigated: heat treated specimen fabricated by selective laser melting, wrought and cast specimens. The impact of the microstructure of these alloys when immersed in artificial saliva was studied through the use of various electrochemical techniques, by microscopical examinations, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Corrosion properties were investigated by the measurement of open circuit potential, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic curve measurements followed by microscopical examinations, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry examination was conducted to reveal spatial distribution of alloying species on oxide film. It was found that the difference between specimens containing an α+β microstructure was small and not dependent on the aspect ratio of the β-phase, alloy grain size, and vanadium partitioning coefficient, but rather on the size, shape, and content of this phase.
Ključne besede: Ti6Al4V, dental alloy, microstructure, corrosion resistance, heat treatment, ToF-SIMS
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.10.2023; Ogledov: 192; Prenosov: 105
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,12 MB)
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Influence of laser colour marking on the corrosion properties of low alloyed Ti
Tadeja Kosec, Andraž Legat, Janez Kovač, Damjan Klobčar, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In the field of surface treatment, laser colour marking can be used to produce coloured marks on the surfaces of metals. Laser colour markings can be applied to various materials, but on titanium alloys a wide spectra of vivid colours can be achieved. This study presents an analysis of the corrosion properties of laser treated surfaces that were exposed to aggressive environments. Different samples were prepared with laser light of various power intensities and processing speeds. The samples were prepared on low alloyed Ti. Electrochemical, spectroscopic and microstructural analyses were conducted in order to study the properties of the laser treated surfaces. Corrosion testing showed different effects of laser power and production speed on the properties of the laser treated surfaces. It was shown that a high intensity and slow processing rate affect the surfaces by forming oxides that are relatively stable in a corrosive environment of 0.1 M NaCl. Spectroscopic investigations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed the differences in chemical structure of the surface layer formed after laser treatment. Similarly, microstructural investigations showed different effects on the surface and sub-surface layer of the laser treated samples.
Ključne besede: Ti alloy, laser treatment, XPS, corrosion
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.10.2023; Ogledov: 182; Prenosov: 67
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,16 MB)
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Development of multi-component fluoropolymer based coating on simulated outdoor patina on quaternary bronze
Tadeja Kosec, Luka Škrlep, Erika Švara Fabjan, Andrijana Sever Škapin, Giulia Masi, Elena Bernardi, Cristina Chiavari, Claudie Josse, Jerome Esvan, Luc Robbiola, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Bronze reacts with oxygen, humidity, and pollutants in the atmosphere so that a patina forms. Natural exposure to an outdoor atmosphere can be simulated and accelerated in order to achieve a patina that mimics outdoor ancient patina. In order to avoid the uncontrolled dissolving of either the natural or artificially formed patina, protection of the patina is needed. In this study, a multi-component fluoropolymer based coating for the protection of bronze patina was developed. In order to provide various functionalities of the coating (such as the hydrophobicity of the coating surface, obtaining interactions within the coating itself as well as a bronze substrate and inhibiting the corrosion processes), a fluoroacrylate coating with appropriate adhesion promoter was suggested, with and without a silane modified benzotriazole inhibitor. The protective efficiency and durability of the applied coatings were investigated electrochemically using potentiodynamic tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a simulated acid rain solution. All of the developed coatings showed a significant decrease in the corrosion current density. The self-assembled single layer coating (FA-MS) also showed 100% inhibition efficiency. After ageing the coating remained transparent and did not change by UV exposure and/or thermal cycling. The patina and coating investigations using FIB-SEM and EDX showed that the latter coating (FA-MS) successfully covered the surface of the patinated bronze. The mechanism of the bonding was proposed and supported with the spectroscopic observation of a thin and even coating.
Ključne besede: bronze, patina, fluoropolymer coating, atmospheric corrosion
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.10.2023; Ogledov: 179; Prenosov: 109
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,17 MB)
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Development of an electrical resistance sensor from high strength steel for automotive applications
Tadeja Kosec, Viljem Kuhar, Andrej Kranjc, Vili Malnarič, Branko Belingar, Andraž Legat, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This work focuses on a demonstration of the monitoring of corrosion processes taking place in high strength steel in automotive applications. This is performed by means of a corrosion sensor, which operates as an electrical resistance sensor. It was developed from the same type of material that is used for the high-strength steel parts produced in the automotive industry. Using the sensor, real time corrosion processes can be measured. It is attached to a location inside the vehicle’s engine and is equipped with a data logger, which enables wireless transfer of the measured data. In this study the development, operation, and evaluation of the monitoring process are presented. Corrosion estimation is verified by means of electrochemical methods. A metallographic investigation was included in order to verify the similarity between the microstructural properties of the sensor and those of the as-received high-strength steel sheet.
Ključne besede: high strenghth steel, automotive, electrical resistance sensor, corrosion
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.10.2023; Ogledov: 186; Prenosov: 85
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,33 MB)
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Corrosion performance of steel in blended cement pore solutions
Miha Hren, Tadeja Kosec, Andraž Legat, Violeta Bokan-Bosiljkov, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Blended cements might change the chemistry of the pore solution and subsequently affect the corrosion of steel in concrete. Pore solutions were extracted, analyzed and compared from mortars made of CEM I, CEM II, CEM III and CEM IV cements. Three combinations of carbonation and chloride states were studied, i.e., non-carbonated without chlorides, non-carbonated with chlorides and carbonated with chlorides. Different electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques were used to study the electrochemical properties, the type and the extent of the corrosion products, as well as the type and the extent of the corrosion damage. It was confirmed that the most corrosive environments were pore solutions extracted from the carbonated mortars with chlorides. In this environment the highest corrosion rate was observed for the CEM III pore solution, and the lowest for the CEM I. The extent and the type of corrosion products and the corrosion damage varied according to the environment.
Ključne besede: corrosion, blended cements, pore solution, mortar
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.09.2023; Ogledov: 132; Prenosov: 55
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,80 MB)
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Depassivation and repassivation of stainless steels by stepwise pH change
Emir Mujanović, Bojan Zajec, Andraž Legat, Tadeja Kosec, Janez Kovač, Gregor Mori, Stefan Hönig, Gerald Zehethofer, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Immersion tests with different stainless steels have been performed, while the pH was stepwise decreased and then increased again. During 8.5-day exposure, the depassivation and repassivation pH values as a function of pitting resistance equivalent number were determined. There is always a gap between both pH values (depassivation and repassivation), indicating that for every steel, there are conditions where an existing passive layer can be maintained but cannot be rebuilt after depassivation. In such environments, the passive layer is thicker, consisting mainly of molybdenum and iron rich oxides, while chromium is dissolved. Usually, depending on conditions, the passive layer is more chromium-rich, especially the inner layer. This is relevant, for example, for acidizing jobs in oil and gas industry, proving that repassivation after acidizing will happen promptly, when the pH is increased again.
Ključne besede: stress corrosion cracking, surface finish impact, tapered tensile specimen, autoclave, accelerated testing, light water nuclear reactor, critical threshold stress
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.08.2023; Ogledov: 137; Prenosov: 63
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,01 MB)
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