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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (chemotherapy) .

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Dynamic expression of 11 miRNAs in 83 consecutive primary and corresponding recurrent glioblastoma : correlation to treatment, time to recurrence, overall survival and MGMT methylation status
Boštjan Matos, Emanuela Boštjančič, Alenka Matjašič, Mara Popović, Damjan Glavač, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and the most malignant glioma subtype. Among numerous genetic alterations, miRNAs contribute to pathogenesis of GBM and it is suggested that also to GBM recurrence and resistance to therapy. Based on publications, we have selected 11 miRNAs and analyzed their expression in GBM. We hypothesized that selected miRNAs are differentially expressed and involved in primary as well as in recurrent GBM, that show significant expressional differences when different treatment options are in question, and that are related to certain patients and tumor characteristics. Patients and methods. Paraffin embedded tissues, obtained from primary and corresponding recurrent tumor from 83 patients with primary GBM were used. Eleven miRNAs ( miR-7, miR-9, miR-15b, miR-21, miR-26b, miR-124a, miR-199a, let-7a, let-7b, let-7d, and let-7f ) were selected for qPCR expression analysis. For patients who received temozolamide (TMZ) as chemotherapeutic drug, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status was defined using the methyl-specific PCR. Results. There was a significant change in expression of miR-7, miR-9, miR-21, miR-26b, mirR-124a, miR-199a and let- 7f in recurrent tumor compared to the primary. In recurrent tumor, miR-15b, let-7d and let-7f significantly changed comparing both treatment options. We also observed difference in progression free survival between patients that received radiotherapy and patients that received radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and longer survival for patients who received chemotherapy after second surgery compared to not treated patients. miR-26b showed correlation to progression free survival and let-7f to overall survival. We did not find any expression difference between the tumors with and without methylated MGMT. Conclusions. Our data suggest that analyzed miRNAs may not only contribute to pathogenesis of primary GBM, but also to tumor progression and its recurrence. Moreover, expression of certain miRNAs appears to be therapy- dependent and as such they might serve as additional biomarker for recurrence prediction and potentially predict a therapy-resistance.
Ključne besede: glioblastoma, radiotherapy, chemotherapy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 02.07.2024; Ogledov: 117; Prenosov: 59
.pdf Celotno besedilo (543,20 KB)
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Induction chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy and consolidation chemotherapy in preoperative treatment of rectal cancer : long-term results of phase II OIGIT-01 Trial
Danijela Golo, Jasna But-Hadžić, Franc Anderluh, Erik Brecelj, Ibrahim Edhemović, Ana Jeromen, Mirko Omejc, Irena Oblak, Ajra Šečerov Ermenc, Vaneja Velenik, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The purpose of the study was to improve treatment efficacy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by shifting half of adjuvant chemotherapy preoperatively to one induction and two consolidation cycles. Patients and methods Between October 2011 and April 2013, 66 patients with LARC were treated with one induction chemotherapy cycle followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT), two consolidation cycles, surgery and three adjuvant capecitabine cycles. Radiation doses were 50.4 Gy for T2-3 and 54 Gy for T4 tumours in 1.8 Gy daily fraction. The doses of concomitant and neo/adjuvant capecitabine were 825 mg/m2/12h and 1250mg/m2/12h, respectively. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). Results Forty-three (65.1%) patients were treated according to protocol. The compliance rates for induction, consolidation, and adjuvant chemotherapy were 98.5%, 93.8% and 87.3%, respectively. CRT was completed by 65/66 patients, with G % 3 non-hematologic toxicity at 13.6%. The rate of pCR (17.5%) was not increased, but N and the total-down staging rates were 77.7% and 79.3%, respectively. In a median follow-up of 55 months, we recorded one local relapse (LR) (1.6%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 64.0% (95% CI 63.89%64.11) and 69.5% (95% CI 69.39%69.61), respectively. Conclusions In LARC preoperative treatment intensification with capecitabine before and after radiotherapy is well tolerated, with a high compliance rate and acceptable toxicity. Though it does not improve the local effect, it achieves a high LR rate, DFS, and OS.
Ključne besede: rectal cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, preoperative chemoradiotherapy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 11.06.2024; Ogledov: 74; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,27 MB)
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Nature-inspired substituted 3-(imidazol-2-yl) morpholines targeting human topoisomerase IIα : dynophore-derived discovery
Barbara Herlah, Matej Janežič, Iza Ogris, Simona Golič Grdadolnik, Katja Kološa, Sonja Žabkar, Bojana Žegura, Andrej Perdih, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The molecular nanomachine, human DNA topoisomerase IIα, plays a crucial role in replication, transcription, and recombination by catalyzing topological changes in the DNA, rendering it an optimal target for cancer chemotherapy. Current clinical topoisomerase II poisons often cause secondary tumors as side effects due to the accumulation of double-strand breaks in the DNA, spurring the development of catalytic inhibitors. Here, we used a dynamic pharmacophore approach to develop catalytic inhibitors targeting the ATP binding site of human DNA topoisomerase IIα. Our screening of a library of nature-inspired compounds led to the discovery of a class of 3-(imidazol-2-yl) morpholines as potent catalytic inhibitors that bind to the ATPase domain. Further experimental and computational studies identified hit compound 17, which exhibited selectivity against the human DNA topoisomerase IIα versus human protein kinases, cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells, and did not induce DNA double-strand breaks, making it distinct from clinical topoisomerase II poisons. This study integrates an innovative natural product-inspired chemistry and successful implementation of a molecular design strategy that incorporates a dynamic component of ligand-target molecular recognition, with comprehensive experimental characterization leading to hit compounds with potential impact on the development of more efficient chemotherapies.
Ključne besede: topoisomerase II, catalytic inhibitors, chemotherapy, DNA damage, cancer
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.06.2024; Ogledov: 260; Prenosov: 123
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,99 MB)
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Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer : single center experience
Janja Ocvirk, Maja Ebert Moltara, Tanja Mesti, Marko Boc, Martina Reberšek, Neva Volk, Jernej Benedik, Zvezdana Hlebanja, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients% register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients and methods. The registry of patients with mCRC was designed to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy as well as selection of patients in routine clinical practice. Patient baseline clinical characteristics, pre-specified bevacizumab-related adverse events, and efficacy data were collected, evaluated and compared according to the age categories. Results. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 210 patients with mCRC (median age 63, male 61.4%) started bevacizumab-containing therapy in the 1st line setting. Majority of the 210 patients received irinotecan-based chemotherapy (68%) as 1st line treatment and 105 patients (50%) received bevacizumab maintenance therapy. Elderly (% 70 years) patients presented 22.9% of all patients and they had worse performance status (PS 1/2, 62.4%) than patients in < 70 years group (PS 1/2, 35.8%). Difference in disease control rate was mainly due to inability to assess response in elderly group (64.6% in elderly and 77.8% in < 70 years group, p = 0.066). The median progression free survival was 10.2 (95% CI, 6.7%16.2) and 11.3 (95% CI, 10.2%12.6) months in elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.58). The median overall survival was 18.5 (95% CI, 12.4%28.9) and 27.4 (95% CI, 22.7%31.9) months for elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.03). Three-year survival rate was 26% and 37.6% in elderly vs. < 70 years group (p = 0.03). Overall rates of bevacizumab-related adverse events were similar in both groups: proteinuria 21/22 %, hypertension 25/19 %, haemorrhage 2/4 % and thromboembolic events 10/6 %, for elderly and < 70 years group, respectively. Conclusions. In routine clinical practice, the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy is effective and welltolerated regimen in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Ključne besede: metastatic colorectal cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, elderly
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.04.2024; Ogledov: 262; Prenosov: 82
.pdf Celotno besedilo (620,74 KB)

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The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced (stage IIIC) epithelial ovarian cancer
Erik Škof, Sebastjan Merlo, Gašper Pilko, Borut Kobal, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Primary treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer consists of chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NACT) or after primary surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). The goal of primary treatment is no residual disease after surgery (R0 resection) what is associated with an improvement in survival of patients. There is, however, no evidence of survival benefits in patients with R0 resections after prior NACT. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who were treated with diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in the years 2005%2007. The differences in the rates of R0 resections, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and in five-year and eight-year survival rates between patients treated with NACT and patients who had primary surgery were compared. Results. Overall 160 patients had stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. Eighty patients had NACT and eighty patients had primary surgery. Patients in NACT group had higher rates of R0 resection (42% vs. 20%; p = 0.011) than patients after primary surgery. PFS was 14.1 months in NACT group and 17.7 months after primary surgery (p = 0.213). OS was 24.8 months in NACT group and 31.6 months after primary surgery (p = 0.012). In patients with R0 resections five-year and eight-year survival rates were 20.6% and 17.6% in NACT group compared to 62.5% and 62.5% after primary surgery (p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions. Despite higher rates of R0 resections achieved by NACT, survival of patients treated with NACT was inferior to survival of patients who underwent primary surgery. NACT should only be offered to patients with advanced epithelial cancer who are not candidates for primary surgery.
Ključne besede: ovarian cancer, advanced ovarian cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primary surgery
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.04.2024; Ogledov: 245; Prenosov: 76
.pdf Celotno besedilo (597,52 KB)

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Preoperative treatment with radiochemotherapy for locally advanced gastroesophageal junction cancer and unresectable locally advanced gastric cancer
Ivica Ratoša, Irena Oblak, Franc Anderluh, Vaneja Velenik, Jasna But-Hadžić, Ajra Šečerov Ermenc, Ana Jeromen, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: To purpose of the study was to analyze the results of preoperative radiochemotherapy in patients with unresectable gastric or locoregionally advanced gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer treated at a single institution. Between 1/2004 and 6/2012, 90 patients with locoregionally advanced GEJ or unresectable gastric cancer were treated with preoperative radiochemotherapy at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana. Planned treatment schedule consisted of induction chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, followed by concomitant radiochemotherapy four weeks later. Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy was delivered by dual energy (6 and 15 MV) linear accelerator in 25 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy in 5 weeks with two additional cycles of chemotherapy repeated every 28 days. Surgery was performed 4-6 weeks after completing radiochemotherapy. Following the surgery, multidisciplinary advisory team reassessed patients for the need of adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary endpoints were histopathological R0 resection rate and pathological response rate. The secondary endpoints were toxicity of preoperative radiochemotherapy and survival. Treatment with preoperative radiochemotherapy was completed according to the protocol in 84 of 90 patients (93.3%). Twenty patients (22.2%) did not undergo the surgery because of the disease progression, serious comorbidity, poor performance status or still unresectable tumour. In 13 patients (14.4%) only exploration was performed because the tumour was assessed as unresectable or diffuse peritoneal carcinomatosis was established. Fifty-seven patients (63.4%) underwent surgery with the aim of complete removal of the tumour. Radical resection was achieved in 50 (55.6%) patients and the remaining seven (7.8%) patients underwent non-radical surgery (R1 in five and R2 in two patients). In this group of patients (n = 57), pathological complete response of tumour was achieved in five patients (5.6% of all treated patients or 8.8% of all operated patients). Down-staging was recorded in 49 patients (86%), in one patient (1.8%) the stage after radiochemotherapy was unchanged while in seven patients (12.3%) the pathological stage was higher than clinical, mainly due to higher pN stage. No death was recorded during preoperative radiochemotherapy. Most grade 3 and 4 toxicities were due to vomiting, nausea and bone marrow suppression (granulocytopenia). Twentysix (45.6%) patients died due to GEJ or gastric carcinoma, one died because of septic shock following the surgery and a reason for two deaths was unknown. Twenty-eight patients (49.1%) were disease free at the time of analysis, while 29 patients (50.9%) developed the recurrence, mostly as distant metastases. At two years, locoregional control, diseasefree survival, disease-specific survival and overall survival were 82.9%, 43.9%, 56.9% and 53.9%, respectively. Preoperative radiochemotherapy was feasible in our group of patients and had acceptable toxicity. Majority of patients achieved down-staging, allowing greater proportion of radical resections (R0), which are essential for patientsʼ cure.
Ključne besede: neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, perioperative chemotherapy, chemotherapy, adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, surgery
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.04.2024; Ogledov: 193; Prenosov: 64
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,18 MB)

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Febrile neutropenia in chemotherapy treated small-cell lung cancer patients
Renata Režonja, Iztok Grabnar, Tomaž Vovk, Aleš Mrhar, Viljem Kovač, Tanja Čufer, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Chemotherapy with platinum agent and etoposide for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is supposed to be associated with intermediate risk (10-20%) of febrileneutropenia. Primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colonystimulating factors (G-CSFs) is not routinely recommended by the treatment guidelines. However, in clinical practice febrile neutropenia is often observed with standard etoposide/platinum regimen. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the frequency of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in advanced SCLC patients in the first cycle of standard chemotherapy. Furthermore, we explored the association between severe neutropenia and etoposide peak plasma levels inthe same patients. The case series based analysis of 17 patients with advanced SCLC treated with standard platinum/etoposide chemotherapy, already included in the pharmacokinetics study with etoposide, was performed. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia, observed after the first cycle are reported. The neutrophil counts were determined on day one of the second cycle unless symptoms potentially related to neutropenia occurred. Adverse events were classified according to Common Toxicity Criteria 4.0. Additionally, association between severe neutropenia and etoposide peak plasma concentrations, which were measured in the scope of pharmacokinetic study, was explored. Two out of 17 patients received primary GCS-F prophylaxis. In 15 patient who did not receive primary prophylaxis the rates of both grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were high (8/15 (53.3%) and 2/15 (13.3%), respectively), already in the first cycle of chemotherapy. One patient died due to febrile neutropenia related pneumonia. Neutropenic events are assumed to be related to increased etoposide plasma concentrations after a standard etoposide and cisplatin dose. While the mean etoposide peak plasma concentration in the first cycle of chemotherapy was 17.6 mg/l, the highest levels of 27.07 and 27.49 mg/l were determined in two patients with febrile neutropenia. Our study indicates that there is a need to reduce the risk of neutropenic events in chemotherapy treated advanced SCLC, starting in the first cycle. Mandatory use of primary G-CSF prophylaxis might be considered. Alternatively, use of improved risk models for identification of patients with increased risk for neutropenia and individualization of primary prophylaxis based on not only clinical characteristics but also on etoposide plasma concentration measurement, could be a new, promising options that deserves further evaluation.
Ključne besede: small cell lung cancer, platinum-etoposide chemotherapy, etoposide, febrile neutropenia, plasma drug concentration
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.04.2024; Ogledov: 202; Prenosov: 103
.pdf Celotno besedilo (568,43 KB)
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9.
Impact of comorbidity on the outcome in men with advanced prostate cancer treated with docetaxel
Andrej Žist, Eitan Amir, Alberto Ocaña, Boštjan Šeruga, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may not receive docetaxel in everyday clinical practice due to comorbidities. Here we explore the impact of comorbidity on outcome in men with mCRPC treated with docetaxel in a population-based outcome study. Methods. Men with mCRPC treated with docetaxel at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between 2005 and 2012 were eligible. Comorbidity was assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (aa-CCI) and adult comorbidity evaluation (ACE-27) index. Hospital admissions due to the toxicity and deaths during treatment with docetaxel were used as a measure of tolerability. Association between comorbidity and overall survival (OS) was tested using the Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results. Two hundred and eight men were treated with docetaxel. No, mild, moderate and severe comorbidity was present in 2%, 32%, 53% and 13% using aa-CCI and in 27%, 35%, 29% and 8% when assessed by ACE-27. A substantial dose reduction of docetaxel occurred more often in men with moderate or severe comorbidity as compared to those with no or mild comorbidity. At all comorbidity levels about one-third of men required hospitalization or died during treatment with docetaxel. In univariate analysis a higher level of comorbidity was not associated with worse OS (aa-CCI HR 0.99; [95% CI 0.87%1.13], p = 0.93; ACE-27: HR 0.96; [95% CI 0.79%1.17], p = 0.69).
Ključne besede: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, prostate cancer, comorbidity, chemotherapy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.04.2024; Ogledov: 249; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (428,78 KB)

10.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 13 patients with locally advanced poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma based on Turin proposal : a single institution experience
Nikola Bešić, Marta Dremelj, Andreja A. Schwarzbartl-Pevec, Barbara Gazić, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: There is a paradigm that chemotherapy is ineffective in thyroid carcinoma. The aim of our study was to find out whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy before thyroid surgery had an effect on the size of primary tumour in patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) based on Turin proposal. Patients and methods. Altogether, 13 patients (8 women, 5 men; median age 61 years) with PDTC based on Turin proposal were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 1986 and 2005. Tumour diameter was from 4.5 to 18 cm (median 9 cm). Regional and distant metastases were detected in 6 and 9 patients, respectively. Eight patients had pT4 tumour. Results. Altogether, 29 (range 1%5) cycles of chemotherapy were given. Tumour diameter decreased in all the patients and by more than 30% in 5 patients (= 38%). Two of these five patients had also preoperative external beam irradiation (EBRT). Total thyroidectomy, lobectomy and neck dissection were performed in 10, 3 and 5 cases, respectively. R0 and R1 resection was done in 5 and 8 cases, respectively. Eight patients had postoperative EBRT of the neck and upper mediastinum. The 5-year and 10-year cause-specific survival rates of patients were 66% and 20%, respectively. Conclusions. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy a partial tumour regression was observed in 38% of patients with PDTC based on Turin proposal.
Ključne besede: poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, neoadjuvant, chemotherapy, survival
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.04.2024; Ogledov: 332; Prenosov: 320
.pdf Celotno besedilo (459,46 KB)

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