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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (beech) .

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Radial increment of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Is under a strong impact of climate in the continental biogeographical region of Croatia
Tom Levanič, Damir Ugarković, Ivan Seletković, Mladen Ognjenović, Mia Marušić, Robert Bogdanić, Nenad Potočić, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is an important component of forests in the alpine and continental biogeographical regions of Croatia. This study aimed to (1) analyze the long-term response of beech to climate, (2) identify potentially critical climatic conditions that could negatively affect the radial increment (RI) and vitality of beech, and (3) evaluate differences in the response of beech between the two biogeographical regions in Croatia. We used the 16 × 16 km Croatian ICP Forests Level 1 network. On a total of 25 plots, we cored between 5 and 24 trees for dendrochronological analysis. Tree-ring widths (TRW) were measured and standardized using cubic spline. TRW chronologies for the two regions were calculated and correlated to the temperature and precipitation data and Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) using bootstrapped correlations. Continental region precipitation from April to August and alpine region precipitation from June to August were significantly important for RI. Temperature was less important for RI than precipitation in both regions, but the importance of the negative impact of above-average temperatures in the continental region and the positive impact of above-average precipitation in the alpine region has increased over the last two decades. A comparison with the 3-month SPEI confirmed the significant influence of high temperatures and the lack of precipitation in August on the RI of beech trees in both regions.
Ključne besede: climate change, tree growth, forest productivity, drought, European beech
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.06.2023; Ogledov: 251; Prenosov: 123
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,96 MB)
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Mode I fracture of beech-adhesive bondline at three different temperatures
Jaka Gašper Pečnik, Andreja Pondelak, Michael David Burnard, Václav Sebera, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Single edge-notched three-point bending tests (SEN-TPB) for mode I were utilized to experimentallyevaluate fracture properties of adhesive bondlines in European beech (Fagus SylvaticaL.). Thebondline was examined at two anatomical planes with TR and RT orientation and at control andtwo elevated temperatures (70°C and 140°C). Among epoxy (EPI), melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF), and polyurethane (PUR) adhesives, the highest average critical energyGcwith 0.80 N/mmand fracture energyGfwith 1079.4 N/mm were obtained for EPI in the TR plane and understandard climate conditions (20°C/65% relative humidity), followed by MUF (Gc= 0.50 N/mm andGf= 620 N/mm) and PUR (Gc= 0.25 N/mm andGf= 290.9 N/mm), respectively. PUR was leasteffected by elevated temperature, and no significant differences forGcandGfbetween TR and RTbondline orientations were found for MUF and PUR treated at 20°C/65% relative humidity whilecomparisons between other factors varied significantly. Treatment of specimens at elevatedtemperatures resulted in reduced fracture performance regardless of wood grain orientation orthe adhesive system.
Ključne besede: crack, fracture, grain orientation, temperature, European Beech, odprti dostop
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.05.2023; Ogledov: 266; Prenosov: 178
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,32 MB)
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Stable isotope composition in tree rings of Fagus sylvatica L. saplings reflects environmental variation induced by silviculture and microsite factors
Janez Kermavnar, Tom Levanič, Lado Kutnar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Natural regeneration of tree species is sensitive to silvicultural interventions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different cutting intensities and local topographic and soil conditions on the composition of stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes in wood of young beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Beech saplings in the regeneration layer were sampled in summer 2018 at three study sites in Dinaric fir-beech forests in the karst area of Slovenia. Three different cutting intensities were performed in 2012: i) no cutting (control), ii) 50% cutting of the stand’s growing stock creating thinned stands, and iii) 100% cutting of the stand’s growing stock creating 0.4 ha canopy gaps. We show that δ13C increased along the gradient of cutting intensity. On average, δ13C values in the tree rings were ∼ 2‰ increased in trees from canopy gaps than from closed control stands. Furthermore, δ13C was higher on south-facing slopes characterized by higher air temperatures and lower relative humidity compared to north-facing slopes of karst sinkholes. Additionally, the results suggest a dependence of δ18O on interannual and cross-site climatic variations, particularly in the case of summer precipitation amount. δ18O also responded to soil depth, with beech individuals exhibiting lower values on deeper soils, presumably characterized by higher soil water availability compared to shallow soils. The results are discussed in the context of future climate change, as many beech-dominated forests on karst terrain in the Dinaric Mountains are particularly affected by climate warming and drying due to prolonged and reoccurring summer droughts, intensified large-scale disturbances, and often shallow soils with low water storage capacity.
Ključne besede: stable carbon isotopes, stable oxygen isotopes, tree cutting, microclimate, drought stress, dinaric fir-beech forests
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 665; Prenosov: 145
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,95 MB)
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Post-harvest forest herb layer demography : general patterns are driven by pre-disturbance conditions
Janez Kermavnar, Klemen Eler, Aleksander Marinšek, Lado Kutnar, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Timber harvesting constitutes extensive anthropogenic disturbance in temperate forests, producing a broad range of ecological impacts that most often enhance the demographic processes of vegetation. This study monitored post-harvest herb layer demography over a 6-year period in mesic Dinaric fir-beech forests (Slovenia), a vascular plant diversity hotspot among European forests. Three experimental harvesting intensities, i.e. full harvest (FH), partial harvest (PH) and a control treatment (NH), were each applied over a circular area of 4000 m2 and replicated three times at each of three study sites. Vegetation sampling was conducted before harvesting (in 2012), and two (2014) and six (2018) years following it, in a 400 m2 circular plot positioned in the centre of each treatment area. We focused on identifying general demographic patterns and evaluating the effects of various pre-disturbance abiotic and biotic predictors on compositional responses to disturbance. Two years after harvest (2012-2014), compositional shifts were larger than those in the next 4-year period (2014-2018), confirming the general theoretical prediction that species turnover rate decreases along a successional gradient. The degree of compositional shifts in gaps (FH) and thinned stands (PH) was affected by local abiotic factors (geomorphology of karst sinkholes) and community attributes, such as pre-harvest species richness. Our results indicate that compositional stability is positively associated with pre-disturbance species richness. Over the whole study period, increases in plot-level species richness (alpha diversity) and overall enrichment of the species pool (gamma diversity) were accompanied by compositional convergence, i.e. a decline in floristic dissimilarity (beta diversity) between and within study sites. However, the observed tendency towards homogenization was rather weak and would have been even more pronounced if the demographic type of persistent resident species had not shown a high degree of resistance, thus leaving a strong imprint on post-harvest vegetation development by preserving the forest characteristics of the herb layer community.
Ključne besede: forest succession, demographic types, community assembly, pre-disturbance factors, floristic convergence, fir-beech forests
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.07.2022; Ogledov: 369; Prenosov: 226
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,91 MB)
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Phenological variability and resistance to late spring frost of common beech in the international provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Almedin Hebibović, Dalibor Ballian, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The research aimed to determine the start, end and duration of leafing phases, the degree of plant damage caused by late spring frost, and the retention of leaves in autumn. The research was conducted in the international common beech provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The test contains eight provenances from Bosnia and Herzegovina, four from Germany, three from Serbia, two each from Croatia, Romania and Switzerland, and one from Hungary. Leafing phenology, canopy damage caused by late spring frost, and leaf retention were assessed in 2019. Most provenances started opening buds on 17 April 2019. Complete canopy damage affected the highest percentage of plants in provenance BW Bad Wildbad, Germany (68 %), and the lowest in provenance Konjuh Kladanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina (3.2 %). Provenance Herzogenbuchsee from Switzerland had the highest percentage of winter leaf retention (37.5 % of plants). The results can be used in choosing provenances that are resistant to low temperatures in zones of late spring and early autumn frost.
Ključne besede: common beech, international provenance test, leafing phenophases, frost damage, winter leaf retention
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.12.2021; Ogledov: 3090; Prenosov: 1778
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,61 MB)
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Harvesting intensity and tree species affect soil respiration in uneven-aged Dinaric forest stands
Matjaž Čater, Eva Dařenová, Primož Simončič, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Forest management, especially thinning and harvesting measures, has a significant impact on the forest carbon balance especially in the forests with long-term continuous cover history. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs) in three forest complexes of mixed, uneven-aged Dinaric forests with predominating silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). Rs was measured after removal of mature forest stands with 50% and 100% intensity of living stock and compared with Rs on the control plots without any applied silvicultural measures. Rs was measured monthly in three consecutive 2012, 2013 and 2014 growing periods. Soil CO2 efflux increased after harvest of both intensities in all studied forest stands. The biggest increase was measured in beech stands and amounted up to 47 and 69% for 50% and 100% harvest intensities, respectively. The effect of harvest on Rs in spruce and fir stands was similar - up to 26% for 50% harvest intensity and 48% for 100% harvest intensity. Despite the biggest increase after harvest, Rs in beech stands returned the fastest to the level of the uncut forest and this levelling period (LP) took 14-17 months with a little delay of the stands with 100% harvest intensity. The LP for all fir stands, for spruce stands with 50% harvest intensity and for one spruce stand with 100% harvest intensity, was 26-29 months. At two spruce stands with 100% harvest intensity we did not record Rs levelling during our three-year study. This study involved forest stands of three predominating tree species growing under the same conditions, which allowed us to determine the species-specific sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux to the different harvesting intensities.
Ključne besede: harvesting intensity, soil CO2 efflux, silviculture, carbon release, silver fir forests, Beech forestrs, Norway spruce forests
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.10.2020; Ogledov: 1176; Prenosov: 480
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,11 MB)
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Timeline of autumn phenology in temperate deciduous trees
Inge Dox, Jožica Gričar, Lorène Julia Marchand, Sebastien Leys, Paolo Zuccarini, Charly Geron, Peter Prislan, Bertold Mariën, Patrick Fonti, Holger Lange, Josep Peñuelas, Jan Van den Bulcke, Matteo Campioli, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Cessation of xylem formation or wood growth (CWG) and onset of foliar senescence (OFS) are key autumn phenological events in temperate deciduous trees. Their timing is fundamental for development and survival of trees, ecosystem nutrient cycling, the seasonal exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere and affect the impact and feedback of forests to global change. A large-scale experimental effort and improved observational methods have allowed us to compare the timing of CWG and OFS for different deciduous tree species in Western Europe, in particularly silver birch, a pioneer species, and European beech, a late-succession species, at stands of different latitudes, of different levels of site fertility, and for two years with contrasting meteorological and drought conditions i.e., the low-moderately dry 2017 and the extremely dry 2018. Specifically, we tested whether foliar senescence started before, after or concurrently with CWG. OFS and CWG occurred generally between late September and early November, with larger differences across species and sites for OFS. Foliar senescence started concurrently with CWG in most cases, except for the drier 2018 and, for beech, at the coldest site, where OFS occurred significantly later than CWG. Behavior of beech in Spain, the southern edge of its European distribution, was unclear, with no CWG, but very low wood growth at the time of OFS. Our study suggests that OFS is generally triggered by the same drivers of CWG or when wood growth decreases in late summer, indicating an overarching mechanism of sink limitation as a possible regulator of the timing of foliar senescence.
Ključne besede: autumn phenology, xylem formation, foliar senescence, cambium, chlorophyll, radial growth, wood, decidiuous trees, common aspen, common beech, pedunculate oak, silver birch
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 10.06.2020; Ogledov: 1718; Prenosov: 1043
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,04 MB)
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Inter-individual variability in spring phenology of temperate deciduous trees depends on species, tree size and previous year autumn phenology
Lorène Julia Marchand, Inge Dox, Jožica Gričar, Peter Prislan, Sebastien Leys, Jan Van den Bulcke, Patrick Fonti, Holger Lange, Erik Matthysen, Josep Peñuelas, Paolo Zuccarini, Matteo Campioli, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: We explored the inter-individual variability in bud-burst and its potential drivers, in homogeneous mature stands of temperate deciduous trees. Phenological observations of leaves and wood formation were performed weekly from summer 2017 to summer 2018 for pedunculate oak, European beech and silver birch in Belgium. The variability of bud-burst was correlated to previous' year autumn phenology (i.e. the onset of leaf senescence and the cessation of wood formation) and tree size but with important differences among species. In fact, variability of bud-burst was primarily related to onset of leaf senescence, cessation of wood formation and tree height for oak, beech and birch, respectively. The inter-individual variability of onset of leaf senescence was not related to the tree characteristics considered and was much larger than the inter-individual variability in bud-burst. Multispecies multivariate models could explain up to 66% of the bud-burst variability. These findings represent an important advance in our fundamental understanding and modelling of phenology and tree functioning of deciduous tree species.
Ključne besede: leaf unfolding, wood formation, coloration, Pedunculate oak, European beech, Silver birch
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 10.06.2020; Ogledov: 1655; Prenosov: 970
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Evaluating short-term impacts of forest management and microsite conditions on understory vegetation in temperate fir-beech forests : floristic, ecological, and trait-based perspective
Janez Kermavnar, Aleksander Marinšek, Klemen Eler, Lado Kutnar, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Forest understory vegetation is largely influenced by disturbances and given local abiotic conditions. Our research focuses on the early response of understory vegetation to various forest management intensities in Dinaric fir-beech forests in Slovenia: (i) control, (ii) 50% cut of stand growing stock, and (iii) 100% cut of stand growing stock. Apart from identifying overstory removal effects, we were interested in fine-scale variation of understory vegetation and environmental determinants of its species composition. Vegetation was sampled within 27 karst sinkholes, which represent a dominant landform in studied forests. Within each sinkhole, five sampling plots, varying in slope aspect (centre, north, east, south, west), were established (135 in total), where pre-treatment (in 2012) and post-treatment (in 2014) floristic surveys were conducted. The sampled understory species were characterized in terms of Ellenberg's indicator values (EIVs) and plant functional traits (plant height, seed mass, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content). Diversity metrics (species richness, total cover, Shannon index) increased in plots where the silvicultural measures were applied. Tree species richness also increased in 100% cutting. A redundancy analysis revealed that species composition was related to environmental variables, which are directly influenced by management interventions (overstory canopy cover, microclimate maximum daily temperature, soil properties thickness of organic soil layer) as well as by topographic factors (slope inclination and surface rockiness). EIVs for light were significantly affected by treatment intensity, whereas soil-related EIVs (moisture, reaction, nutrients) depended more on the within-sinkhole position. Canopy gaps, compared with uncut control plots, hosted a higher number of colonizing species with a higher plant height and smaller seeds, while leaf traits did not show a clear response. We found a negative correlation between pre-treatment species (functional) richness and post-treatment shifts in floristic (functional) composition. Plots with higher richness exhibited smaller changes compared with species-poor communities. Incorporating different perspectives, the results of this study offer valuable insights into patterns of understory vegetation response to forest management in fir-beech forests.
Ključne besede: canopy gap, microsite environment, Ellenberg indicator values, plant functional traits, compositional resistance, karst topography, fir-beech forest
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.12.2019; Ogledov: 2335; Prenosov: 1380
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,95 MB)
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Beech and silver fir's response along the Balkan's latitudinal gradient
Matjaž Čater, Tom Levanič, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: At the 1000km geographical distance in Dinaric montane forests of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the tree response from the north-western sites towards southern, warmer and dryer sites was performed during three consecutive growing seasons (2011, 2012 and 2013). On eleven permanent plots, positioned in uneven-aged beech and fir forests above 800m along the geographical gradient, the physiological and morphological response to light intensity were measured in predefined light categories based on the analysis of hemispherical photos. Radial growth was analysed on all plots and compared to precipitation, temperature and two drought indexes. Analysis showed a decrease in the cumulative precipitation and no change in temperature between plots. Beech was most efficient in the open area light conditions, while fir proved most efficient under shelter. Physiological response for beech increased towards SE and reached its maximal values in the middle of transect, while fir%s response decreased from the NW towards SE. Tendency to plagiotropic growth decreased from NW to SE in both species. Growth response to climatic parameters is weak, stronger in fir than in beech and decreasing towards SE.
Ključne besede: beech, uneven aged forests, silviculture, latitudinal gradient, response, silver fir
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.11.2019; Ogledov: 1920; Prenosov: 1290
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,35 MB)
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