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Ali asimetrija dolžine rogljev gamsa (rupicapra rupicapra l.) odraža kvaliteto in starost živali
Miran Hafner, 2004

Povzetek: Nihajočo asimetrijo (fluctuating asymmetry-FA) dolžine rogljev gamsa (Rupicapra rupicapra) smo proučevali v vzorcu 718 odstreljenih živali obeh spolov (425 samcev, 293 samic) v obdobju od 1985-2003 v populaciji gamsov v vzhodnih Karavankah v SZ delu Slovenije. Dolžina rogljev odraža FA tako pri samcih kot pri samicah. Absolutna FA dolžine rogljev s starostjo narašča pri obeh spolih. Med mladimi živalmi z večjo FA izstopajo dveletne. V absolutni FAv okviru posameznih starostnih razredov nismo odkrili razlik med spoloma. Odvisnost med FA in velikostjo znaka smo odkrili pri samicah, in sicer z velikostjo znaka asimetrija narašča. Nismo odkrili odvisnosti med absolutno FAin telesno maso. Nismo odkrili razlik v relativni FA pri samicah med posameznimi starostnimi razredi. Če domnevamo, da le kvalitetni osebki in osebki, ki niso pod stresom, lahko proizvedejo bolj simetrične roglje, ugotavljamo, da rezultati domneve, da FA v sekundarnih spolnih znakih odraža kvaliteto nosilca, ne potrjujejo. Roglji večjih osebkov niso bolj simetrični. Ocenjujemo, da je asimetrija dolžine rogljev lahko znak starosti njihovega nosilca, ni pa znak njegove kvalitete. Simetrija dolžine rogljev pri gamsu verjetno nima velikega pomena v medsebojnih interakcijah.We have researched the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the horn length of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.) on a sample of 718 animals of both sexes (425males, 293 females) that were shot in chamois population in the eastern Karavanke mountain ridge in northwestern part of Slovenia in the period 1985 -2003. Horn length reflects FA in male as well as in female population. Absolute FA in horn length increases with age in both sexes. Among young animals, twoyear olds stand out as the ones with higher FA. Within single age classes we have not detected any differences in absolute FA in-between sexes. We have, however, detected dependence between FA and the size of horns among females. Fluctuating asymmetry increases with an increase in horn length. No dependence has been found between absolute FA and carcass mass. We have not detected any differences in relative FA in females within single age classes. If we presume, that only individuals of good quality and individuals which arenot under stress conditions are able to develop more symmetrical horns, we can ascertain that our results do not confirm the presumption that FA in secondary sexual characteristics reflects the quality of the individual. Hornsof bigger individuals are not more symmetrical. We therefore assume that the asymmetry in horn length could be a characteristic feature of the age of an individual but could not be a characteristic feature of the quality of the individual. The symmetry in horn length in chamois probably does not have highsignificance in contacts between animals.
Ključne besede: Rupicapra rupicapra, gams, roglji, nihajoča simetrija, chamois, horns, fluctuating asymmerty
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 2622; Prenosov: 1094
.pdf Celotno besedilo (726,10 KB)

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Capital-income breeding in male ungulates : causes and consequences of strategy differences among species
Marco Apollonio, Enrico Merli, Roberta Chirichella, Boštjan Pokorny, Ajša Alagić, Katarina Flajšman, Philip A. Stephens, 2020

Povzetek: The capital and income breeding concept links energy resources used during reproduction to the timing of their acquisition. During reproduction, capital breeders rely on resources gained previously and accumulated for reproductive investment. By contrast, income breeders use mainly resources collected during the period of reproductive activity. Most commonly, this concept is applied to females; relatively few studies have considered males. Moreover, there has been little attention to the link between the capital-income divide and other aspects of mating strategy. We studied adult males of three wild ungulates with different levels of polygyny. A large dataset (4,264 red deer, 53,619 roe deer, and 13,537 Alpine chamois, respectively) was obtained during 2007-2017 in the whole territory of Slovenia and in the Trento province, Italy. During the rut, body mass loss of males in highly polygynous species was more than twice that of weakly polygynous species: on average, red deer stags lost 19.5%; chamois bucks 16.0%; and roe deer bucks 7.5% of their body mass. This indicates potential for a hitherto unrecognized link between the degree of intrasexual competition and the degree of capital mating. The variability in body mass at the end of the rut was clearly reduced in both highly polygynous species (from 15.1 to 9.4% in red deer, and from 12.5 to 10.5% in chamois), but did not change in roe deer. Finally, roe deer bucks had recovered body mass to that of the pre-rut period by just 2 months after the rut, while red deer stags did not manage to compensate the loss of weight until the end of the year. We suggest that, at least in ungulates, there is a link between the degree of polygyny and that of capital breeding. Males of capital and income breeders underwent body mass changes resulting from different reproductive investment during the rut. Capital breeders lost considerably more weight, and invested a variable amount of energy among individuals or among years, possibly to cope with different environmental or body conditions. In so doing, they ended the rut with poorer but more even condition among individuals.
Ključne besede: capital-income breeding, male reproductive investment, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Rupicapra rupicapra
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.09.2020; Ogledov: 825; Prenosov: 481
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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