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Particle size manipulation as an influential parameter in the development of mechanical properties in electric arc furnace slag-based AAM
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials (AAM) have gained recognition as a promising alternative to technical ceramic and building materials owing to the lower energy demands for production and the potential to use slag as a precursor. In the present study, five sets of slag-based AAM pastes were prepared with different particle sizes (fractions d < 63, 63 < d < 90, and 90 < d < 125 μm in different mass ratios) under the same curing regime and using a fixed precursor to activator (water) mass ratio. Precursors and the hardened AAM are evaluated using BET, XRD, XRF, SEM, FTIR, reactivity of precursors by leaching, and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Chemical analysis indicated only marginal differences among the different-sized fractions of input materials, whereas the BET surface area and reactivity among the precursors differed significantly-smaller particles had the largest surface area, and thus, higher reactivity. The mineralogical differences between the precursors and hardened AAM were negligible. The results revealed that compressive strength was significantly influenced by particle size, i.e., a threefold increase in strength when the particle size was halved. Microstructural evaluation using MIP confirmed that the porosity was the lowest in AAM with the smallest particle size. The low porosity and high reactivity of the fine fractions led to the highest compressive strength, confirming that manipulation of particle size can significantly influence the mechanical properties.
Ključne besede: alkalijsko aktivirani materiali, žlindra iz obločne peči, mehanska aktivacija, mehanske lastnosti, poroznost, alkali-activated materials (AAM), electric arc furnace steel slag, mechanical activation, mechanical properties, porosity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.11.2023; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 24
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Efficiency of novel photocatalytic coating and consolidants for protection of valuable mineral substrates
Andreja Pondelak, Sabina Dolenec, Jonjaua Ranogajec, Luka Škrlep, Snezana B. Vučetić, Vilma Ducman, Andrijana Sever Škapin, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In the process of protection and consolidation of valuable materials, the efficiency is the crucial property that needs to be considered. TiO2/ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) coating and silicate- and carbonate-based consolidants were synthesized and proposed to be used for protection and consolidation of four porous mineral substrates: brick, stone, render and mortar. The photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2/ZnAl LDH coating, as well as consolidation efficiency of two consolidants, both applied on model substrates, were studied. The photocatalytic coating showed significant activity and performed well after the durability tests involving rinsing and freezing/thawing procedures. After treatment with both consolidants, a serious enhancement of consolidation of the used substrates was found. On the other hand, the application of TiO2/ZnAl LDH, as well as consolidants, caused negligible changes in the water vapour permeability values and in appearance of the porous mineral substrates, indicating a high level of compatibility.
Ključne besede: photocatalytic coating, consolidant, protection, conservation, porous substrate, cultural heritage
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.11.2023; Ogledov: 34; Prenosov: 10
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,55 MB)
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Recovery of phosphorus and metals from the ash of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, or wood biomass : a review and proposals for further use
Sara Tominc, Vilma Ducman, Wolfgang Wisniewski, Terttu Luukkonen, Kirkelund Gunvor M., Ottosen Lisbeth M., 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This review provides an overview of methods to extract valuable resources from the ash fractions of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and wood biomass combustion. The resources addressed here include critical raw materials, such as phosphorus, base and precious metals, and rare earth elements for which it is increasingly important to tap into secondary sources in addition to the mining of primary raw materials. The extraction technologies prioritized in this review are based on recycled acids or excess renewable energy to achieve an optimum environmental profile for the extracted resources and provide benefits in the form of local industrial symbioses. The extraction methods cover all scarce and valuable chemical elements contained in the ashes above certain concentration limits. Another important part of this review is defining potential applications for the mineral residues remaining after extraction. Therefore, the aim of this review is to combine the knowledge of resource extraction technology from ashes with possible applications of mineral residues in construction and related sectors to fully close material cycle loops.
Ključne besede: critical raw materials, extraction, sewage sludge ash, municipal solid waste incineration ash, wood biomass ash
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.11.2023; Ogledov: 129; Prenosov: 46
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Use of fly ash and phosphogypsum for the synthesis of belite-sulfoaluminate clinker
Sabina Dolenec, Lea Žibret, Emilija Fidanchevska, V. Jovanov, Biljana Angjusheva, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fly ash and phosphogypsum were used as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) by-products for the synthesis of belite-sulfoaluminate clinkers. The influence of raw mixture composition and firing temperature was investigated. Clinkers and cements were examined by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The compressive strength of the cements was determined after 28 days. Clinker phases identified included ye’elimite, ß-phase of belite, ternesite and gehlenite, while the main hydration product of the cement pastes was ettringite. The results showed that belite-sulfoaluminate cements can be fabricated with a compressive strength of 45.9 N/mm2 by firing the raw mixture (70 wt.% marl, 10 wt.% bauxite and 20 wt.% phosphogypsum) at a temperature of 1320°C/1h.
Ključne besede: clinker, microstructure, fly ash, gypsum, calcium sulphoaluminate
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 27.10.2023; Ogledov: 173; Prenosov: 77
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Production of lightweight alkali activated mortars using mineral wools
Ahmad Alzaza, Mohammad Mastali, Paivo Kinnunen, Lidija Korat, Zahra Abdollahnejad, Vilma Ducman, Mirja Illikainen, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This experimental study aimed to develop a fiber-reinforced lightweight mineral wool-based alkali activated mortar. The lightweight mineral wool-based alkali activated mortars were produced using premade foam and reinforced by polypropylene (PP) fibers. They were assessed in terms of fresh and hardened-state properties. Fresh-state properties were investigated by mini-slump tests. Hardened-state characteristics were assessed by ultrasonic pulse velocity, dry density, compressive and flexural strengths, drying shrinkage, efflorescence, water absorption, and permeable porosity. For the first time, the resistance of the synthesized lightweight mineral wool-based alkali activated mortars against harsh conditions (carbonation, freeze and thaw, and high temperature) were evaluated. The porous structures of the developed lightweight alkali activated mortars were also analyzed using an X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) technique. Lightweight mix compositions with densities in a range of 770%1510 kg/m3, compressive strengths of 1%9 MPa, and flexural strengths of 2.6%8 MPa were developed. Increases in both density and strength after carbonation were also recorded, while a decrease of strength was noticed after exposure to freeze/thaw and high temperatures of up to 500 %C.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, mineral wool, mortars
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.10.2023; Ogledov: 144; Prenosov: 72
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,47 MB)
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Impacts of casting scales and harsh conditions on the thermal, acoustic, and mechanical properties of indoor acoustic panels made with fiber-reinforced alkali-activated slag foam concretes
Mohammad Mastali, Paivo Kinnunen, Marjaana Karhu, Zahra Abdollahnejad, Lidija Korat, Vilma Ducman, Ahmad Alzaza, Mirja Illikainen, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper presents experimental results regarding the efficiency of using acoustic panels made with fiber-reinforced alkali-activated slag foam concrete containing lightweight recycled aggregates produced by using Petrit-T (tunnel kiln slag). In the first stage, 72 acoustic panels with dimension 500 % 500 % 35 mm were cast and prepared. The mechanical properties of the panels were then assessed in terms of their compressive and flexural strengths. Moreover, the durability properties of acoustic panels were studied using harsh conditions (freeze/thaw and carbonation tests). The efficiency of the lightweight panels was also assessed in terms of thermal properties. In the second stage, 50 acoustic panels were used to cover the floor area in a reverberation room. The acoustic absorption in diffuse field conditions was measured, and the interrupted random noise source method was used to record the sound pressure decay rate over time. Moreover, the acoustic properties of the panels were separately assessed by impedance tubes and airflow resistivity measurements. The recorded results from these two sound absorption evaluations were compared. Additionally, a comparative study was presented on the results of impedance tube measurements to compare the influence of casting volumes (large and small scales) on the sound absorption of the acoustic panels. In the last stage, a comparative study was implemented to clarify the effects of harsh conditions on the sound absorption of the acoustic panels. The results showed that casting scale had great impacts on the mechanical and physical properties. Additionally, it was revealed that harsh conditions improved the sound properties of acoustic panels due to their effects on the porous structure of materials.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, slag, acoustic panels
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.09.2023; Ogledov: 141; Prenosov: 77
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,70 MB)
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Potential of green ceramics waste for alkali activated foams
Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The aim of the paper is to research the influence of foaming and stabilization agents in the alkali activation process of waste green ceramics for future low cost up-cycling into lightweight porous thermal insulating material. Green waste ceramics, which is used in the present article, is a green body residue (non-successful intermediate-product) in the synthesis of technical ceramics for fuses. This residue was alkali activated with Na-water glass and NaOH in theoretically determined ratio based on data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) that was set to maximise mechanical properties and to avoid efflorescence. Prepared mixtures were compared to alkali activated material prepared in theoretically less favourable ratios, and tested on the strength and density. Selected mixtures were further foamed with different foaming agents, that are Na-perborate (s), H2O2 (l), and Al (s), and supported by a stabilization agent, i.e., Na-dodecyl sulphate. The goal of the presented work was to prepare alkali activated foam based on green ceramics with density below 1 kg/l and compressive strength above 1 MPa.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, foaming, SEM, XRF, XRD, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.09.2023; Ogledov: 138; Prenosov: 64
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,88 MB)
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RILEM TC 247-DTA round robin test : mix design and reproducibility of compressive strength of alkaliactivated concretes
John L. Provis, Kamel Arbi, Susana Bernal, Dali Bondar, Anja Buchwald, Arnaud Castel, Sundararaman Chithiraputhiran, Martin Cyr, Alireza Dehghan, Katja Dombrowski-Daube, Ashish Dubey, Vilma Ducman, Gregor J. G. Gluth, Sreejith Nanukuttan, Karl Peterson, Francisca Puertas, Arie van Riessen, Manuel Torres-Carrasco, Guang Ye, Yibing Zuo, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The aim of RILEM TC 247-DTA Durability Testing of Alkali-Activated Materials is to identify and validate methodologies for testing the durability of alkali-activated concretes. To underpin the durability testing work of this committee, five alkali-activated concrete mixes were developed based on blast furnace slag, fly ash, and flash-calcined metakaolin. The concretes were designed with different intended performance levels, aiming to assess the capability of test methods to discriminate between concretes on this basis. A total of fifteen laboratories worldwide participated in this round robin test programme, where all concretes were produced with the same mix designs, from single-source aluminosilicate precursors and locally available aggregates. This paper reports the mix designs tested, and the compressive strength results obtained, including critical insight into reasons for the observed variability in strength within and between laboratories.
Ključne besede: alkali-activated materials (AAM), mechanical properties, test method, Rilem TC, durability
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.09.2023; Ogledov: 106; Prenosov: 73
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Aggregates obtained by alkali activation of fly ash : the effect of granulation, pelletization methods and curing regimes
Ognjen Lj. Rudić, Vilma Ducman, Mirjana Malešev, Vlastimir Radonjanin, Suzana Draganić, Slobodan Šupić, Miroslava Radeka, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper presents results regarding the phase composition, microstructure and textural properties of two types of aggregates, which were prepared via crushing or pelletization of alkali-activated Class F fly ash and cured under different conditions. The alkali activator was the same for aggregate products, containing an alkaline solution consisting of 8 M NaOH and Na-silicate (8 M NaOH/Na-silicate = 1:2.5 mass ratio). The aforementioned properties were influenced by two different preparation procedures combined with varying curing regimes (under normal conditions at 20 %C, RH 40%60% for 28 and 120 days and under an accelerated regime, at 65 %C for 5 days). Aggregates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), back scattered electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (BSE-EDS) analyses and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The results showed noteworthy structural and textural diversities between the two types of aggregate. The method of preparation and curing regime affected the formation of the N-A-S-H structure and the texture of the alkali-activated fly ash product, with the crushing method giving an advantage
Ključne besede: alkali activation, agregat, FTIR
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.09.2023; Ogledov: 116; Prenosov: 74
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The potential of ladle slag and electric arc furnace slag use in synthesizing alkali activated materials; the influence of curing on mechanical properties
Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali activation is studied as a potential technology to produce a group of high performance building materials from industrial residues such as metallurgical slag. Namely, slags containing aluminate and silicate form a useful solid material when activated by an alkaline solution. The alkali-activated (AA) slag-based materials are promising alternative products for civil engineering sector and industrial purposes. In the present study the locally available electric arc furnace steel slag (Slag A) and the ladle furnace basic slag (Slag R) from different metallurgical industries in Slovenia were selected for alkali activation because of promising amorphous Al/Si rich content. Different mixtures of selected precursors were prepared in the Slag A/Slag R ratios 1/0, 3/1, 1/1, 1/3 and 0/1 and further activated with potassium silicate using an activator to slag ratio of 1:2 in order to select the optimal composition with respect to their mechanical properties. Bending strength of investigated samples ranged between 4 and 18 MPa, whereas compressive strength varied between 30 and 60 MPa. The optimal mixture (Slag A/Slag R = 1/1) was further used to study strength development under the influence of different curing temperatures at room temperature (R. T.), and in a heat-chamber at 50, 70 and 90 °C, and the effects of curing time for 1, 3, 7 and 28 days was furthermore studied. The influence of curing time at room temperature on the mechanical strength at an early age was found to be nearly linear. Further, it was shown that specimens cured at 70 °C for 3 days attained almost identical (bending/compressive) strength to those cured at room temperature for 28 days. Additionally, microstructure evaluation of input materials and samples cured under different conditions was performed by means of XRD, FTIR, SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP).
Ključne besede: alkali activation, slag, influence of curing regime, FTIR
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.09.2023; Ogledov: 123; Prenosov: 69
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