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1.
Prevalence of and factors associated with healthcare-associated infections in Slovenian acute care hospitals : results of the third national survey
Irena Klavs, Mojca Serdt, Aleš Korošec, Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, Blaž Pečavar, 2019

Povzetek: Introduction. In the third Slovenian national healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) prevalence survey, conducted within the European point prevalence survey of HAIs and antimicrobial use in acute care hospitals, we estimated the prevalence of all types of HAIs and identified factors associated with them. Methods. Patients were enrolled into a one-day cross-sectional study in November 2017. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the characteristics of patients, their exposure to invasive procedures and the prevalence of different types of HAIs. Univariate and multivariate analyses of association of having at least one HAI with possible risk factors were performed to identify risk factors. Results. Among 5,743 patients, 4.4% had at least one HAI and an additional 2.2% were still treated for HAIs on the day of the survey, with a prevalence of HAIs of 6.6%. The prevalence of pneumoniae was the highest (1.8%), followed by surgical site infections (1.5%) and urinary tract infections (1.2%). Prevalence of blood stream infections was 0.3%. In intensive care units (ICUs), the prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 30.6%. Factors associated with HAIs included central vascular catheter (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.1; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 3.1–5.4), peripheral vascular catheter (aOR 3.0; 95% CI: 2.3–3.9), urinary catheter (aOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4–2.3). Conclusions. The prevalence of HAIs in Slovenian acute care hospitals in 2017 was substantial, especially in ICUs. HAIs prevention and control is an important public health priority. National surveillance of HAIs in ICUs should be developed to support evidence-based prevention and control.
Ključne besede: healthcare-associated infections, prevalence, survey, risk factors, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 754; Prenosov: 339
.pdf Celotno besedilo (255,15 KB)

2.
Decontamination strategies and bloodstream infections with antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in ventilated patients : a randomized clinical trial
Bastiaan H. Wittekamp, Nienke L. Plantinga, Ben S. Cooper, Joaquin Lopez-Contreras, Pere Coll, Jordi Mancebo, Matt P. Wise, Matt P. G. Morgan, Pieter Depuydt, Jerina Boelens, Viktorija Tomič, Franc Šifrer, 2018

Povzetek: Importance: The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance are unknown. Objective: To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance. Design, setting, and participants: Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible. The final date of follow-up was September 20, 2017. Interventions: Standard care was daily CHX 2% body washings and a hand hygiene improvement program. Following a baseline period from 6 to 14 months, each ICU was assigned in random order to 3 separate 6-month intervention periods with either CHX 2% mouthwash, SOD (mouthpaste with colistin, tobramycin, and nystatin), or SDD (the same mouthpaste and gastrointestinal suspension with the same antibiotics), all applied 4 times daily. Main outcomes and measures: The occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infection with MDRGNB (primary outcome) and 28-day mortality (secondary outcome) during each intervention period compared with the baseline period. Results: A total of 8665 patients (median age, 64.1 years; 5561 men [64.2%]) were included in the study (2251, 2108, 2224, and 2082 in the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively). ICU-acquired bloodstream infection with MDRGNB occurred among 144 patients (154 episodes) in 2.1%, 1.8%, 1.5%, and 1.2% of included patients during the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively. Absolute risk reductions were 0.3% (95% CI, -0.6% to 1.1%), 0.6% (95% CI, -0.2% to 1.4%), and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.1% to 1.6%) for CHX, SOD, and SDD, respectively, compared with baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.68-1.88), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.55-1.45), and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.43-1.14) during the CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively, vs baseline. Crude mortality risks on day 28 were 31.9%, 32.9%, 32.4%, and 34.1% during the baseline, CHX, SOD, and SDD periods, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for 28-day mortality were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.32), 1.05 (95% CI, 0.85-1.29), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.80-1.32) for CHX, SOD, and SDD, respectively, vs baseline. Conclusions and relevance: Among patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs with moderate to high antibiotic resistance prevalence, use of CHX mouthwash, SOD, or SDD was not associated with reductions in ICU-acquired bloodstream infections caused by MDRGNB compared with standard care.
Ključne besede: anti-infective agents -- therapeutic use, bacteremia -- prevention and control, chlorhexidine -- therapeutic use, cross infection -- prevention and control, disinfection -- methods, bacterial drug resistance, gastrointestinal tract -- microbiology, Gram-negative bacterial infections -- prevention and control, hospital mortality, intensive care units, mouthwashes -- therapeutic use, oropharynx -- microbiology, artificial respiration, multicenter study, randomized controlled trial
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 09.11.2020; Ogledov: 498; Prenosov: 149

3.
The clinical relevance of oliguria in the critically ill patient : analysis of a large observational database
Jean Louis Vincent, Andrew Ferguson, Peter Pickkers, Stephan M. Jakob, Ulrich Jaschinski, Ghaleb A. Almekhlafi, Marc Leone, Majid Mokhtari, Luis E. Fontes, Philippe R. Bauer, Yasser Sakr, 2020

Povzetek: Background: Urine output is widely used as one of the criteria for the diagnosis and staging of acute renal failure, but few studies have specifically assessed the role of oliguria as a marker of acute renal failure or outcomes in general intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Using a large multinational database, we therefore evaluated the occurrence of oliguria (defined as a urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/h) in acutely ill patients and its association with the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and outcome. Methods: International observational study. All adult (> 16 years) patients in the ICON audit who had a urine output measurement on the day of admission were included. To investigate the association between oliguria and mortality, we used a multilevel analysis. Results: Of the 8292 patients included, 2050 (24.7%) were oliguric during the first 24 h of admission. Patients with oliguria on admission who had at least one additional 24-h urine output recorded during their ICU stay (n = 1349) were divided into three groups: transient-oliguria resolved within 48 h after the admission day (n = 390 [28.9%]), prolonged-oliguria resolved > 48 h after the admission day (n = 141 [10.5%]), and permanent-oliguria persisting for the whole ICU stay or again present at the end of the ICU stay (n = 818 [60.6%]). ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in patients with oliguria than in those without, except for patients with transient oliguria who had significantly lower mortality rates than non-oliguric patients. In multilevel analysis, the need for RRT was associated with a significantly higher risk of death (OR = 1.51 [95% CI 1.19%1.91], p = 0.001), but the presence of oliguria on admission was not (OR = 1.14 [95% CI 0.97%1.34], p = 0.103). Conclusions: Oliguria is common in ICU patients and may have a relatively benign nature if only transient. The duration of oliguria and need for RRT are associated with worse outcome.
Ključne besede: critical care, critical illness, urine, oliguria, kidney, renal insufficiency, kidney diseases, acute kidney failure, mortality, urine output, renal replacement therapy
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.11.2020; Ogledov: 547; Prenosov: 366
.pdf Celotno besedilo (727,74 KB)

4.
Comparison of European ICU patients in 2012 (ICON) versus 2002 (SOAP)
Jean Louis Vincent, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Katarzyna Kotfis, Rahul Nanchal, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Xavier Wittebole, Samir G. Sakka, Peter Pickkers, Rui P. Moreno, Yasser Sakr, 2018

Povzetek: Purpose: To evaluate differences in the characteristics and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients over time. Methods: We reviewed all epidemiological data, including comorbidities, types and severity of organ failure, interventions, lengths of stay and outcome, for patients from the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) study, an observational study conducted in European intensive care units in 2002, and the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit, a survey of intensive care unit patients conducted in 2012. Results: We compared the 3147 patients from the SOAP study with the 4852 patients from the ICON audit admitted to intensive care units in the same countries as those in the SOAP study. The ICON patients were older (62.5 +/- 17.0 vs. 60.6 +/- 17.4 years) and had higher severity scores than the SOAP patients. The proportion of patients with sepsis at any time during the intensive care unit stay was slightly higher in the ICON study (31.9 vs. 29.6%, p = 0.03). In multilevel analysis, the adjusted odds of ICU mortality were significantly lower for ICON patients than for SOAP patients, particularly in patients with sepsis [OR 0.45 (0.35-0.59), p < 0.001]. Conclusions: Over the 10-year period between 2002 and 2012, the proportion of patients with sepsis admitted to European ICUs remained relatively stable, but the severity of disease increased. In multilevel analysis, the odds of ICU mortality were lower in our 2012 cohort compared to our 2002 cohort, particularly in patients with sepsis.
Ključne besede: intensive care units -- analysis -- epidemiology -- mortality, sepsis, severity of disease
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 30.11.2020; Ogledov: 675; Prenosov: 377
.pdf Celotno besedilo (867,51 KB)

5.
Usefulness of rapid antigen testing for SARS-CoV-2 screening of healthcare workers : ǂa ǂpilot study
Anja Šterbenc, Viktorija Tomič, Urška Bidovec, Katja Vrankar, Aleš Rozman, Mihaela Zidarn, 2021

Povzetek: Background. Identification of infected healthcare workers (HCWs) is an important step in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission control. Rapid antigen tests (RATs) are considered an important addition to molecular tests in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mainly because of their fast turnaround time, easier analytical procedure and lower price. However, real-life studies on the usefulness of such testing for screening of HCWs are limited. Methods. Physicians, nurses and hospital attendants currently working at the University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik were invited to participate in the pilot study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained three times per week for two consecutive weeks and tested with a point-of-care RAT and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks after the last swab was collected to evaluate the serological status. Results. A total of 191 nasopharyngeal swabs from 36 HCWs were obtained. None of the samples tested was positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antigen, whereas two HCWs tested positive on RT-PCR. Of these, one HCW had a newly identified SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas RT-PCR probably detected a previous but recent infection in the other HCW. Conclusio.n Based on the results of this pilot study, it is unlikely that RAT will reliably detect novel SARS-CoV-2 infections among asymptomatic HCWs despite serial sampling. Although RT-PCR-based screening of HCWs may not be feasible due to high sample volume, molecular methods may identify SARS-CoV-2-infected HCWs already during the presymptomatic stage.
Ključne besede: SARS-CoV-2, health personnel, COVID-19 serological testing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, rapid antigen test, screening
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.05.2021; Ogledov: 318; Prenosov: 71

6.
Temporal changes in the epidemiology, management, and outcome from acute respiratory distress syndrome in European intensive care units : a comparison of two large cohorts
Yasser Sakr, Bruno François, Jordi Solé-Violan, Katarzyna Kotfis, Ulrich Jaschinski, Angel Estella, Marc Leone, Stephan M. Jakob, Xavier Wittebole, Luis E. Fontes, Viktorija Tomič, 2021

Povzetek: Background. Mortality rates for patients with ARDS remain high. We assessed temporal changes in the epidemiology and management of ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in European ICUs. We also investigated the association between ventilatory settings and outcome in these patients. Methods. This was a post hoc analysis of two cohorts of adult ICU patients admitted between May 1–15, 2002 (SOAP study, n = 3147), and May 8–18, 2012 (ICON audit, n = 4601 admitted to ICUs in the same 24 countries as the SOAP study). ARDS was defined retrospectively using the Berlin definitions. Values of tidal volume, PEEP, plateau pressure, and FiO2 corresponding to the most abnormal value of arterial PO2 were recorded prospectively every 24 h. In both studies, patients were followed for outcome until death, hospital discharge or for 60 days. Results. The frequency of ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation during the ICU stay was similar in SOAP and ICON (327[10.4%] vs. 494[10.7%], p = 0.793). The diagnosis of ARDS was established at a median of 3 (IQ: 1–7) days after admission in SOAP and 2 (1–6) days in ICON. Within 24 h of diagnosis, ARDS was mild in 244 (29.7%), moderate in 388 (47.3%), and severe in 189 (23.0%) patients. In patients with ARDS, tidal volumes were lower in the later (ICON) than in the earlier (SOAP) cohort. Plateau and driving pressures were also lower in ICON than in SOAP. ICU (134[41.1%] vs 179[36.9%]) and hospital (151[46.2%] vs 212[44.4%]) mortality rates in patients with ARDS were similar in SOAP and ICON. High plateau pressure (> 29 cmH2O) and driving pressure (> 14 cmH2O) on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume (> 8 ml/kg predicted body weight [PBW]) were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death. Conclusion. The frequency of and outcome from ARDS remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2012. Plateau pressure > 29 cmH2O and driving pressure > 14 cmH2O on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume > 8 ml/kg PBW were independently associated with a higher risk of death. These data highlight the continued burden of ARDS and provide hypothesis-generating data for the design of future studies.
Ključne besede: respiratory insufficiency, artificial respiration, tidal volume, airway pressures, driving pressure
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.06.2021; Ogledov: 327; Prenosov: 117

7.
Robust saliva-based RNA extraction-free one-step nucleic acid amplification test for mass SARS-CoV-2 monitoring
Mojca Benčina, Roman Jerala, Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, Gabriele Turel, Viktorija Tomič, Mihaela Zidarn, Žiga Jensterle, Katarina Prosenc, Mojca Milavec, Tina Demšar, Polona Kogovšek, Irena Mlinarič-Raščan, Dunja Urbančič, Alenka Šmid, Petra Sušjan, Arne Praznik, Tina Šket, Eva Rajh, 2021

Povzetek: Early diagnosis with rapid detection of the virus plays a key role in preventing the spread of infection and in treating patients effectively. In order to address the need for a straightforward detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection and assessment of viral spread, we developed rapid, sensitive, extraction-free one-step reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. We analyzed over 700 matched pairs of saliva and nasopharyngeal swab (NSB) specimens from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Saliva, as either an oral cavity swab or passive drool, was collected in an RNA stabilization buffer. The stabilized saliva specimens were heat-treated and directly analyzed without RNA extraction. The diagnostic sensitivity of saliva-based RT-qPCR was at least 95% in individuals with subclinical infection and outperformed RT-LAMP, which had at least 70% sensitivity when compared to NSBs analyzed with a clinical RT-qPCR test. The diagnostic sensitivity for passive drool saliva was higher than that of oral cavity swab specimens (95% and 87%, respectively). A rapid, sensitive one-step extraction-free RT-qPCR test for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in passive drool saliva is operationally simple and can be easily implemented using existing testing sites, thus allowing high-throughput, rapid, and repeated testing of large populations. Furthermore, saliva testing is adequate to detect individuals in an asymptomatic screening program and can help improve voluntary screening compliance for those individuals averse to various forms of nasal collections.
Ključne besede: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, COVID-19 serological testing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, saliva, oral cavity swab, passive drool, pooling
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 09.11.2021; Ogledov: 85; Prenosov: 31
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