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Description, identification, and growth of Tuber borchii Vittad. mycorrhized Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings on different lime contents
Tanja Mrak, Tine Grebenc, Silke Friedrich, Babette Münzenberger, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tuber borchii forms ectomycorrhiza with oaks, hazel, and pines, including Pinus sylvestris. However, its ectomycorrhiza morphotype with P. sylvestris was not comprehensively described so far, and molecular analyses are missing despite a high danger of misidentification of T. borchii ectomycorrhiza with other closely related and less valuable truffle species. We described for the first time the morphology and anatomy of T. borchii-P. sylvestris ectomycorrhiza using differential interference contrast technique and semi-thin sections in combination with molecular confirmation of identity. Color of ectomycorrhiza is reddish to dark brown, and morphotypes are unevenly but densely covered by warts-bearing pin-like cystidia. All layers of the hyphal mantle are pseudoparenchymatous with outer mantle layer formed of epidermoid cells. T. borchii ectomycorrhiza was identified by a molecular comparison with fruitbodies used for inoculation and its respective ectomycorrhizae. T. borchii has a wide ecological amplitude. To get a better insight in mycorrhization requirements, we investigated growth of P. sylvestris and its ectomycorrhiza infection rate with T. borchii in substrate with different lime content. The mycorrhization of P. sylvestris with T. borchii in the mycorrhization substrate and cultivation in greenhouse conditions was successful, with colonization of P. sylvestris varying between 36.5 and 48.1%. There was no significant correlation of mycorrhization to applied lime contents, and consequently to pH in substrate, while the increased levels of lime improved growth of the P. sylvestris seedlings.
Ključne besede: root anatomy, ectomycorrhiza, Limestone content, molecular identification, Pinus sylvestris, Tuber borchii
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 130; Prenosov: 61
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,30 MB)
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Taxonomy and multigene phylogeny of Pseudohydnum (Auriculariales, Basidiomycota)
Viacheslav Spirin, Vera Malysheva, Ilya Vine, Vasiliy Dudka, Tine Grebenc, Otto Miettinen, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Taxonomy of Pseudohydnum gelatinosum and its sister taxa is revised via morphological data and a four-gene dataset (ITS, nc LSU rDNA, TEF1, RPB1). Identity of P. gelatinosum and Tremellodon pusillus is re-established based on newly collected and sequenced material from their type localities. Pseudohydnum alienum from Europe; P. umbrosum from temperate East Asia; P. cystidiatum, P. meridianum, and P. placibile from Vietnam; and P. omnipavum from North America are described as new to science; P. translucens and P. brunneiceps from East Asia are redescribed. Most Pseudohydnum collections from North America belong to P. gelatinosum ssp. pusillum. A significant divergence of TEF1 sequences in P. gelatinosum is discussed.
Ključne besede: Heterobasidiomycetes, phylogeny, new species, new typifcations
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.05.2023; Ogledov: 315; Prenosov: 183
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,57 MB)
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Soil contamination in nearby natural areas mirrors that in urban greenspaces worldwide
Yu-Rong Liu, Marcel G. A. van der Heijden, Judith Riedo, Carlos Sanz-Lazaro, David J. Eldridge, Felipe Bastida, Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez, Xin-Quan Zhou, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He, Tine Grebenc, Tina Unuk Nahberger, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Soil contamination is one of the main threats to ecosystem health and sustainability. Yet little is known about the extent to which soil contaminants differ between urban greenspaces and natural ecosystems. Here we show that urban greenspaces and adjacent natural areas (i.e., natural/semi-natural ecosystems) shared similar levels of multiple soil contaminants (metal(loid)s, pesticides, microplastics, and antibiotic resistance genes) across the globe. We reveal that human influence explained many forms of soil contamination worldwide. Socio-economic factors were integral to explaining the occurrence of soil contaminants worldwide. We further show that increased levels of multiple soil contaminants were linked with changes in microbial traits including genes associated with environmental stress resistance, nutrient cycling, and pathogenesis. Taken together, our work demonstrates that human-driven soil contamination in nearby natural areas mirrors that in urban greenspaces globally, and highlights that soil contaminants have the potential to cause dire consequences for ecosystem sustainability and human wellbeing.
Ključne besede: soil contamination, urban greenspaces
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.03.2023; Ogledov: 510; Prenosov: 186
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,73 MB)
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How genomics can help biodiversity conservation
Kathrin Theissinger, Tine Grebenc, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The availability of public genomic resources can greatly assist biodiversity assessment, conservation, and restoration efforts by providing evidence for scientifically informed management decisions. Here we survey the main approaches and applications in biodiversity and conservation genomics, considering practical factors, such as cost, time, prerequisite skills, and current shortcomings of applications. Most approaches perform best in combination with reference genomes from the target species or closely related species. We review case studies to illustrate how reference genomes can facilitate biodiversity research and conservation across the tree of life. We conclude that the time is ripe to view reference genomes as fundamental resources and to integrate their use as a best practice in conservation genomics.
Ključne besede: genomics, biodiversity conservation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.02.2023; Ogledov: 354; Prenosov: 196
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Effects of desiccation and freezing on microbial ionizing radiation survivability : considerations for Mars sample return
William H. Horne, Tine Grebenc, Rok Tkavc, Cene Gostinčar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Increasingly, national space agencies are expanding their goals to include Mars exploration with sample return. To better protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination, as set forth in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, international efforts to develop planetary protection measures strive to understand the danger of cross-contamination processes in Mars sample return missions. We aim to better understand the impact of the martian surface on microbial dormancy and survivability. Radiation resistance of microbes is a key parameter in considering survivability of microbes over geologic times on the frigid, arid surface of Mars that is bombarded by solar and galactic cosmic radiation. We tested the influence of desiccation and freezing on the ionizing radiation survival of six model microorganisms: vegetative cells of two bacteria (Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli) and a strain of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); and vegetative cells and endospores of three Bacillus bacteria (B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis). Desiccation and freezing greatly increased radiation survival of vegetative polyploid microorganisms when applied separately, and when combined, desiccation and freezing increased radiation survival even more so. Thus, the radiation survival threshold of polyploid D. radiodurans cells can be extended from the already high value of 25 kGy in liquid culture to an astonishing 140 kGy when the cells are both desiccated and frozen. However, such synergistic radioprotective effects of desiccation and freezing were not observed in monogenomic or digenomic Bacillus cells and endospores, which are generally sterilized by 12 kGy. This difference is associated with a critical requirement for survivability under radiation, that is, repair of genome damage caused by radiation. Deinococcus radiodurans and S. cerevisiae accumulate similarly high levels of the Mn antioxidants that are required for extreme radiation resistance, as do endospores, though they greatly exceed spores in radioresistance because they contain multiple identical genome copies, which in D. radiodurans are joined by persistent Holliday junctions. We estimate ionizing radiation survival limits of polyploid DNA-based life-forms to be hundreds of millions of years of background radiation while buried in the martian subsurface. Our findings imply that forward contamination of Mars will essentially be permanent, and backward contamination is a possibility if life ever existed on Mars.
Ključne besede: ionizing radiation, life on Mars, astrobiology, radiation, fungi, bacteria, radiotolerance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.11.2022; Ogledov: 519; Prenosov: 248
.pdf Celotno besedilo (922,44 KB)
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Non-wood forest products
Anže Japelj, Tine Grebenc, 2020, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.10.2022; Ogledov: 563; Prenosov: 191
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,35 MB)

Odmrla lesna biomasa - vroča točka življenja in biotske raznolikosti gozdnih ekosistemov
Tine Grebenc, 2021, strokovni članek

Ključne besede: biodiverziteta, odmrla lesna biomasa, gozdovi, gospodarjenje z gozdom
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.09.2022; Ogledov: 507; Prenosov: 246
.pdf Celotno besedilo (911,86 KB)
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