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1.
Evaluation of fly ash-based alkali activated foams at room and elevated temperatures
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Srečo D. Škapin, Vilma Ducman, 2020, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Alkali activated materials (AAM) are, in their broadest classification, any binder systems derived by the reaction of an alkali metal source (silicates, alkali hydroxides, carbonates , sulphates) with a solid, amorphous alumosilicate powder (found in precursors such as slag, fly ash and bottom ash). A wide variety of products can be obtained by the alkali activation process and could replace traditional construction products. Among the se, alkali activated foams (AAF) represent one of the most promising materials, owing to their economically accessible alumosilicate rich source materials, including industrial waste materials, clean processing, higher added value and most importantly, pro ducts with competitive properties. In the present study, the properties of alkali activated fly ash - based foam materials were studied at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures (up to 1200 °C ) in order to develop a durable material in terms o f mechanical properties and suitability for high temperature applications.
Ključne besede: lightweight porous insulating material, alkali activated materials, microstructural analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.03.2024; Ogledov: 379; Prenosov: 331
.pdf Celotno besedilo (970,74 KB)
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2.
The deformation of alkali-activated materials at different curing temperatures
Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Vilma Ducman, 2020, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Alkali activation is a chemical process whereby materials rich in aluminosilicate, which dissolves in basic media at room temperature, form binding phases by polycondensation. The alkali- activated materials (AAM) are a promising alternative to binding materials such as cement or other products in civil engineering (van Deventer et al., 2012). This study investigates the early age shrinkage behavior of Slovenian ladle and electric arc furnace slag - based alkali activated materials at different curing temperatures. The dimensions of specimens cured at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 90 °C were measured over the first 7 hours (every 10 min). The results show that the most shrinkage occurred at the highest temperature, owing to the highest rate of evaporation of liquid content. Loss of mass follows from the drying shrinkage.
Ključne besede: alkali activated materials, shrinkage, compressive strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.03.2024; Ogledov: 386; Prenosov: 449
.pdf Celotno besedilo (670,52 KB)
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3.
The influence of different fibres quantity on mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated foams
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Alkali activated foams (AAFs) were produced using electric arc furnace steel slag (EAF) and ladle furnace basic slag (LS), obtained from two metallurgical companies in Slovenia. They were activated with a mixture of sodium water glass (Na2SiO3) and solid NaOH and foamed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pores were stabilized with the addition of Triton as a surfactant. Four types of fibres were added to the studied mixture (polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA), basalt (B), and glass wool (GW)) in five different quantities: 0.5, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 vol % in order to additionally stabilize the structure and thus improve its mechanical properties. The results of mechanical properties showed, that compressive strength was increased in all 20 specimens, partially due to the increased density as well as to the fibre addition. Flexural strength on the other hand was the most improved in the samples where PP and PVA fibres were added. The samples with the addition of B and GW fibres on the other hand showed only small or no improvement in flexural strength in comparison to the referenced sample. Additionally, the microstructure of used fibres and selected foams was also investigated by the means of SEM analysis.
Ključne besede: fibers, alkali activated foams, properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.01.2024; Ogledov: 282; Prenosov: 131
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,05 MB)
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4.
Influence of homogenization of alkali-activated slurry on mechanical strength
Barbara Horvat, Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Majda Pavlin, Katja Koenig, Vilma Ducman, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials are promising materials for the construction industry due to the accessibility of the precursors, which are mainly secondary industrial by-products, and their cost- effective and energy-efficient production. Although these materials are not new, some of the parameters in the technological process are not yet fully understood and tested. Therefore, in this paper in the means of mechanical strength, the preparation of alkali-activated pastes by using a three-roll mill homogenization method is discussed. The influence of homogenization of alkali- activated slurry has been evaluated on different waste materials (fly ash, fly ash with metakaolin, slag mixture (electric arc furnace slag and ladle slag), glass wool, waste green ceramics), which are treated with different alkali activators (NaOH, commercial sodium silicate solution, laboratory-produced alkali activators based on waste cathode- ray tube glass) with different curing regimes (60 °C and 70 °C) and different drying methods (drying at room temperature, drying at 105 °C). The viscosity of the slurry before homogenization was higher than after homogenization, the distribution of elements was more uniform and the compressive strength higher in all homogenized alkali activated materials, regardless of other parameters.
Ključne besede: secondary raw material, alkali activated material, foaming, homogenization, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 389; Prenosov: 152
.pdf Celotno besedilo (15,82 MB)
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5.
Particle size manipulation as an influential parameter in the development of mechanical properties in electric arc furnace slag-based AAM
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials (AAM) have gained recognition as a promising alternative to technical ceramic and building materials owing to the lower energy demands for production and the potential to use slag as a precursor. In the present study, five sets of slag-based AAM pastes were prepared with different particle sizes (fractions d < 63, 63 < d < 90, and 90 < d < 125 μm in different mass ratios) under the same curing regime and using a fixed precursor to activator (water) mass ratio. Precursors and the hardened AAM are evaluated using BET, XRD, XRF, SEM, FTIR, reactivity of precursors by leaching, and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Chemical analysis indicated only marginal differences among the different-sized fractions of input materials, whereas the BET surface area and reactivity among the precursors differed significantly-smaller particles had the largest surface area, and thus, higher reactivity. The mineralogical differences between the precursors and hardened AAM were negligible. The results revealed that compressive strength was significantly influenced by particle size, i.e., a threefold increase in strength when the particle size was halved. Microstructural evaluation using MIP confirmed that the porosity was the lowest in AAM with the smallest particle size. The low porosity and high reactivity of the fine fractions led to the highest compressive strength, confirming that manipulation of particle size can significantly influence the mechanical properties.
Ključne besede: alkalijsko aktivirani materiali, žlindra iz obločne peči, mehanska aktivacija, mehanske lastnosti, poroznost, alkali-activated materials (AAM), electric arc furnace steel slag, mechanical activation, mechanical properties, porosity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.11.2023; Ogledov: 458; Prenosov: 182
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,26 MB)
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6.
The potential of ladle slag and electric arc furnace slag use in synthesizing alkali activated materials; the influence of curing on mechanical properties
Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali activation is studied as a potential technology to produce a group of high performance building materials from industrial residues such as metallurgical slag. Namely, slags containing aluminate and silicate form a useful solid material when activated by an alkaline solution. The alkali-activated (AA) slag-based materials are promising alternative products for civil engineering sector and industrial purposes. In the present study the locally available electric arc furnace steel slag (Slag A) and the ladle furnace basic slag (Slag R) from different metallurgical industries in Slovenia were selected for alkali activation because of promising amorphous Al/Si rich content. Different mixtures of selected precursors were prepared in the Slag A/Slag R ratios 1/0, 3/1, 1/1, 1/3 and 0/1 and further activated with potassium silicate using an activator to slag ratio of 1:2 in order to select the optimal composition with respect to their mechanical properties. Bending strength of investigated samples ranged between 4 and 18 MPa, whereas compressive strength varied between 30 and 60 MPa. The optimal mixture (Slag A/Slag R = 1/1) was further used to study strength development under the influence of different curing temperatures at room temperature (R. T.), and in a heat-chamber at 50, 70 and 90 °C, and the effects of curing time for 1, 3, 7 and 28 days was furthermore studied. The influence of curing time at room temperature on the mechanical strength at an early age was found to be nearly linear. Further, it was shown that specimens cured at 70 °C for 3 days attained almost identical (bending/compressive) strength to those cured at room temperature for 28 days. Additionally, microstructure evaluation of input materials and samples cured under different conditions was performed by means of XRD, FTIR, SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP).
Ključne besede: alkali activation, slag, influence of curing regime, FTIR
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.09.2023; Ogledov: 401; Prenosov: 209
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,76 MB)
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7.
High temperature resistant fly-ash and metakaolin-based alkali-activated foams
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Srečo D. Škapin, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated foams (AAFs) present one of the most promising materials for use in the construction sector. Their main advantages lie in their utilization of waste material and their ability to form at temperatures well below 100 °C, while still competing in performance with foamed glass or ceramics. The present body of research has focused on improving the thermal stability of fly-ash foams by i) adding metakaolin, and ii) changing the activator from sodium-based to potassium-based components. It has been confirmed that a certain increase in thermal resistance is achieved through the addition of metakaolin while changing activators played a crucial role. While sodium-based AAFs without metakaolin start to shrink at approximately 600 °C, samples that have had metakaolin added start to shrink at approximately 700 °C. Samples without metakaolin that have used a potassium activator start to shrink at approximately 800 °C, whereas potassium-based samples with the addition of metakaolin start to shrink at approximately 900 °C.
Ključne besede: alkali activated materials, geopolymers, high temperature, resistance, foams
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.08.2023; Ogledov: 441; Prenosov: 278
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,91 MB)
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8.
The deformation of alkali-activated materials at an early age under different curing conditions
Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The production of alkali-activated materials (AAMs) is known for its environmentally friendly processing method, where several amorphous-rich aluminosilicate material sources combine with an alkali media solution to form solid, ceramic-like materials. In terms of the Si:Al, Na(K):Al, and Na(K):H2O ratios, the theory of AAM formation is quite well developed, but some open questions in the technology process remain, especially with regards to the means of curing, where the generation of defects can be persistent. Knowing that deformation is extremely high in the early ages, this study investigates the effects of temperature and moisture on shrinkage behavior within the first 72 h of AA pastes made from ladle (LS) and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and activated by sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). The method to determine the deformation of alkali-activated slag-based materials, in terms of both autogenous and drying shrinkage, was based on the modified ASTM C1698-19 standard for the measurement of autogenous shrinkage in cement pastes. Autogenous deformation and strain were measured in four samples, using the standard procedure at room temperature, 40 and 60°C. Furthermore, using an adjusted method, nine samples were characterized for strain and partial surface pressure, while drying at room temperature, 40, or 60°C at a relative humidity of 30 or 90%. The results show that the highest rate of autogenous shrinkage occurred at a temperature of 60°C, followed by drying shrinkage at 60°C and 30% relative humidity, owing to the fact that the rate of evaporation was highest at this moisture content. The study aimed to provide guidance regarding selection of the optimal curing set in order to minimize deformations in slag-based alkali-activated materials. In the present case, curing at a temperature of around 40°C under lower moisture conditions for the first 24 h provided optimal mechanical properties for the slags investigated. The methodology might also be of use for other aluminosilicate sources such as metakaolin, fly ash, and mineral wool–based alkali-activated materials.
Ključne besede: alkali-activated materials, slag, drying, autogenous shrinkage, partial surface pressure, curing deformation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.07.2023; Ogledov: 529; Prenosov: 216
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,23 MB)
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9.
Microstructural characterization of alkali-activated composites of lightweight aggregates (LWAs) embedded in alkali-activated foam (AAF) matrices
Katja Traven, Wolfgang Wisniewski, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated composites of lightweight aggregates (LWAs, with beneficial insulating properties) and alkali-activated foams (AAFs, higher added value products due to their production from waste materials at well below 100 ◦C) allow for the expectation of superior properties if a chemical bonding reaction or mechanical interlocking occurs during production. However, the interfaces between LWAs and an AAF have not been studied in detail so far. Chemical reactions are possible if the LWA contains an amorphous phase which can react with the alkaline activators of the AAF, increase the bonding, and thus, also their mechanical strengths. These, in turn, allow for an improvement of the thermal insulation properties as they enable a further density reduction by incorporating low density aggregates. This work features a first-detailed analyses of the interfaces between the LWAs’ expanded polystyrene, perlite, expanded clay and expanded glass, and the alkali-activated foam matrices produced using industrial slags and fly ash. Some are additionally reinforced by fibers. The goal of these materials is to replace cement by alkali-activated waste as it significantly lowers the environmental impact of the produced building components.
Ključne besede: alkali activated materials/geopolymers, light weight aggregates, SEM
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.06.2023; Ogledov: 540; Prenosov: 241
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,49 MB)
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10.
The preparation and characterization of low-temperature foams based on the alkali activation of waste stone wool
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Waste mineral wool represents a huge amount of construction and demolition waste that is still not adequately returned into the value chain but needs to be landfilled. In the present study, waste stone wool (SW) was evaluated for the preparation of alkali-activated foams. For this purpose SW was milled and sieved below 63 μm, then the activator (sodium silicate) and different amounts of foaming agent (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2), varying between 1 wt% and 3 wt%, were added to the slurry and cured in moulds at an elevated temperature (70 ◦ C) for three days. In this way, foamed, highly porous materials were obtained whose density and mechanical properties were influenced by the amount of foaming agent used. The densities obtained ranged between 1.4 and 0.5 g/cm3, with corresponding mechanical properties of between 12.6 and 1.5 MPa and total porosities in the range 37.8–78.6%, respectively. In the most porous samples with the total porosity of 78.6%, a thermal conductivity of 0.092 W/(m∙K) was confirmed. The study confirmed the suitability of waste mineral wool (in our case SW) as a precursor for alkali-activated foams with potential use in the construction sector or other industrial applications.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, waste mineral wool, mechanical strength, open access, alkalijska aktivacija, odpadna volna, SEM, XRF, XRD, mehanska trdnost, odprti dostop
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.06.2023; Ogledov: 402; Prenosov: 275
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,47 MB)
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