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1.
Irisin attenuates muscle impairment during bed rest through muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk
Andrea D'Amuri, Juana Maria Sanz, Stefano Lazzer, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Gianni Biolo, Giovanni Zuliani, Mladen Gasparini, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Bruno Grassi, Carlo Reggiani, Edoardo Dalla Nora, Angelina Passaro, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Simple Summary: Irisin is a known myokine secreted mainly by the muscle that is produced after physical activity. It induces browning in the adipose tissue with a consequent increase in mitochondrial oxidation of lipids and reduction of insulin resistance; thus, it has been hypothesized that irisin was the molecule mediating most of the beneficial effects related to exercise on adipose tissue and consequently on the whole organism. In our study we observed that extreme physical inactivity induces the loss of muscle mass and function, and an increase in the body adipose tissue as expected. However, of note, circulating irisin levels were increased secondary to enhanced irisin synthesis mainly from adipose tissue rather than muscle. In addition, subjects who produced more irisin had reduced muscle impairment. Therefore, our hypothesis is that there is negative feedback within the muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk, specifically not only does the muscle influence the adipose tissue through irisin during exercise, but also the adipose tissue protects the muscle during inactivity.Abstract: The detrimental effect of physical inactivity on muscle characteristics are well known. Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine cleaved from membrane protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein-5 (FNDC5), mediates at least partially the metabolic benefits of exercise. This study aimed to assess the interplay between prolonged inactivity, circulating irisin, muscle performance, muscle fibers characteristics, as well as the FNDC5 gene expression (FNDC5ge) in muscle and adipose tissue among healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy volunteers were tested before and after 14 days of Bed Rest, (BR). Post-BR circulating levels of irisin significantly increased, whereas body composition, muscle performance, and muscle fiber characteristics deteriorated. Among the subjects achieving the highest post-BR increase of irisin, the lowest reduction in maximal voluntary contraction and specific force of Fiber Slow/1, the highest increase of FNDC5ge in adipose tissue, and no variation of FNDC5ge in skeletal muscle were recorded. Subjects who had the highest FNDC5ge in adipose tissue but not in muscle tissue showed the highest circulating irisin levels and could better withstand the harmful effect of BR.
Ključne besede: physical inactivity, bed rest, FNDC5 gene expression, myokines, sarcopenia, muscles fiber
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 07.07.2022; Ogledov: 93; Prenosov: 63
.pdf Celotno besedilo (798,63 KB)
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2.
Dietary acid load but not Mediterranean diet adherence score is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health state : ǂa ǂpopulation observational study from Northern Italy
Juana Maria Sanz, Domenico Sergi, Simona Colombari, Eleonora Capatti, Roberta Situlin, Gianni Biolo, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Stefano Lazzer, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Angelina Passaro, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Diet plays a pivotal role in shaping the trajectory of chronic diseases. In this regard, the Mediterranean diet has been widely shown to exert beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. On the contrary, the Western diet, which has also been reported to be an acidogenic dietary pattern, elicits detrimental effects on both metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) health. However, the role of dietary acid load (DAL) as a predictor of cardiometabolic prognosis remains to be elucidated. Thus, this study aims to compare Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) and DAL focusing on their relationship with metabolic and CV prognosis. A total of 448 individuals aged 55–80 years were grouped depending on their MDA, assessed using food frequency questionnaires, or DAL, evaluated using potential renal load acid (PRAL) and net-endogenous acid production (NEAP). Study participants underwent anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Finally, the CV risk was evaluated using three independent algorithms: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and Cuore risk scores. Mediterranean diet adherence was negatively associated with PRAL and NEAP. Individuals in the higher MDA tertile group had higher HDL cholesterol as well as lower homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) and fat mass relative to the lowest MDA tertile. However, in the high-MDA tertile group, there was neither a significantly lower MetS prevalence nor CV risk. Instead, both the MetS prevalence and CV risk were higher in individuals in the higher acid PRAL quartile relative to the lower alkaline PRAL quartile. Dietary acid load, especially assessed using PRAL but not MDA, was associated with indices of metabolic and CV prognosis. Thus, DAL assessed by 24-h dietary recalls may represent a better predictor of cardiometabolic health if compared to MDA evaluated using food frequency questionnaires.
Ključne besede: Mediterranean diet, dietary acid load, alkaline diet, acidic diet, metabolic syndrome, cradiovascular risk score
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.05.2022; Ogledov: 113; Prenosov: 91
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3.
The aging muscle in experimental bed rest : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis
Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Nicola Fiotti, Zoran Milanović, Roberta Situlin, Filippo Mearelli, Pierandrea Vinci, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Gianni Biolo, 2021, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background: Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function in aging is crucial for preserving the quality of life and health. An experimental bed rest (BR) protocol is a suitable model to explore muscle decline on aging during inactivity. Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was, therefore, to carry out an up-to-date evaluation of bed rest, with a specific focus on the magnitude of effects on muscle mass, strength, power, and functional capacity changes as well as the mechanisms, molecules, and pathways involved in muscle decay. Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Data sources: We used PubMed, Medline; Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library, all of which were searched prior to April 23, 2020. A manual search was performed to cover bed rest experimental protocols using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: %Elderly Bed rest,% %Older Bed rest,% %Old Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Bed-rest,% and %Bedrest%. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, participants, interventions, and outcome measures. The primary outcome measures were: body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, leg lean mass, cross-sectional area, knee extension power, cytokine pattern, IGF signaling biomarkers, FOXO signaling biomarkers, mitochondrial modulation biomarkers, and muscle protein kinetics biomarkers. Results: A total of 25 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, while 17 of them were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 118 healthy elderly volunteers underwent 5-, 7-, 10-, or 14-days of BR and provided a brief sketch on the possible mechanisms involved. In the very early phase of BR, important changes occurred in the skeletal muscle, with significant loss of performance associated with a lesser grade reduction of the total body and muscle mass. Meta-analysis of the effect of bed rest on total body mass was determined to be small but statistically significant (ES = %0.45, 95% CI: %0.72 to %0.19, P < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant effects were observed for total lean body mass (ES = %0.67, 95% CI: %0.95 to %0.40, P < 0.001) after bed rest intervention. Overall, total lean body mass was decreased by 1.5 kg, while there was no relationship between bed rest duration and outcomes (Z = 0.423, p = 672). The meta-analyzed effect showed that bed rest produced large, statistically significant, effects (ES = %1.06, 95% CI: %1.37 to %0.75, P < 0.001) in terms of the knee extension power. Knee extension power was decreased by 14.65 N/s. In contrast, to other measures, meta-regression showed a significant relationship between bed rest duration and knee extension power (Z = 4.219, p < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant, effects were observed after bed rest intervention for leg muscle mass in both old (ES = %0.68, 95% CI: %0.96 to %0.40, P < 0.001) and young (ES = %0.51, 95% CI: %0.80 to %0.22, P < 0.001) adults. However, the magnitude of change was higher in older (MD = %0.86 kg) compared to younger (MD = %0.24 kg) adults. Conclusion: Experimental BR is a suitable model to explore the detrimental effects of inactivity in young adults, old adults, and hospitalized people. Changes in muscle mass and function are the two most investigated variables, and they allow for a consistent trend in the BR-induced changes. Mechanisms underlying the greater loss of muscle mass and function in aging, following inactivity, need to be thoroughly investigated.
Ključne besede: bed rest, aging, muscles, muscle physiopathology, muscle function
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.08.2021; Ogledov: 462; Prenosov: 320
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