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1.
Neutral and selective processes shape MHC diversity in roe deer in Slovenia
Elena Bužan, Sandra Potušek, Luka Duniš, Boštjan Pokorny, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Ključne besede: major histocompatibility complex, MHC genes, immunogenetics, Capreolus capreolus
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.05.2024; Ogledov: 81; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,25 MB)
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2.
Ingenious architecture and coloration generation in enamel of Rodent teeth
Vesna Šrot, Sophia Houari, Gregor Kapun, Birgit Bußmann, Felicitas Predel, Boštjan Pokorny, Elena Bužan, Ute Salzberger, Bernhard Fenk, Marion Kelsch, Peter van Aken, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Teeth exemplify architectures comprising an interplay of inorganic and organic constituents, resulting in sophisticated natural composites. Rodents (Rodentia) showcase extraordinary adaptations, with their continuously growing incisors surpassing human teeth in functional and structural optimizations. In this study, employing state-of-the-art direct atomic-scale imaging and nanoscale spectroscopies, we present compelling evidence that the release of material from ameloblasts and the subsequent formation of iron-rich enamel and surface layers in the constantly growing incisors of rodents are complex orchestrated processes, intricately regulated and independent of environmental factors. The synergistic fusion of three-dimensional tomography and imaging techniques of etched rodent́s enamel unveils a direct correlation between the presence of pockets infused with ferrihydrite-like material and the acid resistant properties exhibited by the iron-rich enamel, fortifying it as an efficient protective shield. Moreover, observations using optical microscopy shed light on the role of iron-rich enamel as a microstructural element that acts as a path for color transmission, although the native color remains indistinguishable from that of regular enamel, challenging the prevailing paradigms. The redefinition of “pigmented enamel” to encompass ferrihydrite-like infusion in rodent incisors reshapes our perception of incisor microstructure and color generation. The functional significance of acid-resistant iron-rich enamel and the understanding of the underlying coloration mechanism in rodent incisors have far-reaching implications for human health, development of potentially groundbreaking dental materials, and restorative dentistry. These findings enable the creation of an entirely different class of dental biomaterials with enhanced properties, inspired by the ingenious designs found in nature.
Ključne besede: teeth microstructure, ameloblasts, ferritin, Fe-rich enamel, tomography, rodent
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.04.2024; Ogledov: 149; Prenosov: 124
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,34 MB)
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3.
O domorodnosti alpskega kozoroga v Sloveniji
Andreja Nève Repe, Elena Bužan, Borut Toškan, Jernej Javornik, Boštjan Pokorny, Andrej Arih, Lars Zver, Maruša Prostor, Miha Krofel, Matija Stergar, Klemen Jerina, Hubert Potočnik, Rok Černe, Aleš Poljanec, 2023, strokovni članek

Povzetek: Alpski kozorog (Capra ibex) je alpski endemit. Na območju Slovenije naj bi bila vrsta iztrebljena v drugi polovici 17. stoletja, globalno pa je bila zaradi prelova na robu izumrtja konec 19. stoletja. Preživela je le populacija na širšem območju parka Gran Paradiso na skrajnem zahodu Alp v Italiji. Zaradi naselitev in drugih varstvenih programov sedaj alpski kozorog živi v celotnih Alpah, vključno s Slovenijo. Vendar pri nas njegove populacije nazadujejo in so v zelo slabem stanju, kar je lahko rezultat več dejavnikov. Malo izvornih osebkov ob naselitvah, zgodovinska ozka grla in ločenost kolonij so povzročili parjenje v sorodstvu, kar je slabšalo genetsko stanje populacij in lahko negativno vpliva tudi na demografijo. K številčnemu zmanjševanju vrste so lahko prispevale tudi bolezni. Za dolgoročno ohranitev alpskega kozoroga v Sloveniji so nujni takojšnji aktivni ohranitveni ukrepi, pogoj pa je ustrezna opredelitev izvornosti vrste, saj je (bila) zaradi prejšnjih pomanjkljivih podatkov umeščena med tujerodne. V prispevku na podlagi arheo-zooloških, genetskih in preliminarnih habitatnih analiz utemeljujemo, da je v Sloveniji kozorog domorodna vrsta. V raziskavah smo pokazali, da je vrsta živela na ozemlju zdajšnje Slovenije v poznoantičnem in zgodnje srednjeveškem obdobju. Preliminarno smo določili tudi primernost in povezanost habitata kozoroga v slovenskem alpskem svetu ter nakazali verjetne potrebne ukrepe za ohranitev vrste v Sloveniji.
Ključne besede: Capra ibex, izvornost vrste, programi varstva, Alpe, habitat, genetika
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.01.2024; Ogledov: 335; Prenosov: 91
.pdf Celotno besedilo (475,48 KB)

4.
Accounting for cloud cover and circannual variation puts the effect of lunar phase on deer–vehicle collisions into perspective
Jacopo Cerri, Laura Stendardi, Elena Bužan, Boštjan Pokorny, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Although several studies have focused on the influence of moonlight on deer–vehicle collisions, findings have been inconsistent. This may be due to neglect of the effects of cloud cover, a major impediment to moon illumination and circannual variation in both deer and human activity. We assessed how median cloud cover interacted with the illuminated fraction of the moon in affecting daily roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roadkill in Slovenia (Central Europe). Data included nationwide roadkill (n = 49,259), collected between 2010 and 2019 by hunters, as required by law. Roadkill peaked under medium to high cloud cover and decreased during nights with low or extremely high cloudiness. This pattern was more pronounced on nights with a full moon. However, the effects of moon illumination and cloud cover had a lower predictive potential than circannual variation, as collisions clearly peaked in April/May, July and August/September. Our results suggest that moonlight could influence roe deer movements through compensatory foraging. However, on nights with a full moon, collisions could also be affected by weather. On bright nights, roe deer might be less active due to increased human presence and sustained vehicular traffic. Then, with medium to high cloud cover and also rainfall, human presence in the environment may be low enough to increase deer movements, but vehicular traffic can still be intermediate, maximizing the risk of collisions. Finally, with overcast skies, widespread rainfall can reduce both traffic volume and human outdoor activity, decreasing the risk of collisions. Moon illumination may indeed affect wildlife–vehicle collisions and roadkill, but its effects should be quantified as a function of cloud cover. Moreover, to make studies truly comparable, research about wildlife–vehicle collisions should also account for time of the year. Policy implications. Because collisions with roe deer peak at particular periods of the year, signs should be installed seasonally. By doing so, they would warn drivers about the risk, improve drivers' awareness and increase their safety. Moreover, as collisions also increase on nights with a full moon and overcast skies, interactive warning signs that are activated by ground illumination should also be useful.
Ključne besede: cloudiness, MODIS Surface Reflectance, moon, road ecology, roe deer, Slovenia, thin-plate splines, wildlife–vehicle collisions
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.11.2023; Ogledov: 418; Prenosov: 181
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,25 MB)
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5.
Spatial genetic structure of European wild boar, with inferences on late-Pleistocene and Holocene demographic history
Joost F. de Jong, Laura Iacolina, Herbert H. T. Prins, Pim van Hooft, Richard Crooijmans, Sip E. van Wieren, Joaquin Vicente Baños, Eric Baubet, Seán Cahill, Eduardo Ferreira, Ida Jelenko Turinek, Boštjan Pokorny, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: European wildlife has been subjected to intensifying levels of anthropogenic impact throughout the Holocene, yet the main genetic partitioning of many species is thought to still reflect the late-Pleistocene glacial refugia. We analyzed 26,342 nuclear SNPs of 464 wild boar (Sus scrofa) across the European continent to infer demographic history and reassess the genetic consequences of natural and anthropogenic forces. We found that population fragmentation, inbreeding and recent hybridization with domestic pigs have caused the spatial genetic structure to be heterogeneous at the local scale. Underlying local anthropogenic signatures, we found a deep genetic structure in the form of an arch-shaped cline extending from the Dinaric Alps, via Southeastern Europe and the Baltic states, to Western Europe and, finally, to the genetically diverged Iberian peninsula. These findings indicate that, despite considerable anthropogenic influence, the deeper, natural continental structure is still intact. Regarding the glacial refugia, our findings show a weaker signal than generally assumed, but are nevertheless suggestive of two main recolonization routes, with important roles for Southern France and the Balkans. Our results highlight the importance of applying genomic resources and framing genetic results within a species’ demographic history and geographic distribution for a better understanding of the complex mixture of underlying processes.
Ključne besede: spatial genetic structure, European wild boar, demographic history
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.02.2023; Ogledov: 373; Prenosov: 223
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,41 MB)
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6.
Pan-European phylogeography of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)
Kamila Plis, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Johannes Lang, Mike Heddergott, Juha Tiainen, Aleksey Bunevich, Nikica Šprem, Ladislav Paule, Aleksey A. Danilkin, Marina Kholodova, Elena Zvychaynaya, Nadezhda Kashinina, Boštjan Pokorny, Katarina Flajšman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: To provide the most comprehensive picture of species phylogeny and phylogeography of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), we analyzed mtDNA control region (610 bp) of 1469 samples of roe deer from Central and Eastern Europe and included into the analyses additional 1541 mtDNA sequences from GenBank from other regions of the continent. We detected two mtDNA lineages of the species: European and Siberian (an introgression of C. pygargus mtDNA into C. capreolus). The Siberian lineage was most frequent in the eastern part of the continent and declined toward Central Europe. The European lineage contained three clades (Central, Eastern, and Western) composed of several haplogroups, many of which were separated in space. The Western clade appeared to have a discontinuous range from Portugal to Russia. Most of the haplogroups in the Central and the Eastern clades were under expansion during the Weichselian glacial period before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), while the expansion time of the Western clade overlapped with the Eemian interglacial. The high genetic diversity of extant roe deer is the result of their survival during the LGM probably in a large, contiguous range spanning from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus Mts and in two northern refugia.
Ključne besede: Capreolus capreolus, expansion, mitochondrial DNA, the Last Glacial Maximum refugia, the Quaternary history, Phylogenetics
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.05.2022; Ogledov: 666; Prenosov: 442
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,91 MB)
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7.
COVID-19 related travel restrictions prevented numerous wildlife deaths on roads : ǂa ǂcomparative analysis of results from 11 countries
Michal Bíl, Richard Andrášik, Vojtěch Cícha, Amir Arnon, Maris Kruuse, Jochen Langbein, András Náhlik, Milla Niemig, Boštjan Pokorny, Victor J. Colino-Rabanal, Christer M. Rolandsen, Andreas Seiler, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Millions of wild animals are killed annually on roads worldwide. During spring 2020, the volume of road traffic was reduced globally as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. We gathered data on wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) from Czechia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Israel, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and for Scotland and England within the United Kingdom. In all studied countries WVC statistics tend to be dominated by large mammals (various deer species and wild boar), while information on smaller mammals as well as birds are less well recorded. The expected number of WVC for 2020 was predicted on the basis of 2015%2019 WVC time series representing expected WVC numbers under normal traffic conditions. Then, the forecasted and reported WVC data were compared. The results indicate varying levels of WVC decrease between countries during the COVID-19 related traffic flow reduction (CRTR). While no significant change was determined in Sweden, where the state-wide response to COVID-19 was the least intensive, a decrease as marked as 37.4% was identified in Estonia. The greatest WVC decrease, more than 40%, was determined during the first weeks of CRTR for Estonia, Spain, Israel, and Czechia. Measures taken during spring 2020 allowed the survival of large numbers of wild animals which would have been killed under normal traffic conditions. The significant effects of even just a few weeks of reduced traffic, help to highlight the negative impacts of roads on wildlife mortality and the need to boost global efforts of wildlife conservation, including systematic gathering of roadkill data.
Ključne besede: wildlife-vehicle collisions, wildlife crash reporting systems, traffic flow, ungulates, mesocarnivores, COVID-19 lockdown
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 860; Prenosov: 523
.pdf Celotno besedilo (976,24 KB)
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Na trajnostno upravljanje populacij divjadi smo lahko še kako ponosni!
Boštjan Pokorny, 2020, predgovor, uvodnik, spremna beseda

Ključne besede: divjad, upravljanje divjadi, trajnostno upravljanje, lovstvo
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.10.2020; Ogledov: 1178; Prenosov: 369
.pdf Celotno besedilo (164,74 KB)

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