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Cabbage and fermented vegetables : from death rate heterogeneity in countries to candidates for mitigation strategies of severe COVID-19
Jean Bousquet, Josep M. Antò i Boquè, Wienczyslawa Czarlewski, Tari Haahtela, Susana C. Fonseca, Guido Laccarino, Hubert Blain, Alain Vidal, Aziz Sheikh, Cezmi A. Akdis, Torsten Zuberbier, Samo Kreft, Klemen Jenko, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Mitja Košnik, Karmen Kramer Vrščaj, Bojan Madjar, Davor Plavec, Tanja Soklič, Jure Urbančič, Mihaela Zidarn, 2020

Povzetek: Large differences in COVID-19 death rates exist between countries and between regions of the same country. Some very low death rate countries such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe or the Balkans have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods. Although biases exist when examining ecological studies, fermented vegetables or cabbage were associated with low death rates in European countries. SARS-CoV-2 binds to its receptor, the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). As a result of SARS-Cov-2 binding, ACE2 downregulation enhances the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) axis associated with oxidative stress. This leads to insulin resistanceas well as lung and endothelial damage, two severe outcomes of COVID-19. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is the most potent antioxidant in humans and can block the AT1R axis. Cabbage contains precursors of sulforaphane, the most active natural activator of Nrf2. Fermented vegetables contain many lactobacilli, which are also potent Nrf2 activators. Three examples are given: Kimchi in Korea, westernized foods and the slum paradox. It is proposed that fermented cabbage is a proof-of-concept of dietary manipulations that may enhance Nrf2-associated antioxidant effects helpful in mitigating COVID-19 severity.
Ključne besede: COVID-19, diet, sulforaphane, Lactobacillus, Angiotensin converting enzyme 2, kimchi, cabbage, fermented vegetable
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 07.10.2020; Ogledov: 570; Prenosov: 117

2.
Differences in reporting the ragweed pollen season using Google Trends across 15 countries
Jean Bousquet, Ioana Agache, Uwe Berger, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Jean-Pierre Besancenot, Philippe J. Bousquet, Thomas Casale, Gennaro d'Amato, Igor Kaidashev, Musa Khaitov, Ralph Mösges, Kristof Nekam, Gabrielle L. Onorato, Davor Plavec, Aziz Sheikh, Michel Thibaudon, Robert Vautard, Mihaela Zidarn, 2018

Povzetek: Background: Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google, which potentially reflect the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared GT terms related to ragweed pollen allergy in American and European Union countries with a known ragweed pollen season. Our aim was to assess seasonality and the terms needed to perform the GT searches and to compare these during the spring and summer pollen seasons. Methods: We examined GT queries from January 1, 2011, to January 4, 2017. We included 15 countries with a known ragweed pollen season and used the standard 5-year GT graphs. We used the GT translation for all countries and the untranslated native terms for each country. Results: The results of "pollen," "ragweed," and "allergy" searches differed between countries, but "ragweed" was clearly identified in 12 of the 15 countries. There was considerable heterogeneity of findings when the GT translation was used. For Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia, the GT translation was inappropriate. The country patterns of "pollen," "hay fever," and "allergy" differed in 8 of the 11 countries with identified "ragweed" queries during the spring and the summer, indicating that the perception of tree and grass pollen allergy differs from that of ragweed pollen. Conclusions: To investigate ragweed pollen allergy using GT, the term "ragweed" as a plant is required and the translation of "ragweed" in the native language needed.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, allergens, seasonal allergic rhinitis, rhinitis, pollen, ambrosia, Google Trends, hay fever
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.11.2020; Ogledov: 408; Prenosov: 111

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