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Iskalni niz: "avtor" (Armin Paravlić) .

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1.
Reliability and validity of 30-15 intermittent fitness test for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment among infantry members of Slovenian armed forces : ǂa ǂstudy protocol
Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Samo Rauter, Janez Vodičar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Introduction: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) testing is routinely performed by most armed and tactical forces around the world as part of their recruitment process for new members or simply as an annual examination of their personnel. A 2-mile run (2MR) test is among the most commonly used. However, as it is performed outdoors, weather, climate, and terrain can influence the results and often limit the maximum performance. Also, this test has been shown to be difficult for individuals because the pacing strategy is self-paced. As such, it does not reflect the real situation on the battlefield, where most activities are externally driven by the environment and the enemy. Therefore, we believe that the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) may be a suitable tool for measuring CRF and battle readiness of military personnel. Moreover, given the importance of visual attention to military personnel we aim to investigate the differences in visual attention between better and less physically prepared infantry members and its corresponding response to maximal endurance running test. Methods and analysis: This randomized cross-over study using a within-subjects test-retest design will enroll 32 infantry members of the Slovenian Armed Forces. To investigate the reliability and validity of the 30-15IFT test, an incremental treadmill test (TR), a 2MR test, and two identical 30-15IFT will be performed in randomized order. Additionally, participants will be subsequently divided into two groups based on their score on the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), whereas differences in visual attention will be assessed by using the d2 test. The primary analysis will assess differences in key physiological outcomes between the different CRF tests (TR vs. 2MR vs. 30-15IFT). In addition, the relative reliability of all dependent variables between two 30-15IFT trials will be estimated by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), while relationship between maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate and maximal running speed of 30-15IFT, TR and 2MR will be assessed using Pearson’s correlation.
Ključne besede: Slovenian armed forces, running endurance, visual attention, cardiorespiratory fitness assessment, intermittent fitness tests, reliability, validation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 27.07.2022; Ogledov: 58; Prenosov: 39
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2.
The effect of menstrual cycle on perceptual responses in athletes : a systematic review with meta-analysis
Ana Carolina Paludo, Armin Paravlić, Kristýna Dvořáková, Marta Gimunová, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This article aimed to investigate the effects of menstrual cycle phases on perceptual responses in athletes by means of systematic review and meta-analysis. The search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Sport Discus databases considering articles with two or more menstrual phases for comparison. The PECO criteria were used for the keywords “menstrual cycle,” “athletes,” and “perceptual responses” with their respective entry terms. Of 1.165 records identified, 14 articles were available for the final evaluation, while eight articles were eligible for a meta-analysis. The perceptual responses evaluated in the studies were: motivation, competitiveness, sleep quality, stress, muscle soreness, fatigue, perceived effort, mood, menstrual symptoms, perceived endurance, and readiness. The meta-analysis was conducted for perceived effort only. The results showed that the level of perceived exertion does not differ two phases of the menstrual cycle (MD = 3.03, Q = 1.58, df = 1, p = 0.209), whereas RPE was 19.81 ± 0.05 and 16.27 ± 0.53 at day 1–5 and day 19–24, respectively. Two studies found statistically significant changes in motivation and competitiveness during the cycle, with better outcomes in ovulatory phase compared to follicular and luteal. One study found an increase in mood disturbance in the pre-menstrual phase (vs. mid-cycle); one decreased vigor in the menstrual phase (vs. luteal); one increased the menstrual symptoms in the follicular phase (vs. ovulation), and one study reported increased fatigue and decreased sleep quality on luteal phase (vs. follicular). The remaining studies and variables were not affected by the menstrual cycle phase. Based on the results from the studies selected, some perceptual responses are affected in different menstrual cycle phases. A “favorable” subjective response in athletes was noticed when the ovarian hormones present an increase in concentration levels compared to phases with lower concentration. Different perceptual variables and methodological approaches limit the generalization of the conclusion.
Ključne besede: athletes, female, behavior, menstrual cycle, hormones, perceptual responses
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.07.2022; Ogledov: 47; Prenosov: 45
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3.
Impact of motor-cognitive interventions on selected gait and balance outcomes in older adults : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Kaja Teraž, Luka Šlosar, Armin Paravlić, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background: Efficient performance of most daily activities requires intact and simultaneous execution of motor and cognitive tasks. To mitigate age-related functional decline, various combinations of motor and cognitive training have shown promising results. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy of different types of motor-cognitive training interventions (e.g., sequential and simultaneous) on selected functional outcomes in healthy older adults. Methods: Six online academic databases were used to retrieve eligible RCTs up to April 2021, following PRISMA guidelines and PICO criteria. A random-effects model was used for all meta-analyses conducted on selected functional outcomes: single- and dual-task gait speed, the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score. Effect size (ES) was calculated as Hedges' g and interpreted as: trivial: <0.20, small: 0.20–0.60, moderate: 0.61–1.20, large: 1.21–2.00, very large: 2.01–4.00 or extremely large >4.00. Results: From 2,546 retrieved records, 91 RCTs were included for meta-analysis (n = 3,745 participants; 64.7–86.9 years). The motor-cognitive interventions included differed according to the type of training (e.g., sequential, simultaneous with additional cognitive task or exergame training. The results showed that motor-cognitive interventions can improve gait speed under single-task conditions (small ES = 0.34, P = 0.003). The effect of the intervention was moderated by the type of control group (Q = 6.203, P = 0.013): passive (moderate ES = 0.941, P = 0.001) vs. active controls (trivial ES = 0.153, P = 0.180). No significant effect was found for dual-task walking outcomes (P = 0.063). Motor-cognitive intervention had a positive effect on TUG (small ES = 0.42, P < 0.001), where the effect of intervention was moderated by control group [passive (moderate ES = 0.73, P = 0.001) vs. active (small ES = 0.20, P = 0.020)], but not by the type of training (P = 0.064). Finally, BBS scores were positively affected by motor-cognitive interventions (small ES = 0.59, P < 0.001) with however no significant differences between type of control group (P = 0.529) or intervention modality (P = 0.585). Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of various types of motor-cognitive interventions on performance-based measures of functional mobility in healthy older adults. With respect to significant effects, gait speed under single-task condition was improved by motor-cognitive interventions, but the evidence shows that this type of intervention is not necessarily more beneficial than motor training alone. On the other hand, motor-cognitive interventions are better at improving multicomponent tasks of dynamic balance and mobility function, as measured by the TUG. Because of substantial heterogeneity and the current limited availability of different types of interventions, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution.
Ključne besede: motor-cognitive interventions, dual-task, elderly, mobility, postural control
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.06.2022; Ogledov: 59; Prenosov: 58
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4.
The muscle contractile properties in female soccer players : inter-limb comparison using tensiomyography
Armin Paravlić, Zoran Milanović, Ensar Abazović, Goran Vučković, Darjan Spudić, Živa Majcen Rošker, Maja Pajek, Janez Vodičar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Objective: The present study aimed to: i) determine the contractile properties of the major lower limb muscles in female soccer players using tensiomyography; ii) investigate inter-limb differences; and iii) compare inter-limb differences between different selections and playing positions. Methods: A total of 52 female soccer players (A team; U19 and U17) were recruited. The vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), lateralis (GL) and tibialis anterior (TA) of both lower limbs were evaluated. Results: When the entire sample was assessed regardless of selection or playing position, there were significant inter-limb differences in all measured muscles except BF. Compared to the non-dominant limb, the dominant limb had higher delay time in VL (p=0.008), while showing lower values in VM (p=0.023), GL (p=0.043) and GM (p=0.006). Contraction time was lower in the RF of the dominant limb (p=0.005) and VM (p=0.047), while showing higher values in VL (p=0.036) and TA (p<0.001) as compared to the non-dominant limb. Conclusion: Given the differences found between the limbs in the whole sample studied, it is necessary to examine both limbs to gather a more in-depth understanding of underlying mechanisms related to neuromuscular functions in female soccer players. Level of evidence: Prognostic study, Level II.
Ključne besede: asymmetries, neuromuscular functions, skeletal muscles, tensiomyography, Women' s football
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.06.2022; Ogledov: 93; Prenosov: 50
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5.
The time course of quadriceps strength recovery after total knee arthroplasty is influenced by body mass index, sex, and age of patients
Armin Paravlić, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, Kristina Drole, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Introduction: For patients with osteoarthritis who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA), quadriceps strength is a major determinant of general physical function regardless of the parameters adopted for functional assessment. Understanding the time course of quadriceps strength recovery and effectiveness of different rehabilitation protocols is a must. Therefore, the aim of this study was to: (i) determine the magnitude of maximal voluntary strength (MVS) loss and the time course of recovery of the quadriceps muscle following TKA, (ii) identify potential moderators of strength outcomes, and (iii) investigate whether different rehabilitation practices can moderate the strength outcomes following TKA, respectively. Design: General scientific databases and relevant journals in the field of orthopedics were searched, identifying prospective studies that investigated quadriceps’ MVS pre-to post-surgery. Results: Seventeen studies with a total of 832 patients (39% males) were included. Results showed that in the early post-operative days, the involved quadriceps’ MVS markedly declined, after which it slowly recovered over time in a linear fashion. Thus, the greatest decline of the MVS was observed 3 days after TKA. When compared to pre-operative values, the MVS was still significantly lower 3 months after TKA and did not fully recover up to 6 months following TKA. Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis identified that the variables, time point of evaluation, patient age, sex, and BMI, significantly moderate the MVS of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion: The analyzed literature data showed that the decrease in strength of the involved quadriceps muscles following TKA is considerable and lasts for several months post-surgery. Therefore, we recommend to specifically target the strengthening of knee extensor muscles, preserve motor control, and apply appropriate nutrition to ensure a holistic quadriceps muscle recovery. Since age, sex, and BMI were found to be moderating factors in patients’ recovery, further research should include specific analyses considering these moderators.
Ključne besede: knee osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty, rehabilitation, functional performance, voluntary activation, obesity, body mass index
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.05.2022; Ogledov: 138; Prenosov: 72
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6.
Tissue flossing around the thigh does not provide acute enhancement of neuromuscular function
Armin Paravlić, Jure Segula, Kristina Drole, Vedran Hadžić, Maja Pajek, Janez Vodičar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Nowadays, various methods are used for acute performance enhancement. The most recent of these is tissue flossing, which is becoming increasingly popular for both performance enhancement and rehabilitation. However, the effects of flossing on athletic performance have not been clearly demonstrated, which could be due to differences in the methodology used. In particular, the rest periods between the end of the preconditioning activity and the performance of the criterion task or assessment tools varied considerably in the published literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of applying tissue flossing to the thigh on bilateral countermovement jump performance and contractile properties of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle. Nineteen recreational athletes (11 males; aged 23.1 ± 2.7 years) were randomly assigned to days of flossing application (3 sets for 2 min of flossing with 2 min rest between sets) with preset experimental pressure (EXP = 95 ± 17.4 mmHg) or control condition (CON = 18.9 ± 3.5 mmHg). The first part of the measurements was performed before and after warm-up consisting of 5 min of cycling followed by dynamic stretching and specific jumping exercises, while the second part consisted of six measurement points after flossing application (0.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 min). The warm-up improved muscle response time (VL = -5%), contraction time (VL = -3.6%) muscle stiffness (VL = 17.5%), contraction velocity (VL = 23.5%), jump height (13.9%) and average power (10.5%). On the contrary, sustain time, half-relaxation time and take-off velocity stayed unaltered. Flossing, however, showed negative effects for muscle response time (F = 18.547, p < 0.001), contraction time (F = 14.899, p < 0.001), muscle stiffness (F = 8.365, p < 0.001), contraction velocity (F = 11.180, p < 0.001), jump height (F = 14.888, p < 0.001) and average power (F = 13.488, p < 0.001), whereas sustain time, half-relaxation time and take-off velocity were unaffected until the end of the study protocol regardless of condition assigned and/or time points of the assessment. It was found that the warm-up routine potentiated neuromuscular function, whereas the flossing protocol used in the current study resulted in fatigue rather than potentiation. Therefore, future studies aimed to investigate the doseresponse relationship of different configurations of preconditioning activities on neuromuscular function are warranted.
Ključne besede: tensiomyography, countermovement jump, potentation, athletic performance, ischemic precoditioning, functional performance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.05.2022; Ogledov: 129; Prenosov: 93
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7.
Comparison of the field-based intermittent running fitness test 30-15 and the treadmill multistage incremental test for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in elite handball players
Uroš Mohorič, Marko Šibila, Ensar Abazović, Saša Jovanović, Armin Paravlić, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the physiological parameters indicative of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained during the 30-15 intermittent fitness (30-15IFT) test and the multistage laboratory treadmill endurance (TR) test differ. Nineteen elite handball players were recruited for the current study and assigned in a cross-over manner to one of two tests to be performed 48 h apart at each visit to the testing facility. The results showed that VO2max (percentage difference [PC] = 6.1%; p = 0.004) and maximal running velocity (V) (PC = 19.4%; p < 0.001) were significantly higher for the 30-15IFT test than that obtained during the TR test. Furthermore, the onset of blood lactate accumulation was shown to be significantly higher for all measures considered to predict it during 30-15IFT compared to TR as follows: VO2max (PC = 12.6%; p = 0.001), running speed (PC = 33.9%; p < 0.001), and maximal heart rate (PC = 7.5%; p < 0.001). The current study highlights the importance of sport-specific testing, particularly for measuring individual cardiorespiratory fitness in elite handball players, as TR may underestimate crucial variables used for both diagnostics and training prescription.
Ključne besede: maximal running speed, aerobic endurance, aerobic incremental field test, laboratory treadmill test
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.03.2022; Ogledov: 136; Prenosov: 124
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8.
Motor imagery and action observation as appropriate strategies for home-based rehabilitation : ǂa ǂmini-review focusing on improving physical function in orthopedic patients
Armin Paravlić, 2022, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Povzetek: Dynamic stability of the knee and weakness of the extensor muscles are considered to be the most important functional limitations after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, probably due to changes at the central (cortical and corticospinal) level of motor control rather than at the peripheral level. Despite general technological advances, fewer contraindicative surgical procedures, and extensive postoperative rehabilitation, up to 65% of patients fail to return to their preinjury level of sports, and only half were able to return to competitive sport. Later, it becomes clear that current rehabilitation after knee surgery is not sufficient to address the functional limitations after ACL reconstruction even years after surgery. Therefore, new therapeutic tools targeting the central neural system, i.e., the higher centers of motor control, should be investigated and integrated into current rehabilitation practice. To improve motor performance when overt movement cannot be fully performed (e.g., due to pain, impaired motor control, and/or joint immobilization), several techniques have been developed to increase physical and mental activation without the need to perform overt movements. Among the most popular cognitive techniques used to increase physical performance are motor imagery and action observation practices. This review, which examines the available evidence, presents the underlying mechanisms of the efficacy of cognitive interventions and provides guidelines for their use at home.
Ključne besede: motor imagery, action observation, virtual reality, rehabilitation, physical functions, mental simulation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.03.2022; Ogledov: 151; Prenosov: 109
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9.
Lower-limb muscle contractile properties, explosive power and the subjective response of elite soccer players to the Covid-19 lockdown
Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, Saša Pišot, Matej Kleva, Kaja Teraž, Matjaž Vogrin, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The present study examined the effects of the lockdown period on basic anthropometric measures, countermovement jumping performance, skeletal muscle contractile properties derived from tensiomyography (TMG), injury incidence, and self-assessed general well-being in elite soccer players. A total of 266 players were assessed before (PRE) and 32 players were reassessed 11 days after (POST) the COVID-19 period. Significant changes in the TMG parameters were observed POST compared to PRE: contraction time (Tc) increased from 6% to 50% in vastus lateralis [VL] (p = 0.009) and biceps femoris [BF] (p < 0.001), respectively; whereas radial displacement (Dm) increased for 19% in BF (p = 0.036) and 17% in VL (p < 0.001), respectively. Jumping performance remained unchanged from PRE to POST In addition, athletes rated the lockdown period as a positive event and felt psychologically better during the lockdown, primarily because they spent more time with family members and friends. Although there were no differences in any of the variables describing lower limb muscle power following the two-month lockdown, the altered contractile properties of the assessed muscles suggest suboptimal conditioning of the football players.
Ključne besede: football, male football, power, explosive power, tensiomyography, coronavirus, covid-19, pandemics, lockdown
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.01.2022; Ogledov: 272; Prenosov: 220
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10.
Akutni učinki kognitivnega treninga na kortikospinalo in mišično aktivacijo : končno raziskovalno poročilo
Armin Paravlić, 2021, končno poročilo o rezultatih raziskav

Ključne besede: šport, treningi, mišice, aktivacija mišic, kortikospinala, aktivacija kortikospinale
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.12.2021; Ogledov: 373; Prenosov: 122
.pdf Celotno besedilo (372,23 KB)

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