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Experimental investigation of the axial strength of glued-in rods in cross laminated timber
Boris Azinović, Erik Serrano, Miha Kramar, Tomaž Pazlar, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents results from an experimental assessment of glued-in rods in cross laminated timber (CLT). For the purposes of the study more than 60 pull-pull tests were performed, where the specimens varied in terms of bonded-in length (from 80 to 400 mm), rod diameter (16-24 mm) and rod-to-grain angle (parallel and perpendicular). Several different failure modes that are not common for other applications of glued-in rods (e.g., a failure between CLT layers) were obtained for the analysed CLT specimens. It was found that these failure mechanisms can substantially influence the obtained ultimate tension loads. At the end, the experimental results were compared with empirical and semi-empirical equations for estimating the pull-out strength of glued-in rods in structural timber and glulam. The comparison showed that most of the existing equations overestimate the ultimate tension loads for specimens with the rod parallel to the grain and underestimate the ultimate tension load for specimens with the rod perpendicular to the grain. The results vary because the possible CLT failure modes were not included in previous studies. Further studies are proposed to improve the equations for glued-in rods in CLT.
Keywords: glued-in rods, cross laminated timber (CLT), pull-pull experiment, glued-in length, rod-to-grain angle, failure mechanisms in CLT
Published in DiRROS: 29.11.2023; Views: 82; Downloads: 63
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Mode I fracture of beech-adhesive bondline at three different temperatures
Jaka Gašper Pečnik, Andreja Pondelak, Michael David Burnard, Václav Sebera, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Single edge-notched three-point bending tests (SEN-TPB) for mode I were utilized to experimentallyevaluate fracture properties of adhesive bondlines in European beech (Fagus SylvaticaL.). Thebondline was examined at two anatomical planes with TR and RT orientation and at control andtwo elevated temperatures (70°C and 140°C). Among epoxy (EPI), melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF), and polyurethane (PUR) adhesives, the highest average critical energyGcwith 0.80 N/mmand fracture energyGfwith 1079.4 N/mm were obtained for EPI in the TR plane and understandard climate conditions (20°C/65% relative humidity), followed by MUF (Gc= 0.50 N/mm andGf= 620 N/mm) and PUR (Gc= 0.25 N/mm andGf= 290.9 N/mm), respectively. PUR was leasteffected by elevated temperature, and no significant differences forGcandGfbetween TR and RTbondline orientations were found for MUF and PUR treated at 20°C/65% relative humidity whilecomparisons between other factors varied significantly. Treatment of specimens at elevatedtemperatures resulted in reduced fracture performance regardless of wood grain orientation orthe adhesive system.
Keywords: crack, fracture, grain orientation, temperature, European Beech, odprti dostop
Published in DiRROS: 03.05.2023; Views: 266; Downloads: 182
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