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Query: "keywords" (virtual reality) .

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Environmental enrichment through virtual reality as multisensory stimulation to mitigate the negative effects of prolonged bed rest
Luka Šlosar, Manca Peskar, Rado Pišot, Uroš Marušič, 2023, review article

Abstract: Prolonged bed rest causes a multitude of deleterious physiological changes in the human body that require interventions even during immobilization to prevent or minimize these negative effects. In addition to other interventions such as physical and nutritional therapy, non-physical interventions such as cognitive training, motor imagery, and action observation have demonstrated efficacy in mitigating or improving not only cognitive but also motor outcomes in bedridden patients. Recent technological advances have opened new opportunities to implement such non-physical interventions in semi- or fully-immersive environments to enable the development of bed rest countermeasures. Extended Reality (XR), which covers augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality (VR), can enhance the training process by further engaging the kinesthetic, visual, and auditory senses. XR-based enriched environments offer a promising research avenue to investigate the effects of multisensory stimulation on motor rehabilitation and to counteract dysfunctional brain mechanisms that occur during prolonged bed rest. This review discussed the use of enriched environment applications in bedridden patients as a promising tool to improve patient rehabilitation outcomes and suggested their integration into existing treatment protocols to improve patient care. Finally, the neurobiological mechanisms associated with the positive cognitive and motor effects of an enriched environment are highlighted.
Keywords: physical inactivity, bed rest, nonphysical interventions, virtual reality
Published in DiRROS: 11.09.2023; Views: 183; Downloads: 79
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Combining physical and virtual worlds for motor-cognitive training interventions : position paper with guidelines on technology classification in movement-related research
Luka Šlosar, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Armin Paravlić, Ensar Abazović, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, review article

Abstract: Efficient movements require intact motor and cognitive function. There is a growing literature on motor-cognitive interventions to improve the overall quality of life of healthy or diseased older people. For such interventions, novel technological advances are crucial not only in terms of motivation but also to improve the user experience in a multi-stimuli world, usually offered as a mixture of real and virtual environments. This article provides a classification system for movement-related research dealing with motor-cognitive interventions performed in different extents of a virtual environment. The classification is divided into three categories: (a) type of digital device with the associated degree of immersiveness provided; (b) presence or absence of a human-computer interaction; and (c) activity engagement during training, defined by activity >1.5 Metabolic Equivalent of task. Since virtual reality (VR) often categorizes different technologies under the same term, we propose a taxonomy of digital devices ranging from computer monitors and projectors to head-mounted VR technology. All immersive technologies that have developed rapidly in recent years are grouped under the umbrella term Extended Reality (XR). These include augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and VR, as well as all technologies that have yet to be developed. This technology has potential not only for gaming and entertainment, but also for research, motor-cognitive training programs, rehabilitation, telemedicine, etc. This position paper provides definitions, recommendations, and guidelines for future movement-related interventions based on digital devices, human-computer interactions, and physical engagement to use terms more consistently and contribute to a clearer understanding of their implications.
Keywords: extended reality, virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, exergaming, taxonomy, classification
Published in DiRROS: 21.12.2022; Views: 278; Downloads: 139
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A perspective on implementation of technology-driven exergames for adults as telerehabilitation services
Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, review article

Abstract: A major concern of public health authorities is to also encourage adults to be exposed to enriched environments (sensory and cognitive-motor activity) during the pandemic lockdown, as was recently the case worldwide during the COVID-19 outbreak. Games for adults that require physical activity, known as exergames, offer opportunities here. In particular, the output of the gaming industry nowadays offers computer games with extended reality (XR) which combines real and virtual environments and refers to human-machine interactions generated by computers and wearable technologies. For example, playing the game in front of a computer screen while standing or walking on a force plate or treadmill allows the user to react to certain infrastructural changes and obstacles within the virtual environment. Recent developments, optimization, and minimizations in wearable technology have produced wireless headsets and sensors that allow for unrestricted whole-body movement. This makes the virtual experience more immersive and provides the opportunity for greater engagement than traditional exercise. Currently, XR serves as an umbrella term for current immersive technologies as well as future realities that enhance the experience with features that produce new controllable environments. Overall, these technology-enhanced exergames challenge the adult user and modify the experience by increasing sensory stimulation and creating an environment where virtual and real elements interact. As a therapy, exergames can potentially create new environments and visualizations that may be more ecologically valid and thus simulate real activities of daily living that can be trained. Furthermore, by adding telemedicine features to the exergame, progress over time can be closely monitored and feedback provided, offering future opportunities for cognitive-motor assessment. To more optimally serve and challenge adults both physically and cognitively over time in future lockdowns, there is a need to provide long-term remote training and feedback. Particularly related to activities of daily living that create opportunities for effective and lasting rehabilitation for elderly and sufferers from chronic non-communicable diseases (CNDs). The aim of the current review is to envision the remote training and monitoring of physical and cognitive aspects for adults with limited mobility (due to disability, disease, or age), through the implementation of concurrent telehealth and exergame features using XR and wireless sensor technologies.
Keywords: older adults, telemedicine, virtual reality, rehabilitation, active video games
Published in DiRROS: 17.03.2022; Views: 461; Downloads: 360
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Motor imagery and action observation as appropriate strategies for home-based rehabilitation : ǂa ǂmini-review focusing on improving physical function in orthopedic patients
Armin Paravlić, 2022, short scientific article

Abstract: Dynamic stability of the knee and weakness of the extensor muscles are considered to be the most important functional limitations after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, probably due to changes at the central (cortical and corticospinal) level of motor control rather than at the peripheral level. Despite general technological advances, fewer contraindicative surgical procedures, and extensive postoperative rehabilitation, up to 65% of patients fail to return to their preinjury level of sports, and only half were able to return to competitive sport. Later, it becomes clear that current rehabilitation after knee surgery is not sufficient to address the functional limitations after ACL reconstruction even years after surgery. Therefore, new therapeutic tools targeting the central neural system, i.e., the higher centers of motor control, should be investigated and integrated into current rehabilitation practice. To improve motor performance when overt movement cannot be fully performed (e.g., due to pain, impaired motor control, and/or joint immobilization), several techniques have been developed to increase physical and mental activation without the need to perform overt movements. Among the most popular cognitive techniques used to increase physical performance are motor imagery and action observation practices. This review, which examines the available evidence, presents the underlying mechanisms of the efficacy of cognitive interventions and provides guidelines for their use at home.
Keywords: motor imagery, action observation, virtual reality, rehabilitation, physical functions, mental simulation
Published in DiRROS: 03.03.2022; Views: 443; Downloads: 355
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