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Potential of green ceramics waste for alkali activated foams
Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to research the influence of foaming and stabilization agents in the alkali activation process of waste green ceramics for future low cost up-cycling into lightweight porous thermal insulating material. Green waste ceramics, which is used in the present article, is a green body residue (non-successful intermediate-product) in the synthesis of technical ceramics for fuses. This residue was alkali activated with Na-water glass and NaOH in theoretically determined ratio based on data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) that was set to maximise mechanical properties and to avoid efflorescence. Prepared mixtures were compared to alkali activated material prepared in theoretically less favourable ratios, and tested on the strength and density. Selected mixtures were further foamed with different foaming agents, that are Na-perborate (s), H2O2 (l), and Al (s), and supported by a stabilization agent, i.e., Na-dodecyl sulphate. The goal of the presented work was to prepare alkali activated foam based on green ceramics with density below 1 kg/l and compressive strength above 1 MPa.
Keywords: alkali activation, foaming, SEM, XRF, XRD, mechanical strength
Published in DiRROS: 14.09.2023; Views: 138; Downloads: 64
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Influence of particle size on compressive strength of alkali activated refractory materials
Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Influence of particle size on the mechanical strength of alkali activated material from waste refractory monolithic was investigated in this study. Precursor was chemically and mineralogically analysed, separated on 4 fractions and alkali activated with Na-water glass. Alkali activated materials were thoroughly investigated under SEM and XRD to evaluate the not predicted differences in mechanical strength. Influence of curing temperature and time dependence at curing temperatures on mechanical strength were investigated in the sample prepared from a fraction that caused the highest compressive strength.
Keywords: refractory materials, alkali activation, particle size, SEM, XRF, XRD, compressive strength
Published in DiRROS: 21.08.2023; Views: 208; Downloads: 181
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Effects of digital-based interventions on muscular strength in adults : a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials with quality of evidence assessment
Armin Paravlić, Luka Šlosar, Ensar Abazović, Uroš Marušič, 2023, review article

Abstract: Background: In the last three decades, both medical and sports science professionals have recognized the considerable potential of digital-based interventions (DBI) to enhance the health-related outcomes of their practitioners.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and potential moderators of DBI on measures of muscular strength.Methods: Six databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials and Google Scholar) were searched for eligible studies up to June 2022. The GRADE, PEDRO, and TIDieR checklists were used to assess the quality of evidence, methodology, and completeness of intervention descriptions, respectively.Results: A total of 56 studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 2346), and participants were classified as healthy (n = 918), stroke survivors (n = 572), diagnosed with other neurological disorders (n = 683), and frail (n = 173). The DBI showed a small effect (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.28, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.31; p < 0.001) on strength, regardless of the type of intervention, control group, or tested body part. More specifically, while splitting the studies into different subgroups, a meta-analysis of 19 studies (n = 918) showed a small effect (SMD = 0.38, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63; p = 0.003) on strength in the asymptomatic population. Similarly, small but positive effects of DBI were observed for stroke survivors (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.56; p = 0.002), patients diagnosed with other neurological disorders (SMD = 0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.32; p = 0.021), and the frail population (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.5; p = 0.051). Sub-group analysis and meta-regression revealed that neither variable modified the effects of the DBI on measures of strength.Conclusions: Overall, DBI may serve as an effective method to improve measures of strength in adults, regardless of their health status as well as the type of digital device, the presence of human-computer interaction, and the age of participants. In addition, the DBI was found to be more effective than traditional training or rehabilitation methods.
Keywords: cognitive training, physical function, strength, neurodegenerative disorders, older adults
Published in DiRROS: 07.08.2023; Views: 185; Downloads: 90
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Mechanical, microstructural and mineralogical evaluation of alkali-activated waste glass and stone wool
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Ana Frankovič, Vilma Ducman, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Mineral waste wool represents a significant part of construction and demolition waste (CDW) not yet being successfully re-utilized. In the present study, waste stone wool (SW) and glass wool (GW) in the form received, without removing the binder, were evaluated for their potential use in alkali activation technology. It was confirmed that both can be used in the preparation of alkali-activated materials (AAMs), whether cured at room temperature or at an elevated temperature in order to speed up the reaction. The results show that it is possible to obtain a compressive strength of over 50 MPa using SW or GW as a precursor. A strength of 53 MPa was obtained in AAM based on GW after curing for 3 days at 40 °C, while a similar compressive strength (58 MPa) was achieved after curing the GW mixture for 56 days at room temperature. In general, the mechanical properties of samples based on GW are better than those based on SW. The evolution of mechanical properties and recognition of influential parameters were determined by various microstructural analyses, including XRD, SEM, MIP, and FTIR. The type of activator (solely NaOH or a combination of NaOH and sodium silicate), and the SiO2/Na2O and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios were found to be the significant parameters. A lower SiO2/Na2O ratio and low L/S ratio significantly improve the mechanical strength of AAMs made from both types of mineral wool.
Keywords: alkali activation, waste mineral wool, mechanical strength
Published in DiRROS: 31.07.2023; Views: 134; Downloads: 141
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Influence of microwaves in the early stage of alkali activation on the mechanical strength of alkali-activated materials
Barbara Horvat, Majda Pavlin, Vilma Ducman, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This study focuses on the influence of microwave irradiation dosimetry on alkali-activated slurry in its early stages. The impact on the chemistry and mineralogy along with the mechanical properties were evaluated by changing the power of microwaves and their duration of exposure. This influenced the dissolution of amorphous content, diffusion, and self-assembly into an aluminosilicate network. The precursors used in this study were metakaolin, a non-waste material commonly used in geopolymerisation technology, and local fly ash and ladle furnace slag as secondary materials. Furthermore, they were chemically and mineralogically analysed, and their mixtures with NaOH and Na-water glass provided the optimal ratio of the amount of elements obtained using the pre-calculation approach. However, the potential extra addition of water was experimentally determined to allow complete wetting of the material and solid workability during moulding. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the influence of water was further investigated in alkali-activated slag and fly ash irradiated with microwaves, which resulted in the highest values of mechanical strength in the dosimetry-mapping part of the analysis. In addition to the time dependence of the expected mechanical strength on the ageing of the alkali- activated material, the synthesised material exhibited a significant dependence on the dose of microwave irra- diation, which was different for every precursor as well as every mixture with different chemistries.
Keywords: odpadni material, alkalijska aktivacija, obsevanje z mikrovalovi, mehanska trdnost, waste material, alkali activation, microwave irradiation, mechanical strength
Published in DiRROS: 12.07.2023; Views: 193; Downloads: 161
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Preparation of façade panels based on alkali-activated waste mineral wool, their characterization and durability aspects
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Mineral wool is a widely used insulation material and one of the largest components of construction and demolition waste, yet it mainly ends up in landfills. In this work, we explored the potential recycling of waste stone wool in the pilot production of alkali-activated façade panels. The current work shows mechanical properties, SEM-EDS and mercury intrusion porosimetry analyses for three different mix designs used for the preparation of façade panels. They are all composed of waste stone wool and differ in the amount of co-binders (local slag, lime, metakaolin and/or fly ash) selected by the preliminary studies. In this study, co-binders were added to increase early strength and improve the mechanical properties and freeze-thaw resistance. The mechanical properties of each were measured up to 256 days, different durability tests were executed, and, by evaluating the mechanical properties, microstructure and workability of the mortar, the most suitable mix was selected to be used for pilot production. In addition, the leaching test of the selected mixture showed no exceeded toxic trace elements and therefore got classified as non-hazardous waste after its use.
Keywords: alkali activation, waste mineral wool, SEM, XRF, XRD, mechanical strength
Published in DiRROS: 19.06.2023; Views: 179; Downloads: 78
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The preparation and characterization of low-temperature foams based on the alkali activation of waste stone wool
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Waste mineral wool represents a huge amount of construction and demolition waste that is still not adequately returned into the value chain but needs to be landfilled. In the present study, waste stone wool (SW) was evaluated for the preparation of alkali-activated foams. For this purpose SW was milled and sieved below 63 μm, then the activator (sodium silicate) and different amounts of foaming agent (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2), varying between 1 wt% and 3 wt%, were added to the slurry and cured in moulds at an elevated temperature (70 ◦ C) for three days. In this way, foamed, highly porous materials were obtained whose density and mechanical properties were influenced by the amount of foaming agent used. The densities obtained ranged between 1.4 and 0.5 g/cm3, with corresponding mechanical properties of between 12.6 and 1.5 MPa and total porosities in the range 37.8–78.6%, respectively. In the most porous samples with the total porosity of 78.6%, a thermal conductivity of 0.092 W/(m∙K) was confirmed. The study confirmed the suitability of waste mineral wool (in our case SW) as a precursor for alkali-activated foams with potential use in the construction sector or other industrial applications.
Keywords: alkali activation, waste mineral wool, mechanical strength, open access, alkalijska aktivacija, odpadna volna, SEM, XRF, XRD, mehanska trdnost, odprti dostop
Published in DiRROS: 19.06.2023; Views: 163; Downloads: 125
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Potential usage of hybrid polymers binders based on fly ash with the addition of PVA with satisfying mechanical and radiological properties
Miljana Mirković, Ljiljana Kljajević, Sabina Dolenec, Miloš Nenadović, Vladimir Pavlović, Milica Rajačić, Snežana B. Nenadović, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Since recycled technologies usage is mandatory for environmental safety, and in this regard, it is important to examine new materials that can be used in construction and are primarily produced from fly ash. In addition to characteristics such as hardness and compressive strength, the given materials must also be radiologically and environmentally safe. The main concept of engineered geopolymer gel composites based on fly ash residues is focused on developing binder materials via gel formation processes that can replace ordinary cement materials. This study is unique in researching the potential use of fly ash from the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant in Serbia, where the hybrid geopolymeric materials synthesized from fly ash are experimentally examined with the addition 1 wt% and 2 wt% of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This paper aims to investigate the structural, morphological, mechanical, and radiological properties of hybrid materials with the addition of PVA and without additive in the period of ageing for 28 days at room temperature. The phase composition was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, while morphological characteristics of these materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). Vibrational spectra of obtained samples are investigated using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The hardness and compressive strength are also examined, indicating that the 1 wt% addition in geopolymeric matrix results in the best mechanical properties. Radiological measurements of investigated all geopolymer samples show decreasing activity concentrations of radionuclides for 50% compared to fly ash.
Keywords: geopolymer gel, inorganic binders, hybrid materials, fly ash, radiological properties, strength, open access
Published in DiRROS: 12.05.2023; Views: 172; Downloads: 80
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Report of RILEM TC 267-TRM phase 3 : validation of the R3 reactivity test across a wide range of materials
Diana Londono-Zuluaga, Sabina Dolenec, Maruša Mrak, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: RILEM TC 267 TRM– “Tests for Reactivity of Supplementary Cementitious Materials” recommends the Rapid Reliable Relevant (R3) test as a method for determining the chemical reactivity of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in Portland cement blends. In this paper, the R3 test was applied to 52 materials from a wide range of conventional and alternative SCMs with the aim to validate such test. An excellent correlation was found between the cumulative heat release and the bound water determined following the R3 test method. Comparison of the R3 test results to mortar compressive strength development showed that all conventional SCMs (e.g. blast furnace slag and fly ashes) followed the same trend, with the notable exception of very reactive calcined kaolinitic clays. It is discussed, through an in-depth statistical regression analysis of the R3 reactivity test results and the 28 days relative compressive strengths, how reactivity threshold values for classification of the chemical reactivity of SCMs could be proposed based on the R3 test results.
Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials, reactivity test, heat release, bound water, compressive strength
Published in DiRROS: 26.04.2023; Views: 155; Downloads: 83
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The effect of rapid weight loss on the handgrip strength of national-level wrestlers
Carlo Rossi, Roberto Roklicer, Antonino Bianco, Marko Manojlović, Barbara Gilić, Tatjana Trivic, Patrik Drid, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The effects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports athletes is an area that is not yet fully discovered. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the impact of weight loss on HGS (handgrip strength) in Greco-Roman wrestlers.This cross-over study included ten athletes examined for HGS during three time points for each hand. The first measurement – baseline (BL), was performed before we-ight reduction. The second measurement ‒ phase 1 (P1), was taken after high-intensity sports specific training (HISST) combined with RWL. In this phase, participants had to lose 5% of their body mass within three days, after which HISST was carried out (on day 3). The third measurement ‒ phase 2 (P2), was performed seven days after P1, which included HISST with no RWL.When comparing the HGS values, significantly higher values were observed only when P1 was compared with P2 for the left hand (p=0.039). This means that the grip was significantly stronger after RWL was conducted together with HISST.This research could be of great importance to combat sports coaches and athletes as it evaluates the effect of RWL on performance parameters. Therefore, the results of our study could serve to improve the wrestlers’ weight-reduction plan.
Keywords: wrestling, wrestlers, weight reduction, handgrip strength, performance
Published in DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Views: 275; Downloads: 126
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