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Moral disengagement in youth athletes : a narrative review
Ambra Gentile, Ivana Milovanović, Saša Pišot, Antonino Bianco, Gioacchino Lavanco, 2022, review article

Abstract: The sports environment can be considered as a context characterized by interactions typical of social groups, where children have the chance to learn good values. Positive and negative behaviours in sports, also called prosocial and antisocial behaviours, have been studied according to a moral perspective, as has doping behaviour, taking into consideration the concept of moral disengagement. Moral disengagement in children has been associated with maladaptive behaviours later in life, even though it should disappear with growth. Concerning the sports environment, previous reviews on the topic have extensively illustrated the role of moral variables in sport and their relation to antisocial behaviour and doping, positing some research questions that should be investigated in the future. Starting from these questions, the current narrative review aims to update literature about the effects of moral disengagement on youth athletes. Therefore, new studies about the predictors of moral disengagement are introduced, followed by contributions concerning the relationship between moral disengagement and doping and between moral disengagement and antisocial behaviour. Finally, the review summarizes which research questions have been solved in the last decade and which should be researched further on.
Keywords: sport, physical activity, athletes, moral disengagement, aggression, cheating, moral development, children, adolescence
Published in DiRROS: 18.07.2023; Views: 186; Downloads: 112
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The use of tensiomyography in older adults : a systematic review
Katarina Puš, Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, 2023, review article

Abstract: Introduction: Aging of skeletal muscles results in a cascade of events negatively affecting muscle mass, strength, and function, leading to reduced mobility, increased risk of falls, disability, and loss of independence. To date, different methods are used to assess muscle mechanical function, tensiomyography (TMG) being one of them. The aim of this review was twofold: to summarize the evidence-based usefulness of tensiomyography in older adults and to establish reference values for the main tensiomyography parameters in older adults. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and tensiomyography databases were searched from inception until 25 December 2022. Studies investigating older adults (aged 60+ years) that reported tensiomyographyderived parameters such as contraction time (Tc) and/or maximal displacement (Dm) were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Results: In total, eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Tensiomyography has been used on different groups of older adults, including asymptomatic, master athletes, patients with peripheral arterial disease, and patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis with a mean age of 71.5 ± 5.38 (55.7% male subjects). The most evaluated were leg muscles such as vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and biceps femoris (BF). The present review demonstrates that tensiomyography is used to assess neuromuscular function in asymptomatic and diseased older adults. When compared to asymptomatic individuals, power master athletes, knee osteoarthritis patients, and patients diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease have the shortest Tc in BF, VL, and GM muscles, respectively. On the other hand, endurance master athletes showed the longest Tc in all three evaluated muscles. Less mobile, nursing-home residents showed higher Dm in VL and BF, while lower Dm in GM than the asymptomatic group. The knee osteoarthritis group showed the largest Dm in BF and VL while having the smallest Dm in GM. Conclusion: Tensiomyography can serve as a valuable tool for assessing neuromuscular function in older adults. The method is sensitive to muscle composition, architecture, and (pre) atrophic changes of the skeletal muscles and might be responsive to muscle quality changes in aging and diseased populations.
Keywords: sport, muscle function, elderly, neuromuscular function, normative values, TMG
Published in DiRROS: 27.06.2023; Views: 196; Downloads: 123
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Report on the EASS & ISSA 2022 World Congress of sport sociology, Tübingen, Germany, 7-10 June 2022
Saša Pišot, 2022, other component parts

Keywords: sport, sociology, society, conferences, reports
Published in DiRROS: 03.03.2023; Views: 246; Downloads: 151
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The decision-making style structure of Slovenian sports managers
Edvard Kolar, Matej Tušak, 2022, original scientific article

Keywords: sport, sports managers, Slovenia, decision-making styles, structure
Published in DiRROS: 03.03.2023; Views: 246; Downloads: 201
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Body mass index changes in children and adolescents with intelectual disability during the COVID-19 pandemic
Nika Šuc, Blaž Lešnik, 2022, original scientific article

Keywords: sport, body mass index, youth with intellectual disability, COVID-19, pandemic
Published in DiRROS: 03.03.2023; Views: 257; Downloads: 189
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Time passes, healthy habits stay? : a longitudinal small sample comparison of muscle contractile properties, motor abilities and lifestyle characteristics of athletes and non-athletes
Saša Pišot, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Because healthy behaviors learned early in life are more likely to be maintained during adulthood, we aimed to investigate longitudinal changes of partici-pants that were regularly involved in extracurricular sport activities (athletes; N = 7; 4 boys) and those that were not (non-athletes, N = 6; 3 boys)Methods: Participants of both groups were invited for re-assessment at the age of 27, in 2019, 12 years after they participated in a 5-year longitudinal study as adoles-cents (9–14 years of age, in the period 2001‒07). We investigated vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) contractile properties (tensiomyography), maximal running speed (photocells), anthropometric measures (bioimpedance), maximal vertical jump-ing height (squat and countermovement jumps on a ground reaction force plate), and lifestyle characteristics (GPAQ and EHIS surveys).Results: Based on Cohen’s d effect size we found that athletes have lower body mass index, higher maximal running speed, better maximal vertical jumping height, and shorter BF contraction time, not found in VL, compared to non-athletes. Further-more, athletes also exhibit healthier lifestyle characteristics such as lower sedentary time and higher daily energy expenditure than non-athletes. Athletes follow diet regi-mens consisting of more regular meals with more protein and indulge less in health-risk behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption). However, the self-perception of health and quality of life was lower in athletes than in non-athletes. Conclusion: EU regulations and the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemics pre-vented us from conducting a study on a more representative sample. Nevertheless, we could confirm that regular sport participation yields better physical performance and a healthier lifestyle but could also have a negative impact on health (injuries) and quality of life.
Keywords: sport, physical exercise, motor development, healthy lifestyle, tensiomyography, longitudinal studies
Published in DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Views: 383; Downloads: 132
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Saša Pišot, 2021, preface, editorial, afterword

Keywords: sport, kinesiology, pandemics, coronavirus, Covid-19, restricitive measures, research
Published in DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Views: 283; Downloads: 110
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Rado Pišot, 2021, preface, editorial, afterword

Keywords: sport, kinesiology, motor activities, sedentarism, society, research
Published in DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Views: 206; Downloads: 110
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Exploring the well-being of Slovenian and Serbian sport science students during the covid-19 pandemic of summer 2022
Brigita Banjac, Ivana Milovanović, Saša Pišot, Radenko Matić, Stevo Popović, Sandra Radenović, Patrik Drid, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly changed everyday life of social actors, which inferred mental health and well-being concerns. As students of health-related studies tend to adapt better to difficult circumstances, in this study, we explored the effect of the pandemic on sports science students’ well-being during the summer of 2022. The research was conducted in Slovenia and Serbia. The sample comprised n = 350 students. The PERMA-Profiler, a 15-item self-reported questionnaire, was adapted to assess well-being across five elements: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Data were collected with a questionnaire through the summer of 2022 (from May to July) and analyzed in SPSS, AMOS 26.0. The results revealed normal functioning (M = 7.72, SD ± 1.38) for the overall well-being of the students. Although all dimensions indicated high scores, relationships (M = 7.95, SD ± 1.63), meaning (M = 7.76, SD ± 1.69), and engagement (M = 7.73, SD ± 1.36) rated the highest. Furthermore, the instrument was acceptable, as the confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate reliability based on Cronbach's alpha (15 items, α = 0.94) and strong internal correlations between the PERMA dimensions. This study contributes to the previously published research, emphasizing the positive responses and successful coping of sports science students in times of complex situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: sport, health science, physical education, university students, pandemics, mental health, well-being
Published in DiRROS: 16.02.2023; Views: 265; Downloads: 146
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Nutritional intake of Slovenian semi-professional handball players
Kaja Teraž, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Aim: Handball is a highly popular team sport, both in Slovenia and globally. The performance during team sport matches is influenced by numerous factors, amongst others there is nutrition whose influence is lesser known, particularly since diet is often uncontrolled. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether Slovenian handball players, on basis of their anthropometric data and nutritional recommendations, have adequate nutritional intakes of energy and macronutrients. Methods: Two Slovenian handball teams with male and female players (17 males and 9 females) who are part of the 1A national league, were assessed through a 7-day food diary to define their nutritional intake in three different conditions for males (on their training days, match days and days off) and in two conditions for females (on their training days and days off). Basal anthropometric data were measured by standard methods and the body composition by a bioelectrical impedance scale. The results were statistically analysed with IBM SPSS programme, using the repeated measures ANOVA model. Results: Both female and male handball players show insufficient amounts of energy intake, based on the most recent nutritional intake recommendations for team sports. Moreover, the intake of carbohydrates is too low for both female and male handball players, and the intake of fat is too high. Conclusion: The analysis of the initial nutritional intake and the comparison with the recommendation shows that the male handball players do not have an optimal diet with proper intake of both energy and macronutrients. The energy intake is insufficient also in female players. Adjusting the nutritional intake in a way to make it more balanced and tuned to the training schedule, would support a better health and performance.
Keywords: energy intake, macronutrients, nutrition, body composition, handball, team sport
Published in DiRROS: 17.12.2020; Views: 1141; Downloads: 584
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