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1.
Buckwheat milling waste effects on root morphology and mycorrhization of Silver fir seedlings inoculated with Black Summer Truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.)
Tina Unuk, Tine Grebenc, Daniel Žlindra, Tanja Mrak, Matevž Likar, Hojka Kraigher, Zlata Luthar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Large amounts of buckwheat waste are generated annually by the industry and are used in several different ways. To date, there has been little research regarding its suitability as a medium for growing seedlings in nurseries. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the suitability of common and Tartary buckwheat wastes (brans and husks) as media used for raising seedlings. A pot experiment with five different treatments was carried out, in which silver fir root parameters were analyzed and compared 6 and 12 months after summer truffle-spore inoculation. A significantly higher concentration of the antioxidant rutin was confirmed in Tartary buckwheat bran compared to other buckwheat waste used. We also confirmed a significantly positive effect of added Tartary buckwheat husks on specific root length, root tip density, and specific root tip density compared to added common buckwheat husks or Tartary buckwheat bran, for which a significantly negative effect on branching density was confirmed. A significantly negative effect of added buckwheat husks and Tartary buckwheat bran was confirmed for summer truffle mycorrhization level.
Keywords: buckwheat waste, root growth, summer truffle, forest nursery, silver fir, inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi
Published in DiRROS: 09.02.2022; Views: 264; Downloads: 219
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2.
Surprising drought tolerance of Fir (Abies) species between past climatic adaptation and future projections reveals new chances for adaptive forest management
Csaba Mátyás, František Beran, Jaroslav Dostál, Jiří Čáp, Martin Fulín, Monika Vejpustková, Gregor Božič, Pál Balázs, Josef Frýdl, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: esearch Highlights: Data of advanced-age provenance tests were reanalyzed applying a new approach, to directly estimate the growth of populations at their original sites under individually generated future climates. The results revealed the high resilience potential of fir species. Background and Objectives: The growth and survival of silver fir under future climatic scenarios are insufficiently investigated at the xeric limits. The selective signature of past climate determining the current and projected growth was investigated to analyze the prospects of adaptive silviculture and assisted transfer of silver fir populations, and the introduction of non-autochthonous species. Materials and Methods: Hargreaves% climatic moisture deficit was selected to model height responses of adult populations. Climatic transfer distance was used to assess the relative drought stress of populations at the test site, relating these to the past conditions to which the populations had adapted. ClimateEU and ClimateWNA pathway RCP8.5 data served to determine individually past, current, and future moisture deficit conditions. Besides silver fir, other fir species from South Europe and the American Northwest were also tested. Results: Drought tolerance profiles explained the responses of transferred provenances and predicted their future performance and survival. Silver fir displayed significant within-species differentiation regarding drought stress response. Applying the assumed drought tolerance limit of 100 mm relative moisture deficit, most of the tested silver fir populations seem to survive their projected climate at their origin until the end of the century. Survival is likely also for transferred Balkan fir species and for grand fir populations, but not for the Mediterranean species. Conclusions: The projections are less dramatic than provided by usual inventory assessments, considering also the resilience of populations. The method fills the existing gap between experimentally determined adaptive response and the predictions needed for management decisions. It also underscores the unique potential of provenance tests.
Keywords: climate change, common garden, provenance test, silver fir, grand fir, Balkan firs, drought stress, resilience, climate transfer distance, adaptation
Published in DiRROS: 05.07.2021; Views: 475; Downloads: 214
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3.
Effect of earthworms on mycorrhization, root morphology and biomass of silver fir seedlings inoculated with black summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.)
Tina Unuk, Niccolo G. M. Benucci, Tine Grebenc, Hojka Kraigher, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Species of the genus Tuber have gained a lot of attention in recent decades due to their aromatic hypogenous fruitbodies, which can bring high prices on the market. The tendency in truffle production is to infect oak, hazel, beech, etc. in greenhouse conditions. We aimed to show whether silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) can be an appropriate host partner for commercial mycorrhization with truffles, and how earthworms in the inoculation substrate would affect the mycorrhization dynamics. Silver fir seedlings inoculated with Tuber. aestivum were analyzed for root system parameters and mycorrhization, how earthworms affect the bare root system, and if mycorrhization parameters change when earthworms are added to the inoculation substrate. Seedlings were analyzed 6 and 12 months after spore inoculation. Mycorrhization with or without earthworms revealed contrasting effects on fine root biomass and morphology of silver fir seedlings. Only a few of the assessed fine root parameters showed statistically significant response, namely higher fine root biomass and fine root tip density in inoculated seedlings without earthworms 6 months after inoculation, lower fine root tip density when earthworms were added, the specific root tip density increased in inoculated seedlings without earthworms 12 months after inoculation, and general negative effect of earthworm on branching density. Silver fir was confirmed as a suitable host partner for commercial mycorrhization with truffles, with 6% and 35% mycorrhization 6 months after inoculation and between 36% and 55% mycorrhization 12 months after inoculation. The effect of earthworms on mycorrhization of silver fir with Tuber aestivum was positive only after 6 months of mycorrhization, while this effect disappeared and turned insignificantly negative after 12 months due to the secondary effect of grazing on ectomycorrhizal root tips.
Keywords: mycorrhiza, truffles, silver fir, inoculation, earthworms, spore inoculation
Published in DiRROS: 22.03.2021; Views: 560; Downloads: 382
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4.
Harvesting intensity and tree species affect soil respiration in uneven-aged Dinaric forest stands
Matjaž Čater, Eva Dařenová, Primož Simončič, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Forest management, especially thinning and harvesting measures, has a significant impact on the forest carbon balance especially in the forests with long-term continuous cover history. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs) in three forest complexes of mixed, uneven-aged Dinaric forests with predominating silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). Rs was measured after removal of mature forest stands with 50% and 100% intensity of living stock and compared with Rs on the control plots without any applied silvicultural measures. Rs was measured monthly in three consecutive 2012, 2013 and 2014 growing periods. Soil CO2 efflux increased after harvest of both intensities in all studied forest stands. The biggest increase was measured in beech stands and amounted up to 47 and 69% for 50% and 100% harvest intensities, respectively. The effect of harvest on Rs in spruce and fir stands was similar - up to 26% for 50% harvest intensity and 48% for 100% harvest intensity. Despite the biggest increase after harvest, Rs in beech stands returned the fastest to the level of the uncut forest and this levelling period (LP) took 14-17 months with a little delay of the stands with 100% harvest intensity. The LP for all fir stands, for spruce stands with 50% harvest intensity and for one spruce stand with 100% harvest intensity, was 26-29 months. At two spruce stands with 100% harvest intensity we did not record Rs levelling during our three-year study. This study involved forest stands of three predominating tree species growing under the same conditions, which allowed us to determine the species-specific sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux to the different harvesting intensities.
Keywords: harvesting intensity, soil CO2 efflux, silviculture, carbon release, silver fir forests, Beech forestrs, Norway spruce forests
Published in DiRROS: 08.10.2020; Views: 837; Downloads: 302
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5.
Root-associated fungal communities from two phenologically contrasting Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) groups of trees
Tina Unuk, Tijana Martinović, Domen Finžgar, Nataša Šibanc, Tine Grebenc, Hojka Kraigher, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Root-associated fungal communities are important components in ecosystem processes, impacting plant growth and vigor by influencing the quality, direction, and flow of nutrients and water between plants and fungi. Linkages of plant phenological characteristics with belowground root-associated fungal communities have rarely been investigated, and thus our aim was to search for an interplay between contrasting phenology of host ectomycorrhizal trees from the same location and root-associated fungal communities (ectomycorrhizal, endophytic, saprotrophic and pathogenic rootassociated fungi) in young and in adult silver fir trees. The study was performed in a managed silver fir forest site. Twenty-four soil samples collected under two phenologically contrasting silver fir groups were analyzed for differences in rootassociated fungal communities using Illumina sequencing of a total root-associated fungal community. Significant differences in beta diversity and in mean alpha diversity were confirmed for overall community of ectomycorrhizal root-associated fungi, whereas for ecologically different non-ectomycorrhizal root-associated fungal communities the differences were significant only for beta diversity and not for mean alpha diversity. At genus level root-associated fungal communities differed significantly between early and late flushing young and adult silver fir trees. We discuss the interactions through which the phenology of host plants either drives or is driven by the root-associated fungal communities in conditions of a sustainably co-naturally managed silver fir forest.
Keywords: host phenology, stand age, root-associated fungi, silver fir, fungal community
Published in DiRROS: 20.02.2020; Views: 1405; Downloads: 1035
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6.
Beech and silver fir's response along the Balkan's latitudinal gradient
Matjaž Čater, Tom Levanič, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: At the 1000km geographical distance in Dinaric montane forests of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the tree response from the north-western sites towards southern, warmer and dryer sites was performed during three consecutive growing seasons (2011, 2012 and 2013). On eleven permanent plots, positioned in uneven-aged beech and fir forests above 800m along the geographical gradient, the physiological and morphological response to light intensity were measured in predefined light categories based on the analysis of hemispherical photos. Radial growth was analysed on all plots and compared to precipitation, temperature and two drought indexes. Analysis showed a decrease in the cumulative precipitation and no change in temperature between plots. Beech was most efficient in the open area light conditions, while fir proved most efficient under shelter. Physiological response for beech increased towards SE and reached its maximal values in the middle of transect, while fir%s response decreased from the NW towards SE. Tendency to plagiotropic growth decreased from NW to SE in both species. Growth response to climatic parameters is weak, stronger in fir than in beech and decreasing towards SE.
Keywords: beech, uneven aged forests, silviculture, latitudinal gradient, response, silver fir
Published in DiRROS: 13.11.2019; Views: 1504; Downloads: 1004
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7.
Differentiation of last formed tracheids in wood of silver firs (Abies alba) having various cambial productivity
Jožica Gričar, Aleš Straže, Katarina Čufar, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: To examine the state of differentiation of the last tracheids formed in wood and the duration of cambial activity, samples of wood and cambium were taken from mature silver fir (Abies alba) trees having various cambial productivity.Semi-thin cross-sections of wood sampled in July and October, 1999, were stained with toluidine blue and observed under a light microscope. In July, three different phases of current annual xylem growth ring formation were found, as a result of various cambial tree productivity. In October, the cell divisions in the cambium were completed in all investigated trees, while the process of differentiation was not entirely completed in trees with a more productive cambium. The number of undifferentiated tracheids was higher in trees having a more productive cambium. In these trees, the cambial activity and the differentiation ended later. In declining trees, the number of cells produced by the cambium was lower and the duration of cambial activity was shorter.
Keywords: navadna jelka, Abies alba, les, traheide, kambijeva aktivnost, diferenciacija, wood, silver fir, tracheids, cambial activity, differentiation
Published in DiRROS: 12.07.2017; Views: 2988; Downloads: 1293
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8.
Light response of Fagus sylvatica L. and Abies alba Mill. in different categories of forest edge - vertical abundance in two silvicultural systems
Matjaž Čater, Andrej Kobler, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: In managed Dinaric montane fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests, the light response of young beech and fir in gap microsites was studied during three consecutive growing periods (2009, 2010, and 2011) under controlled environmental conditions in stands of single-tree and irregular shelterwood silvicultural system. According to maximal quantum yield, the different response between species in microsite light categories was evidenced for silver fir on microsites with predominating diffuse light and for beech on microsites with predominating direct light, respectively. Abundance and change of share in microsite light categories was compared over different elevation belts on comparable sites between two silvicultural systems. The share of forest edge area was bigger in the irregular shelterwood system. Change in width of forest edge (20, 30 and 40 m) did not affect the proportion and share of the microsite in both regions of different silvicultural system. Separation of microsite areas between both silvicultural systems, evident in lower elevation belts was not evident in the most conflict and highest elevation zone, while the absolute values of all categories above 700 m in both systems were almost identical, indicating the same, small-scale irregular shelterwood system, known also as the freestyle silvicultural approach.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Dinaric silver fir and beech forests, Dinaric forests, forest edge, silviculture, selective system, irregular shelterwood system
Published in DiRROS: 12.07.2017; Views: 2401; Downloads: 817
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9.
The chronology of the silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from Pohorje, Slovenia
Tom Levanič, Katarina Čufar, 1998, original scientific article

Abstract: Dendrochronological investigations were made in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from Lovrenc, Pohorje, in the NE Slovenia. Tree ring analyses were made in discs of 25 healthy, adult, dominant or co-dominant silver firs and in cores from roof construction of two older rustic buildings from the same region using a LINTAB measuring device nad a TSAP/X of F. Rinn. We constructed the chronology of trees spanning the period of 1785-1996. The chronology of the old house is spanning the period of 1713-1852 and the chronology of barn 1745-1887. It was shown that the last considerable reconstruction of the house roof took place after the end of the growing period of 1952. The dating of the cores containining the outer ring 1887 confirmed the dating based on the carved inscription "1888". The three chronologies were joined into 284 years long silver fir chronology for Pohorje spanning the period of 1713-1996. It was compared with the Slovene silver fir chronology of the Dinaric region. Despite distance and great differences between the two regions there was shown a statistically confirmed similarity of two chronologies with tBP=9.8, GLK=71% and CDI=398. The chronologies have 21 common negative, 21 positive signature years and one common signature interval. Based on this the constructed chronology may be considered as representative for the whole Pohorje. The two chronologies are expected to be a good base to construct a regional Slovene Silver-fir chronology for dating in whole Slovenia. Two Slovene chronologies were compared with the following European silver fir chronologies: South German, stand 1993 (Becker and Siebenlist 1970; Spurk and Friedrich , pers. com.), Bavarian Forest - Germany (Eckstein, Sass 1988), Abetone - Italy (Schweingruber, ITRDB), Bannwald - Switzerland (Schweingruber, ITRDB). Both Slovene chronologies proved to be statistically similar with the two German and the Italian silver fir chronology, but showed no similarity with the Swiss one. The Pohorje chronology correlates better with both German ones and the Dinaric chronology correlates better with the Italian one.
Keywords: jelka, Abies alba, datiranje objektov, dendrokronologija, Silver fir, Abies alba, dating of the object, dendrochronology, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 12.07.2017; Views: 3101; Downloads: 1308
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