Mortality, seasonal variation, and susceptibility to acute exacerbation of COPD in the pandemic year : a nationwide population studyIrena Šarc
, Aleša Lotrič Dolinar
, Tina Morgan
, Jože Sambt
, Kristina Ziherl
, Dalibor Gavrić
, Julij Šelb
, Aleš Rozman
, Petra Došenović Bonča
, 2022, original scientific article
Abstract: Background: Previous studies have suggested that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with a decreased rate of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Data on how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced mortality, seasonality of, and susceptibility to AECOPD in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) population is scarce. Methods: We conducted a national population-based retrospective study using data from the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia from 2015 to February 2021, with 2015–2019 as the reference. We extracted patient and healthcare data for AECOPD, dividing AECOPD into severe, resulting in hospitalisation, and moderate, requiring outpatient care. The national COPD population was generated based on dispensed prescriptions of inhalation therapies, and moderate AECOPD events were analysed based on dispensed AECOPD medications. We extracted data on all-cause and non-COVID mortality. Results: The numbers of severe and moderate AECOPD were reduced by 48% and 34%, respectively, in 2020. In the pandemic year, the seasonality of AECOPD was reversed, with a 1.5-fold higher number of severe AECOPD in summer compared to winter. The proportion of frequent exacerbators (2 AECOPD hospitalisations per year) was reduced by 9% in 2020, with a 30% reduction in repeated severe AECOPD in frequent exacerbators and a 34% reduction in persistent frequent exacerbators (2 AECOPD hospitalisations per year for 2 consecutive years) from 2019. The risk of two or more moderate AECOPD decreased by 43% in 2020. In the multivariate model, pandemic year follow-up was the only independent factor associated with a decreased risk for severe AECOPD (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61–0.84; p < 0.0001). In 2020, non-COVID mortality decreased (−15%) and no excessive mortality was observed in the COPD population. Conclusion: In the pandemic year, we found decreased susceptibility to AECOPD across severity spectrum of COPD, reversed seasonal distribution of severe AECOPD and decreased non-COVID mortality in the COPD population.
Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease -- mortality, pandemics, seasons, exacerbation, acute exacerbation, seasonal variations, population study
Published in DiRROS: 14.03.2022; Views: 467; Downloads: 276
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Ectomycorrhizal fungal community in mature white poplar plantationMarina Milović
, Saša Orlović
, Tine Grebenc
, Marko Bajc
, Branislav Kovačević
, Hojka Kraigher
, 2021, original scientific article
Abstract: Ectomycorrhizal communities are rarely studied on seasonal basis, especially in poplar plantations. In this study we analysed the ectomycorrhizal community in a mature twenty-year-old white poplar (Populus alba L.) plantation during four consecutive seasons. Using morpho-anatomical and molecular identification 30 taxa of ectomycorrhizal fungi were recorded of which 15 were identified to the species level, 12 to the genus level, 2 to the family, and one morphotype of ectomycorrhizae remained unidentified. The most abundant among identified ectomycorrhizal fungi were: Inocybe griseovelata, Inocybe splendens, Tuber rufum, and Tomentella sp. 2, which together represented up to 50% of all ectomycorrhizal root tips. The number of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa and the percentage of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips were highest in winter and spring, respectively. The diversity indices of ectomycorrhizae, number of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips, and total fine roots in the studied poplar plantation did not differ between seasons. Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Inocybaceae family and the short-distance exploration strategy were dominant in all four seasons. On the other hand, the abundance of ectomycorrhizal root tips belonging to the medium-distance exploration strategy type was significantly higher in spring in comparison with autumn and winter.
Keywords: Populus alba L., Ectomycorrhizal diversity, morpho-anatomical characterization, molecular identification, seasons
Published in DiRROS: 03.12.2021; Views: 696; Downloads: 315
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