The crumbling touchstone of the Vatican's ostpolitik : relations between the Holy see and Yugoslavia, 1970-1989Jure Ramšak
Abstract: Based on Yugoslav archival sources, the paper analyses the relationship between the Holy See and Yugoslavia as the only Eastern European socialist state with which the former had official diplomatic relations. The relationship between the Holy See and socialist Yugoslavia provides insight into the precarious position of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia, but also into the issues and dilemmas that the Holy See faced in terms of its Ostpolitik towards Eastern European socialist regimes. The article initially centres on the parallels between the Holy See and the foreign policy agenda of non-aligned Yugoslavia, especially during the papacy of Paul VI, when both actors shared an understanding of the acute problems of the Global South. It then analyses the stance of the Holy See towards the Yugoslav domestic policy of self-management that claimed that this system could present a viable environment for the life of believers in modern socialist society. The analysis closes with an in-depth examination of the role of the Holy See in the process of convergence between religion and nationalism during the 1980s, in which the Vatican did not play as clear-cut a role as it has generally been ascribed and proved unable to tackle this formidable phenomenon.
Keywords: Yugoslavia, Vatican, Roman catholic church, church and state, relations
DiRROS - Published: 19.07.2021; Views: 439; Downloads: 305
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The perception of minorities toward the Turkish state : ǂthe ǂcase of ethno-religious communitiesAnna Maria Beylunioğlu
, Özgür Kaymak
Abstract: The relationship between state and non-Muslim communities has been a de-licate issue since the founding of the Turkish Republic despite the principle of secularism stated in its constitution. Against this background, the association of national identity with Sunni-Islam has been the main marker of inclusion/exclusi-on for national identity. Especially since 2002 when the Justice and Development Party (JDP) came to power, the debate with regard to freedom of religion and the rights of religious minorities came to the fore. Over the course of decades there have been numerous studies approaching the state’s perspective towards religious minorities. However, there is a paucity of academic studies that focuses on citizen-ship experiences of the members of these communities through the course of their daily and social lives. In this article, we first provide a historical perspective of the state towards religious minorities from the establishment of the Republic until to-day, including the JDP period. In the second part of this study we aim to explore recasting perspectives of the non-Muslim minorities over the previous decade by taking the standpoint of the members of Greek Orthodox, Jews and Armenian communities. To this end, we conduct in-depth interviews with the members of these communities who reside in Istanbul. Finally, new negotiation fields which have been flourishing among these communities will be addressed.
Keywords: national identity, non-Muslim minorities, ethno-religious identity, religion-state relations, freedom of religion, civil society
DiRROS - Published: 22.03.2022; Views: 151; Downloads: 89
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Struggles and dilemmas of Uyghur immigrants in TurkeyMettursun Beydulla
Abstract: The social and economic integration of the Uyghurs into Turkish society reflec-ts a problem to which policy makers have not yet found a response. Marginalized by the larger society and separated by linguistic differences and cultural and social life-styles, a significant proportion of Uyghurs, especially “newcomers” who have arrived since the 1980s, is in danger of becoming part of a “parallel society.” This is reinforced by exclusion, inferiorization and “otherness,” restricted educational achievements, uncertain citizenship, legal status limbo and low socioeconomic status. Pro-Uyghur, pro-independence and anti-Chinese government mobiliza-tion in Turkey has attracted the attention of Chinese authorities for a long time, and this attention has in turn affected and shaped mobilization in Turkey. The Turkey-China relationship is involved as well. The main goals of Chinese policy and strategy in Turkey are the security of “Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region” (a.k.a. East Turkistan), access to natural resources, security of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and economic and technological investment. It means that China believes it must consolidate its control of “Xinjiang” (East Turkistan) and restrain the Uyghur independence movement in Turkey. China’s economic and technolo-gical power and investments in Turkey are not just increasing its influence; they are making Turkey far more reticent to speak out about Beijing’s abuses, systematic oppression and atrocities in the “Xinjiang” (East Turkistan). China’s geo-econo-mic strategy has resulted in political influence in Turkey that profoundly affects its Uyghur population.
Keywords: Uyghur refugees, Uyghur immigration, integration, Uyghur dilemma, Turkish policy, Turkish and Chinese relations
DiRROS - Published: 22.03.2022; Views: 119; Downloads: 73
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An exploration of the Christian-Muslim landscape in modern Syria and the contribution of Eastern Christian thought to interreligious dynamicsAndrew Ashdown
Abstract: This paper considers Christian-Muslim relations in modern Syria and the im-portance that eastern Christian thought can make to the interreligious context within the Middle East. It briefly describes the diverse historical and contempo-rary Christian and Muslim religious landscapes that have cohabited and interacted within the country and the cultural, religious, and political issues that have im-pacted the interreligious dynamic. Based on fieldwork undertaken in government-held areas during the Syrian conflict, combined with critical historical and Christian theological reflection, the article contributes to understanding Syria’s diverse religious landscape and the multi-layered expressions of Christian-Muslim relations, in a way that has not been previously attempted. providing insights into interreligious praxis prior to the conflict and in its midst, the article contributes to an understanding of the ef-fect of conflict on interreligious relationships. The article considers the unique contribution of eastern Christianity to the Christian-Muslim dynamic and concludes that the significance of the theology and spirituality of the ‘Antiochene’ paradigm has been under-recognised in west-ern discourse and that, having coexisted within the cultural environment of Islam, it is uniquely placed to play a major role in Christian-Muslim dialogue and the reframing of Islam’s engagement with modern society.This article contributes therefore to knowledge and understanding of the changing Christian-Muslim dynamic in Syria and the neighbouring region; a new understanding of the religious landscape; and a door to exploring how eastern Christian approaches to Christian-Muslim relations may be sustained and strengthened in the face of the considerable religious and political challenges faced by both communities today.
Keywords: Middle East, Syria, Christian-Muslim relations, Eastern Christianity
DiRROS - Published: 11.05.2022; Views: 88; Downloads: 97
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