Initial presenting manifestations in 16,486 patients with inborn errors of immunity include infections and noninfectious manifestationsJulian Thalhammer
, Gerhard Kindle
, Alexandra Nieters
, Stephan Rusch
, Mikko R. J. Seppänen
, Alain Fischer
, Bodo Grimbacher
, David Edgar
, Matthew Buckland
, Nizar Mahlaoui
, 2021, original scientific article
Abstract: Background. Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are rare diseases, which makes diagnosis a challenge. A better description of the initial presenting manifestations should improve awareness and avoid diagnostic delay. Although increased infection susceptibility is a well-known initial IEI manifestation, less is known about the frequency of other presenting manifestations. Objective. We sought to analyze age-related initial presenting manifestations of IEI including different IEI disease cohorts. Methods. We analyzed data on 16,486 patients of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies Registry. Patients with autoinflammatory diseases were excluded because of the limited number registered. Results. Overall, 68% of patients initially presented with infections only, 9% with immune dysregulation only, and 9% with a combination of both. Syndromic features were the presenting feature in 12%, 4% had laboratory abnormalities only, 1.5% were diagnosed because of family history only, and 0.8% presented with malignancy. Two-third of patients with IEI presented before the age of 6 years, but a quarter of patients developed initial symptoms only as adults. Immune dysregulation was most frequently recognized as an initial IEI manifestation between age 6 and 25 years, with male predominance until age 10 years, shifting to female predominance after age 40 years. Infections were most prevalent as a first manifestation in patients presenting after age 30 years. Conclusions. An exclusive focus on infection-centered warning signs would have missed around 25% of patients with IEI who initially present with other manifestations.
Keywords: immunity, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, signs and symptoms, registries, inborn error of immunity, primary immunodeficiency, immune dysregulation
Published in DiRROS: 28.05.2021; Views: 522; Downloads: 91
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Functional complement analysis can predict genetic testing results and long-term outcome in patients with complement deficienciesŠtefan Blazina
, Maruša Debeljak
, Mitja Košnik
, Saša Simčič
, Sanja Stopinšek
, Gašper Markelj
, Nataša Toplak
, Peter Kopač
, Breda Zakotnik
, Marko Pokorn
, Tadej Avčin
, 2018, original scientific article
Abstract: Background: Prevalence of complement deficiencies (CDs) is markedly higher in Slovenian primary immunodeficiency (PID) registry in comparison to other national and international PID registries.
Objective: The purposes of our study were to confirm CD and define complete and partial CD in registered patients in Slovenia, to evaluate frequency of clinical manifestations, and to assess the risk for characteristic infections separately for subjects with complete and partial CD.
Methods: CD was confirmed with genetic analyses in patients with C2 deficiency, C8 deficiency, and hereditary angioedema or with repeated functional complement studies and measurement of complement components in other CD. Results of genetic studies (homozygous subjects vs. heterozygous carriers) and complement functional studies were analyzed to define complete (complement below the level of heterozygous carriers) and partial CD (complement above the level of homozygous patients). Presence of characteristic infections was assessed separately for complete and partial CD.
Results: Genetic analyses confirmed markedly higher prevalence of CD in Slovenian PID registry (26% of all PID) than in other national and international PID registries (0.5–6% of all PID). Complement functional studies and complement component concentrations reliably distinguished between homozygous and heterozygous CD carriers. Subjects with partial CD had higher risk for characteristic infections than previously reported.
Conclusion: Results of our study imply under-recognition of CD worldwide. Complement functional studies and complement component concentrations reliably predicted risk for characteristic infections in patients with complete or partial CD. Vaccination against encapsulated bacteria should be advocated also for subjects with partial CD and not limited to complete CD.
Keywords: complement deficiency, primary immunodeficiency, laboratory analysis, genetic analysis, clinical manifestations
Published in DiRROS: 12.11.2020; Views: 828; Downloads: 333
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