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Nrf2-interacting nutrients and COVID-19 : time for research to develop adaptation strategies
Jean Bousquet, Jean-Paul Cristol, Wienczyslawa Czarlewski, Josep M. Antò i Boquè, Adrian Martineau, Tari Haahtela, Susana C. Fonseca, Guido Iaccarino, Hubert Blain, Alessandro Fiocchi, Nisera Bajrović, Natalija Edelbaher, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Anja Koren, Mitja Košnik, Karmen Kramer Vrščaj, Samo Kreft, Nika Lalek, Bojan Madjar, Tonka Poplas-Susič, Irma Rozman Sinur, Tanja Soklič, Katja Triller Vadnal, Nadja Triller, Jure Urbančič, Mihaela Zidarn, 2020

Abstract: There are large between- and within-country variations in COVID-19 death rates. Some very low death rate settings such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans and Africa have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods whose intake is associated with the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) anti-oxidant transcription factor. There are many Nrf2-interacting nutrients (berberine, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, sulforaphane) that all act similarly to reduce insulin resistance, endothelial damage, lung injury and cytokine storm. They also act on the same mechanisms (mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin, PPAR[gamma]:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, NF[kappa]B: Nuclear factor kappa B, ERK: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases and eIF2[alpha]:Elongation initiation factor 2[alpha]). They may as a result be important in mitigating the severity of COVID-19, acting through the endoplasmic reticulum stress or ACE-Angiotensin-II-AT1R axis (AT1R) pathway. Many Nrf2-interacting nutrients are also interacting with TRPA1 and/or TRPV1. Interestingly, geographical areas with very low COVID-19 mortality are those with the lowest prevalence of obesity (Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia). It is tempting to propose that Nrf2-interacting foods and nutrients can re-balance insulin resistance and have a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. It is therefore possible that the intake of these foods may restore an optimal natural balance for the Nrf2 pathway and may be of interest in the mitigation of COVID-19 severity.
Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, food, insulin resistance, obesity, Nrf2, nutrients, TRPA1
DiRROS - Published: 25.01.2021; Views: 861; Downloads: 323
.pdf Fulltext (1,61 MB)

The time course of quadriceps strength recovery after total knee arthroplasty is influenced by body mass index, sex, and age of patients
Armin Paravlić, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, Kristina Drole, 2022

Abstract: Introduction: For patients with osteoarthritis who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA), quadriceps strength is a major determinant of general physical function regardless of the parameters adopted for functional assessment. Understanding the time course of quadriceps strength recovery and effectiveness of different rehabilitation protocols is a must. Therefore, the aim of this study was to: (i) determine the magnitude of maximal voluntary strength (MVS) loss and the time course of recovery of the quadriceps muscle following TKA, (ii) identify potential moderators of strength outcomes, and (iii) investigate whether different rehabilitation practices can moderate the strength outcomes following TKA, respectively. Design: General scientific databases and relevant journals in the field of orthopedics were searched, identifying prospective studies that investigated quadriceps’ MVS pre-to post-surgery. Results: Seventeen studies with a total of 832 patients (39% males) were included. Results showed that in the early post-operative days, the involved quadriceps’ MVS markedly declined, after which it slowly recovered over time in a linear fashion. Thus, the greatest decline of the MVS was observed 3 days after TKA. When compared to pre-operative values, the MVS was still significantly lower 3 months after TKA and did not fully recover up to 6 months following TKA. Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis identified that the variables, time point of evaluation, patient age, sex, and BMI, significantly moderate the MVS of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion: The analyzed literature data showed that the decrease in strength of the involved quadriceps muscles following TKA is considerable and lasts for several months post-surgery. Therefore, we recommend to specifically target the strengthening of knee extensor muscles, preserve motor control, and apply appropriate nutrition to ensure a holistic quadriceps muscle recovery. Since age, sex, and BMI were found to be moderating factors in patients’ recovery, further research should include specific analyses considering these moderators.
Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty, rehabilitation, functional performance, voluntary activation, obesity, body mass index
DiRROS - Published: 26.05.2022; Views: 100; Downloads: 48
.pdf Fulltext (2,00 MB)

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