Razvoj inicialne faze na vetrolomni površini v pragozdnem ostanku Ravna goraAleksander Marinšek
, Jurij Diaci
Abstract: Zaradi vetroloma je leta 1983 v pragozdnem ostanku Ravna gora na Gorjancih na bukovem rastišču (Cardamini savensi-Fagetum) nastala 5,17 ha velika vrzel. Dejstvo, da je izsledkov o pomlajevanju po velikopovršinskih motnjah v pragozdovih malo, nas je vodilo k temu, da smo leta 2000 analizirali stanje indinamiko pomlajevanja vrzeli. Na treh različnih delih vrzeli smo postavili 15 raziskovalnih ploskev z dimenzijami 15 x 15 metrov, znotraj katerih smo analizirali zmes, razrast dreves, sestojno stanje po IUFRO klasifikaciji, pomladek in grobe lesne ostanke. Posebej nas je zanimalo razmerje med bukvijo (Fagus sylvatica L.) in gorskim javorjem (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Slednjega je največ na sredini vrzeli. Pod sestojem, ki je zapolnil vrzel, je razvit pomladek bukve in javorja, ki je najgostejši na spodnjem (severnem) delu vrzeli. V pomladku prevladuje bukev. Ugotovili smo, da so bile razmere, ki so se izoblikovale po vetrolomu, bistveno drugačne od tipičnega goloseka. Predstavili smo tudi uporabne izsledke za gospodarjenje v gozdovih na podobnihrastiščih.Special attention is given to the gap, which was created in the virgin forest remnant Ravna gora in 1983 by wind throw. The gap in the optimal phase of almost pure beech and on beech site (Cardamini savensi-Fagetum) was 5.17 ha large. In 2000, owing to a lack of investigations in such conditions, we started to research the development patterns of natural regeneration within the gap. 15 sample plots (15 x 15 m) in three different positions within the gap were established. We analysed tree species mixture, architecture, stand structure according to IUFRO classification, advanced regeneration density andcoarse woody debris.The reserach concentrated in particular on the variability of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) mixture in regard to theposition within the gap. It was found out that sycamore was more abundant than beech in the center of the gap. The advanced regeneration density of beech was much higher than sycamore's, and both species were more abundant in the northern part of the gap. The results suggest that the ecological conditions after the wind throw were different when compared to a clear-cut area of similar size. Useful results for managed forests on similar sites are also presented.
Keywords: pragozd, Ravna gora, vrzel, mladje, vetrolom, naravna obnova, Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus, virgin forest, gap, wind throw, natural regeneration
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 3076; Downloads: 1374
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Evaluating short-term impacts of forest management and microsite conditions on understory vegetation in temperate fir-beech forests : floristic, ecological, and trait-based perspectiveJanez Kermavnar
, Aleksander Marinšek
, Klemen Eler
, Lado Kutnar
Abstract: Forest understory vegetation is largely influenced by disturbances and given local abiotic conditions. Our research focuses on the early response of understory vegetation to various forest management intensities in Dinaric fir-beech forests in Slovenia: (i) control, (ii) 50% cut of stand growing stock, and (iii) 100% cut of stand growing stock. Apart from identifying overstory removal effects, we were interested in fine-scale variation of understory vegetation and environmental determinants of its species composition. Vegetation was sampled within 27 karst sinkholes, which represent a dominant landform in studied forests. Within each sinkhole, five sampling plots, varying in slope aspect (centre, north, east, south, west), were established (135 in total), where pre-treatment (in 2012) and post-treatment (in 2014) floristic surveys were conducted. The sampled understory species were characterized in terms of Ellenberg's indicator values (EIVs) and plant functional traits (plant height, seed mass, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content). Diversity metrics (species richness, total cover, Shannon index) increased in plots where the silvicultural measures were applied. Tree species richness also increased in 100% cutting. A redundancy analysis revealed that species composition was related to environmental variables, which are directly influenced by management interventions (overstory canopy cover, microclimate maximum daily temperature, soil properties thickness of organic soil layer) as well as by topographic factors (slope inclination and surface rockiness). EIVs for light were significantly affected by treatment intensity, whereas soil-related EIVs (moisture, reaction, nutrients) depended more on the within-sinkhole position. Canopy gaps, compared with uncut control plots, hosted a higher number of colonizing species with a higher plant height and smaller seeds, while leaf traits did not show a clear response. We found a negative correlation between pre-treatment species (functional) richness and post-treatment shifts in floristic (functional) composition. Plots with higher richness exhibited smaller changes compared with species-poor communities. Incorporating different perspectives, the results of this study offer valuable insights into patterns of understory vegetation response to forest management in fir-beech forests.
Keywords: canopy gap, microsite environment, Ellenberg indicator values, plant functional traits, compositional resistance, karst topography, fir-beech forest
DiRROS - Published: 06.12.2019; Views: 1912; Downloads: 1048
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Effect of spatial scale and harvest on heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux in a sessile oak forestEva Dařenová
, Matjaž Čater
Abstract: Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and it is substantially sensitive to climate change. Monitoring CO2 efflux and its upscaling from field measurements to the ecosystem level is a complex task, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the fluxes. Human intervention, e.g. through forest harvest, may change both CO2 efflux and its spatial heterogeneity. The objective of our study was to quantify spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux within and among plots distributed within a topographically variable sessile oak forest stand before and after harvesting. Forest floor CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil water content were measured monthly in a sessile oak forest during two growing seasons: one before and one after harvesting. Stand structure characteristics (gap fraction, leaf area index, tree number and size) and the amount of understory also were determined. Relationships between individual variables and spatial heterogeneity were analyzed. The small-scale spatial heterogeneity (expresses as the coefficient of variation) of forest floor CO2 efflux and soil water content (SWC) in the undisturbed forest was low, at maximum 0.22 and 0.13, respectively. Studied variables had no effect on spatial heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux except for the amount of understorey vegetation which positively correlated with forest floor CO2 efflux. Although the studied forest was situated in topographically variable terrain, we observed that inter-plot heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux was lower than that within plots. Stand harvest increased the intra-plot heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux but did not affect the inter-plot heterogeneity. This leads to the conclusion that the number of positions within an individual plot should increase after harvest but the number of plots may remain unchanged to determine adequately ecosystem forest floor CO2 efflux.
Keywords: gap fraction, LAI, Quercus petraea, soil respiration, soil water content
DiRROS - Published: 20.02.2020; Views: 1299; Downloads: 207
Water regulation ecosystem services following gap formation in Fir-beech forests in the Dinaric KarstUrša Vilhar
Abstract: This paper investigates how variation in forest structural characteristics affects the water retention capacity of gaps and forests in fir-beech forests in the Dinaric Karst. Forests are identified as a key element of the landscape for provision of pristine water resources, particularly in highly vulnerable karst aquifers characterized by rapid infiltration of recharge water, high subsurface permeability, and heterogeneous underground flow. Indicators of hydrologic fluxes (drainage flux, canopy interception, transpiration, and soil evaporation) in a large experimental gap (approximately 0.2 ha in size) and those in a nearby old-growth gap were compared over a 13-year period using the Brook90 hydrological model and their structural characteristics were analyzed. In addition, the hydrologic fluxes were also simulated for a managed forest and an old-growth forest for reference. Water regulation capacity was lowest in the experimental gap, where drainage flux accounted for 81% of precipitation and the sum of canopy interception, transpiration, and soil evaporation (evapotranspiration) accounted for 18%. This was followed by the old-growth gap, where drainage flux accounted for 78% of precipitation and evapotranspiration for 23%. Water retention capacity was highest and generally similar for both forests, where 71%72% of annual precipitation drained to the subsurface. The results of this study suggest that the creation of large canopy gaps in fir-beech forests in the Dinaric Karst results in significant and long-lasting reduction in soil and vegetation water retention capacity due to unfavorable conditions for successful natural tree regeneration. For optimal provision of water regulation ecosystem services of forests in the Dinaric Karst, small, irregularly shaped canopy gaps no larger than tree height should be created, mimicking the structural characteristics of naturally occurring gaps in old-growth forests.
Keywords: water retention capacity, drainage flux, evapotranspiration, Brook90 hydrological model, experimental canopy gap, old-growth forest
DiRROS - Published: 05.03.2021; Views: 575; Downloads: 461
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Addendum to Diercks et al., 2021: A model for the formation of the Pradol (Pradolino) dry valley in W Slovenia and NE ItalyKamil Ustaszewski
, Marko Vrabec
, Christoph Grützner
, Manuel Diercks
Abstract: In our paper Diercks et al. (2021) we presented geomorphological data and field observations from W Slovenia and NE Italy to develop a model for the formation of the Pradolino (slov. Pradol) dry valley. After publication we were kindly pointed to existing studies on the area that we were unaware of. To fill that gap and to properly credit previous work, in this addendum we summarise the research history on the study area and briefly compare earlier views with our model.
Keywords: wind gap, LGM, erosion, bedrock incision, Pradol
DiRROS - Published: 27.07.2022; Views: 109; Downloads: 24
Fulltext (1,28 MB)